Hyderabad (/ˈhaɪdərəˌbɑːd/ ( listen) HY-dər-ə-bAHd;
often /ˈhaɪdrəˌbɑːd/) is the capital of the Indian state of
Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.[A] Occupying 650
square kilometres (250 sq mi) along the banks of the Musi
River, it has a population of about 6.7 million and a metropolitan
population of about 7.75 million, making it the fourth most populous
city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration in India. At an
average altitude of 542 metres (1,778 ft), much of
situated on hilly terrain around artificial lakes, including Hussain
Sagar—predating the city's founding—north of the city centre.
Established in 1591 by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah,
under the rule of the
Qutb Shahi dynasty
Qutb Shahi dynasty for nearly a century before
the Mughals captured the region. In 1724, Mughal viceroy Asif Jah I
declared his sovereignty and created his own dynasty, known as the
Nizams of Hyderabad. The Nizam's dominions became a princely state
during the British Raj, and remained so for 150 years, with the city
serving as its capital. The city continued as the capital of Hyderabad
State after it was brought into the
Indian Union in 1948, and became
the capital of
Andhra Pradesh after the States Reorganisation Act,
1956. Since 1956,
Rashtrapati Nilayam in the city has been the winter
office of the President of India. In 2014, the newly formed state of
Telangana split from
Andhra Pradesh and the city became the joint
capital of the two states, a transitional arrangement scheduled to end
Qutb Shahi and Nizam rule remain visible today; the
Charminar—commissioned by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah—has come to
Golconda fort is another major landmark. The
influence of Mughlai culture is also evident in the region's
distinctive cuisine, which includes
Hyderabadi biryani and Hyderabadi
haleem. The Qutb Shahis and Nizams established
Hyderabad as a cultural
hub, attracting men of letters from different parts of the world.
Hyderabad emerged as the foremost centre of culture in
India with the
decline of the
Mughal Empire in the mid-19th century, with artists
migrating to the city from the rest of the Indian subcontinent. The
Telugu film industry
Telugu film industry based in the city is the country's second-largest
producer of motion pictures.
Hyderabad was historically known as a pearl and diamond trading
centre, and it continues to be known as the "City of Pearls". Many of
the city's traditional bazaars remain open, including Laad Bazaar,
Bazaar and Sultan Bazaar. Industrialisation throughout the 20th
century attracted major Indian manufacturing, research and financial
institutions, including Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, the National
Geophysical Research Institute and the Centre for Cellular and
Special economic zones dedicated to information
technology have encouraged companies from
India and around the world
to set up operations in Hyderabad. The emergence of pharmaceutical and
biotechnology industries in the 1990s led to the area's naming as
India's "Genome Valley". With an output of US$74 billion,
Hyderabad is the fifth-largest contributor to India's overall gross
1.2 Early and medieval history
1.3 Modern history
3.1 Common capital status
3.2 Local government
3.3 Utility services
3.4 Pollution control
4.1 Language and religion
7.2 Music and films
7.3 Art and handicrafts
12 See also
16 Further reading
17 External links
Main article: History of Hyderabad
According to John Everett-Heath, the author of Oxford Concise
Dictionary of World Place Names,
Hyderabad means "Haydar's city" or
"lion city", from haydar (lion) and ābād (city), and was named to
Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib, who was also known as Haydar
because of his lion-like valour in battles. Andrew Petersen, a
scholar of Islamic architecture, says the city was originally called
Baghnagar (city of gardens). One popular theory suggests that the
founder of the city,
Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah
Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah of the Golconda
Sultanate, named it "Bhagyanagar" or "Bhāgnagar" after Bhagmati, a
local nautch (dancing) girl with whom he had fallen in love. She
Islam and adopted the title Hyder Mahal. The city was
Hyderabad in her honour.
According to German traveller Heinrich von Poser, whose travelogue of
the Deccan was translated by Gita Dharampal-Frick of Heidelberg
University, there were two names for the city: "On 3 December 1622, we
reached the city of Bagneger or Hederabat, the seat of the king Sultan
Mehemet Culi Cuttub Shah and the capital of the kingdom". French
Jean de Thévenot
Jean de Thévenot visited the Deccan region in 1666–1667
refers to the city in his book Travels in
India as "Bagnagar and
Early and medieval history
Archaeologists excavating near the city have unearthed
Iron Age sites
that may date from 500 BCE. The region comprising modern
Hyderabad and its surroundings was known as
Konda-"shepherd's hill"), and was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty
from 624 CE to 1075 CE. Following the dissolution of the
Chalukya empire into four parts in the 11th century,
under the control of the
Kakatiya dynasty from 1158, whose seat of
power was at Warangal, 148 km (92 mi) northeast of modern
Qutb Shahi Tombs at Ibrahim Bagh are the tombs of the seven Qutb
Kakatiya dynasty was reduced to a vassal of the
Khalji dynasty in
1310 after its defeat by Sultan
Alauddin Khalji of the Delhi
Sultanate. This lasted until 1321, when the
Kakatiya dynasty was
annexed by Malik Kafur, Allaudin Khalji's general. During this
Alauddin Khalji took the
Koh-i-Noor diamond, which is said to
have been mined from the Kollur Mines of Golkonda, to Delhi.
Muhammad bin Tughluq
Muhammad bin Tughluq succeeded to the
Delhi sultanate in 1325,
Warangal under the rule of the
Tughlaq dynasty until 1347
when Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, a governor under bin Tughluq, rebelled
Delhi and established the
Bahmani Sultanate in the Deccan
Plateau, with Gulbarga, 200 km (124 mi) west of Hyderabad,
as its capital. The
Hyderabad area was under the control of the
Musunuri Nayaks at this time, who, however, were forced to cede it to
Bahmani Sultanate in 1364. The Bahmani kings ruled the region
until 1518 and were the first independent Muslim rulers of the
Sultan Quli, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani
Sultanate and established the
Qutb Shahi dynasty
Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518; he
rebuilt the mud-fort of
Golconda and named the city "Muhammad
nagar". The fifth sultan, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, established
Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591, to avoid the
water shortages experienced at Golkonda. During his rule, he had
Mecca Masjid built in the city. On 21 September
Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor
Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the
Golkonda fort. The
annexed city "Hyderabad" was renamed Darul Jihad (House of War),
whereas its state "Golconda" was renamed Deccan Suba (Deccan province)
and the capital was moved from
Golconda to Aurangabad, about
550 km (342 mi) northwest of Hyderabad.
A mill with a canal connecting to
Hussain Sagar lake. Following the
introduction of railways in the 1880s, factories were built around the
In 1714 Farrukhsiyar, the Mughal emperor, appointed
Asif Jah I
Asif Jah I to be
Viceroy of the Deccan, with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (Administrator of
the Realm). In 1724,
Asif Jah I
Asif Jah I defeated Mubariz Khan to establish
autonomy over the Deccan Suba, named the region
Hyderabad Deccan, and
started what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty. Subsequent
rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif
Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad. The death of Asif Jah I
in 1748 resulted in a period of political unrest as his sons, backed
by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces,
contended for the throne. The accession of Asif Jah II, who reigned
from 1762 to 1803, ended the instability. In 1768 he signed the treaty
of Machilipatnam, surrendering the coastal region to the East India
Company in return for a fixed annual rent.
Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the
Nizams. In response to regular threats from
Hyder Ali (Dalwai
Baji Rao I
Baji Rao I (
Peshwa of the Maratha Empire), and Basalath
Jung (Asif Jah II's elder brother, who was supported by the Marquis de
Bussy-Castelnau), the Nizam signed a subsidiary alliance with the East
India Company in 1798, allowing the
British Indian Army
British Indian Army to occupy
Bolarum (modern Secunderabad) to protect the state's capital, for
which the Nizams paid an annual maintenance to the British.
Until 1874 there were no modern industries in Hyderabad. With the
introduction of railways in the 1880s, four factories were built to
the south and east of
Hussain Sagar Lake, and during the early
Hyderabad was transformed into a modern city with the
establishment of transport services, underground drainage, running
water, electricity, telecommunications, universities, industries, and
Begumpet Airport. The Nizams ruled their princely state from Hyderabad
during the British Raj.
India gained independence, the Nizam declared his intention to
remain independent rather than become part of the Indian Union.
Hyderabad State Congress, with the support of the Indian National
Congress and the Communist Party of India, began agitating against
Nizam VII in 1948. On 17 September that year, the
Indian Army took
Hyderabad State after an invasion codenamed Operation Polo.
With the defeat of his forces, Nizam VII capitulated to the Indian
Union by signing an Instrument of Accession, which made him the
Rajpramukh (Princely Governor) of the state until 31 October
Between 1946 and 1951, the Communist Party of
India fomented the
Telangana uprising against the feudal lords of the Telangana
region. The Constitution of India, which became effective on 26
January 1950, made
Hyderabad State one of the part B states of India,
Hyderabad city continuing to be the capital. In his 1955
report Thoughts on Linguistic States, B. R. Ambedkar, then chairman of
the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution, proposed
designating the city of
Hyderabad as the second capital of India
because of its amenities and strategic central location. Since
Rashtrapati Nilayam in
Hyderabad has been the second
official residence and business office of the President of India; the
President stays once a year in winter and conducts official business
particularly relating to Southern India.
On 1 November 1956 the states of
India were reorganised by language.
Hyderabad state was split into three parts, which were merged with
neighbouring states to form the modern states of Maharashtra,
Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The nine Telugu- and Urdu-speaking
Hyderabad State in the
Telangana region were merged with
Andhra State to create Andhra Pradesh,
Hyderabad as its capital. Several protests, known collectively as
Telangana movement, attempted to invalidate the merger and
demanded the creation of a new
Telangana state. Major actions took
place in 1969 and 1972, and a third began in 2010. The city
suffered several explosions: one at
Dilsukhnagar in 2002 claimed two
lives; terrorist bombs in May and August 2007 caused communal
tension and riots; and two bombs exploded in February 2013. On
30 July 2013 the government of
India declared that part of Andhra
Pradesh would be split off to form a new
Telangana state, and that
Hyderabad city would be the capital city and part of Telangana, while
the city would also remain the capital of
Andhra Pradesh for no more
than ten years. On 3 October 2013 the Union Cabinet approved the
proposal, and in February 2014 both houses of Parliament passed
Telangana Bill. With the final assent of the President of
Telangana state was formed.
Main article: Geography of Hyderabad
Hussain Sagar lake, built during the reign of the
Qutb Shahi dynasty,
was once the source of drinking water for Hyderabad.
Situated in the southern part of
Telangana in southeastern India,
Hyderabad is 1,566 kilometres (973 mi) south of Delhi, 699
kilometres (434 mi) southeast of Mumbai, and 570 kilometres
(350 mi) north of
Bangalore by road. It lies on the banks of
the Musi River, in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau.
Hyderabad covers 650 km2 (250 sq mi), making it
one of the largest metropolitan areas in India. With an average
altitude of 542 metres (1,778 ft),
Hyderabad lies on
predominantly sloping terrain of grey and pink granite, dotted with
small hills, the highest being
Banjara Hills at 672 metres
(2,205 ft). The city has numerous lakes referred to as
sagar, meaning "sea". Examples include artificial lakes created by
dams on the Musi, such as
Hussain Sagar (built in 1562 near the city
Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar. As of 1996, the city
had 140 lakes and 834 water tanks (ponds).
Hyderabad has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen Aw) bordering on
a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh). The annual mean temperature
is 26.6 °C (79.9 °F); monthly mean temperatures are
21–33 °C (70–91 °F). Summers (March–June) are
hot and humid, with average highs in the mid-to-high 30s Celsius;
maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) between
April and June. The coolest temperatures occur in December and
January, when the lowest temperature occasionally dips to 10 °C
(50 °F). May is the hottest month, when daily temperatures
range from 26 to 39 °C (79–102 °F); December, the
coldest, has temperatures varying from 14.5 to 28 °C
Heavy rain from the south-west summer monsoon falls between June and
Hyderabad with most of its mean annual
rainfall. Since records began in November 1891, the heaviest
rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period was 241.5 mm (10 in)
on 24 August 2000. The highest temperature ever recorded was
45.5 °C (114 °F) on 2 June 1966, and the lowest was
6.1 °C (43 °F) on 8 January 1946. The city receives
2,731 hours of sunshine per year; maximum daily sunlight exposure
occurs in February.
Climate data for Hyderabad
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
India Meteorological Department (average high, average low
and rainfall, 1951–2000)
Source #2: NOAA (mean temperature, mean rainy days, humidity, and sun
Blackbucks grazing at Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park
Hyderabad's lakes and the sloping terrain of its low-lying hills
provide habitat for an assortment of flora and fauna. As of 2016, the
tree cover is 1.66% of total city area, a decrease from 2.71% in
1996. The forest region in and around the city encompasses areas
of ecological and biological importance, which are preserved in the
form of national parks, zoos, mini-zoos and a wildlife sanctuary.
Nehru Zoological Park, the city's one large zoo, is the first in India
to have a lion and tiger safari park.
Hyderabad has three national
parks (Mrugavani National Park, Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National
Park and Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park), and the Manjira
Wildlife Sanctuary is about 50 km (31 mi) from the city.
Hyderabad's other environmental reserves are: Kotla Vijayabhaskara
Reddy Botanical Gardens, Shamirpet Lake, Hussain Sagar, Fox Sagar
Mir Alam Tank and
Patancheru Lake, which is home to regional
birds and attracts seasonal migratory birds from different parts of
the world. Organisations engaged in environmental and wildlife
preservation include the
Telangana Forest Department, Indian
Council of Forestry Research and Education, the International Crops
Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), the Animal
Welfare Board of India, the
Blue Cross of Hyderabad and the University
Main article: Administration of Hyderabad
Common capital status
According to the
Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 part 2
Section 5: "(1) On and from the appointed day,
Hyderabad in the
existing State of Andhra Pradesh, shall be the common capital of the
Telangana and the State of
Andhra Pradesh for such period not
exceeding ten years. (2) After expiry of the period referred to in
Hyderabad shall be the capital of the State of
Telangana and there shall be a new capital for the State of Andhra
The same sections also define that the common capital includes the
existing area designated as the Greater
Corporation under the
Hyderabad Municipal Corporation Act, 1955. As
stipulated in sections 3 and 18(1) of the Reorganisation Act, city
MLAs are members of
Telangana state assembly.
Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation
Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) oversees the civic
infrastructure of the city's 30 "circles", which together
encompass 150 municipal wards. Each ward is represented by a
corporator, elected by popular vote. The corporators elect the Mayor,
who is the titular head of GHMC; executive powers rest with the
Municipal Commissioner, appointed by the state government. The GHMC
carries out the city's infrastructural work such as building and
maintenance of roads and drains, town planning including construction
regulation, maintenance of municipal markets and parks, solid waste
management, the issuing of birth and death certificates, the issuing
of trade licences, collection of property tax, and community welfare
services such as mother and child healthcare, and pre-school and
non-formal education. The GHMC was formed in April 2007 by merging
Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad
Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (MCH) with 12 municipalities of
the Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy and
Medak districts covering a total area
of 650 km2 (250 sq mi).:3 In the 2016 municipal
Telangana Rashtra Samithi formed the majority and the
present Mayor is Bonthu Ram Mohan. The
Board is a civic administration agency overseeing an area of
40.1 km2 (15.5 sq mi),:93 where there are several
military camps.:2 The
Osmania University campus is
administered independently by the university authority.:93
Law and order in
Hyderabad city is supervised by the governor of
Telangana. The jurisdiction is divided into three police
commissionerates: Hyderabad, Cyberabad, and Rachakonda. Each zone is
headed by a deputy commissioner.
The jurisdictions of the city's administrative agencies are, in
ascending order of size: the
Police area, Hyderabad
district, the GHMC area ("
Hyderabad city") and the area under the
Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority
Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA). The HMDA is an
apolitical urban planning agency that covers the GHMC and its suburbs,
extending to 54 mandals in five districts encircling the city. It
coordinates the development activities of GHMC and suburban
municipalities and manages the administration of bodies such as the
Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (HMWSSB).
As the seat of the government of Telangana,
Hyderabad is home to the
state's legislature, secretariat and high court, as well as various
local government agencies. The Lower City Civil Court and the
Metropolitan Criminal Court are under the jurisdiction of the High
Court.:1 The GHMC area contains 24 State Legislative Assembly
constituencies, which form five constituencies of the
Lok Sabha (the
lower house of the Parliament of India).
A GHMC sweeper cleaning the Tank Bund Road
The HMWSSB regulates rainwater harvesting, sewerage services and water
supply, which is sourced from several dams located in the suburbs. In
2005, the HMWSSB started operating a 116-kilometre-long (72 mi)
water supply pipeline from
Nagarjuna Sagar Dam
Nagarjuna Sagar Dam to meet increasing
Telangana Southern Power Distribution Company
Limited manages electricity supply. As of October 2014, there were
15 fire stations in the city, operated by the
Telangana State Disaster
and Fire Response Department. The government-owned
India Post has
five head post offices and many sub-post offices in Hyderabad, which
are complemented by private courier services.
Hyderabad produces around 4,500 tonnes of solid waste daily,
which is transported from collection units in Imlibun,
Lower Tank Bund to the dumpsite in Jawaharnagar. Disposal is
managed by the Integrated Solid Waste Management project which was
started by the GHMC in 2010. Rapid urbanisation and increased
economic activity has also led to increased industrial waste, air,
noise and water pollution, which is regulated by the Telangana
Pollution Control Board (TPCB). The contribution of different
sources to air pollution in 2006 was: 20–50% from vehicles, 40–70%
from a combination of vehicle discharge and road dust, 10–30% from
industrial discharges and 3–10% from the burning of household
rubbish. Deaths resulting from atmospheric particulate matter are
estimated at 1,700–3,000 each year.
Ground water around
Hyderabad, which has a hardness of up to 1000 ppm, around three times
higher than is desirable, is the main source of drinking water but
the increasing population and consequent increase in demand has led to
a decline in not only ground water but also river and lake
levels. This shortage is further exacerbated by inadequately
treated effluent discharged from industrial treatment plants polluting
the water sources of the city.
See also: Healthcare in Hyderabad
Unani Hospital provides medical care using regular
medicine along with Unani
The Commissionerate of Health and Family Welfare is responsible for
planning, implementation and monitoring of all facilities related to
health and preventive services. As of 2010[update]–11, the
city had 50 government hospitals, 300 private and charity
hospitals and 194 nursing homes providing around 12,000 hospital beds,
fewer than half the required 25,000. For every 10,000 people
in the city, there are 17.6 hospital beds, 9 specialist doctors,
14 nurses and 6 physicians. The city also has about 4,000
individual clinics and 500 medical diagnostic centres. Private
clinics are preferred by many residents because of the distance to,
poor quality of care at and long waiting times in government
facilities,:60–61 despite the high proportion of the city's
residents being covered by government health insurance: 24% according
to a National Family Health Survey in 2005.:41 As of 2012[update],
many new private hospitals of various sizes were opened or being
Hyderabad also has outpatient and inpatient facilities that
use Unani, homoeopathic and
In the 2005 National Family Health Survey, it was reported that the
city's total fertility rate is 1.8,:47 which is below the
replacement rate. Only 61% of children had been provided with all
basic vaccines (BCG, measles and full courses of polio and DPT), fewer
than in all other surveyed cities except Meerut.:98 The infant
mortality rate was 35 per 1,000 live births, and the mortality rate
for children under five was 41 per 1,000 live births.:97 The
survey also reported that a third of women and a quarter of men are
overweight or obese, 49% of children below 5 years are anaemic, and up
to 20% of children are underweight,:44, 55–56 while more than 2%
of women and 3% of men suffer from diabetes.:57
Panorama of Hyderabad, as seen from the
Hussain Sagar lake
Main article: Demographics of Hyderabad
When the GHMC was created in 2007, the area occupied by the
municipality increased from 175 km2 (68 sq mi) to
650 km2 (250 sq mi). Consequently, the population
increased by 87%, from 3,637,483 in the 2001 census to 6,809,970 in
the 2011 census, 24% of which are migrants from elsewhere in
Hyderabad the nation's fourth most populous
city. As of 2011[update], the population density is
18,480/km2 (47,900/sq mi). At the same 2011 census, the
Hyderabad Urban Agglomeration had a population of 7,749,334, making it
the sixth most populous urban agglomeration in the country. The
population of the
Hyderabad urban agglomeration has since been
estimated by electoral officials to be 9.1 million as of early 2013
but is expected to exceed 10 million by the end of the year.
There are 3,500,802 male and 3,309,168 female citizens—a sex ratio
of 945 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average
of 926 per 1000. Among children aged 0–6 years, 373,794 are
boys and 352,022 are girls—a ratio of 942 per 1000. Literacy
stands at 82.96% (male 85.96%; female 79.79%), higher than the
national average of 74.04%. The socio-economic strata consist of
20% upper class, 50% middle class and 30% working class.
Language and religion
Religion in Greater
Referred to as "Hyderabadi", the residents of
predominantly Telugu and
Urdu speaking people, with minority Bengali,
Gujarati (including Memon),
Kannada (including Nawayathi), Malayalam,
Marathi, Marwari, Odia, Punjabi, Tamil and Uttar Pradeshi communities.
Hyderabad is home to a unique dialect of
Urdu called Hyderabadi Urdu,
which is a type of Dakhini, and is the mother tongue of most
Hyderabadi Muslims, a unique community who owe much of their history,
language, cuisine, and culture to Hyderabad, and the various dynasties
who previously ruled. Hadhrami Arabs, African Arabs, Armenians,
Abyssinians, Iranians, Pathans and
Turkish people are also present;
these communities, of which the Hadhrami are the largest, declined
Hyderabad State became part of the Indian Union, as they lost
the patronage of the Nizams.
Urdu are both official languages of the city, and most
Hyderabadis are bilingual. The Telugu dialect spoken in Hyderabad
Telangana Mandalika, and the
Urdu spoken is called
Dakhini.:1869–70 English is also used. A significant
minority speak other languages, including Hindi, Marathi, Odia, Tamil,
Bengali and Kannada.
Hindus are in the majority. Muslims form a very large minority, and
are present throughout the city and predominate in and around the Old
City. There are also Christian, Sikh, Jain, Buddhist and Parsi
communities and iconic temples, mosques and churches can be seen.
According to the 2011 census, the religious make-up of Greater
Hyderabad was: Hindus (64.93%), Muslims (30.13%), Christians (2.75%),
Jains (0.29%), Sikhs (0.25%) and Buddhists (0.04%); 1.56% did not
state any religion.
Labourers in a rural area of Hyderabad
In the greater metropolitan area, 13% of the population live below the
poverty line. According to a 2012 report submitted by GHMC to the
Hyderabad has 1,476 slums with a total population of 1.7
million, of whom 66% live in 985 slums in the "core" of the city (the
part that formed
Hyderabad before the April 2007 expansion) and the
remaining 34% live in 491 suburban tenements. About 22% of the
slum-dwelling households had migrated from different parts of
the last decade of the 20th century, and 63% claimed to have lived in
the slums for more than 10 years.:55 Overall literacy in the slums
is 60–80% and female literacy is 52–73%. A third of the slums have
basic service connections, and the remainder depend on general public
services provided by the government. There are 405 government schools,
267 government aided schools, 175 private schools and 528 community
halls in the slum areas.:70 According to a 2008 survey by the
Centre for Good Governance, 87.6% of the slum-dwelling households are
nuclear families, 18% are very poor, with an income up to ₹20,000
(US$310) per annum, 73% live below the poverty line (a standard
poverty line recognised by the
Andhra Pradesh Government is ₹24,000
(US$370) per annum), 27% of the chief wage earners (CWE) are casual
labour and 38% of the CWE are illiterate. About 3.72% of the slum
children aged 5–14 do not go to school and 3.17% work as child
labour, of whom 64% are boys and 36% are girls. The largest employers
of child labour are street shops and construction sites. Among the
working children, 35% are engaged in hazardous jobs.:59
Panorama showing buildings under construction
Optimist and Laser dinghies during the
Hyderabad Sailing Week Regatta
at Hussain Sagar
The historic city established by
Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah
Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah on the
southern side of the Musi River forms the "Old City", while the "New
City" encompasses the urbanised area on the northern banks. The two
are connected by many bridges across the river, the oldest of which is
Purana Pul ("old bridge").
Hyderabad is twinned with neighbouring
Secunderabad, to which it is connected by Hussain Sagar.
Many historic and tourist sites lie in south central Hyderabad, such
as the Charminar, the Mecca Masjid, the Salar Jung Museum, the Nizam's
Museum, the Falaknuma Palace, and the traditional retail corridor
comprising the Pearl Market, Laad
Bazaar and Madina Circle. North of
the river are hospitals, colleges, major railway stations and business
areas such as Begum Bazaar, Koti, Abids, Sultan
Bazaar and Moazzam
Jahi Market, along with administrative and recreational establishments
such as the Reserve Bank of India, the
Telangana Secretariat, the
India Government Mint, Hyderabad, the
Telangana Legislature, the
Public Gardens, the Nizam Club, the Ravindra Bharathi, the State
Museum, the Birla Temple and the Birla Planetarium.
North of central
Hyderabad lie Hussain Sagar, Tank Bund Road, Rani
Gunj and the
Secunderabad Railway Station. Most of the city's
parks and recreational centres, such as Sanjeevaiah Park, Indira Park,
Lumbini Park, NTR Gardens, the Buddha statue and Tankbund Park are
located here. In the northwest part of the city there are upscale
residential and commercial areas such as Banjara Hills, Jubilee Hills,
Khairatabad and Miyapur. The northern end contains
industrial areas such as Sanathnagar, Moosapet, Balanagar, Patancheru
and Chanda Nagar. The northeast end is dotted with residential
areas. In the eastern part of the city lie many defence
research centres and Ramoji Film City. The "Cyberabad" area in the
southwest and west of the city has grown rapidly since the 1990s. It
is home to information technology and bio-pharmaceutical companies and
to landmarks such as
Hyderabad Airport, Osman Sagar, Himayath Sagar
and Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park.
Heritage buildings constructed during the
Qutb Shahi and Nizam eras
Indo-Islamic architecture influenced by Medieval, Mughal and
European styles. After the 1908 flooding of the Musi River,
the city was expanded and civic monuments constructed, particularly
during the rule of
Mir Osman Ali Khan
Mir Osman Ali Khan (the VIIth Nizam), whose
patronage of architecture led to him being referred to as the maker of
modern Hyderabad. In 2012, the government of
Hyderabad the first "Best heritage city of India".
Qutb Shahi architecture of the 16th and early 17th centuries followed
Persian architecture featuring domes and colossal
arches. The oldest surviving
Qutb Shahi structure in
the ruins of
Golconda fort built in the 16th century. Most of the
historical bazaars that still exist were constructed on the street
Charminar towards the fort. The
Charminar has become an icon
of the city; located in the centre of old Hyderabad, it is a square
structure with sides 20 m (66 ft) long and four grand arches
each facing a road. At each corner stands a 56 m
(184 ft)-high minaret. The Charminar,
Golconda fort and the Qutb
Shahi tombs are considered to be monuments of national importance in
India; in 2010 the Indian government proposed that the sites be listed
UNESCO World Heritage status.:11–18
Among the oldest surviving examples of Nizam architecture in Hyderabad
is the Chowmahalla Palace, which was the seat of royal power. It
showcases a diverse array of architectural styles, from the Baroque
Harem to its Neoclassical royal court. The other palaces include
Falaknuma Palace (inspired by the style of Andrea Palladio), Purani
Haveli, King Kothi and Bella Vista Palace all of which were built at
the peak of Nizam rule in the 19th century. During Mir Osman Ali
Khan's rule, European styles, along with Indo-Islamic, became
prominent. These styles are reflected in the
Falaknuma Palace and many
civic monuments such as the
Hyderabad High Court, Osmania Hospital,
Osmania University, the State Central Library, City College, the
Telangana Legislature, the State Archaeology Museum, Jubilee Hall, and
Hyderabad and Kachiguda railway stations. Other
landmarks of note are Paigah Palace, Asman Garh Palace, Basheer Bagh
Errum Manzil and the Spanish Mosque, all constructed by the
The Falaknuma Palace, constructed by the Paigah family, was inspired
by Andrea Palladio's villas.
Main article: Economy of Hyderabad
A scene of bridalwear shops in Laad Bazaar, near the Charminar
Inorbit Mall—Hyderabad, a modern shopping facility
Recent estimates of the economy of Hyderabad's metropolitan area have
ranged from $40 billion to $74 billion (PPP GDP), and have
ranked it either fifth- or sixth- most productive metro area of
Hyderabad is the largest contributor to the gross domestic
product (GDP), tax and other revenues, of Telangana, and the sixth
largest deposit centre and fourth largest credit centre nationwide, as
ranked by the Reserve Bank of
India (RBI) in June 2012. Its per
capita annual income in 2011 was ₹44,300 (US$680). As of
2006[update], the largest employers in the city were the governments
Andhra Pradesh (113,098 employees) and
According to a 2005 survey, 77% of males and 19% of females in the
city were employed. The service industry remains dominant in the
city, and 90% of the employed workforce is engaged in this
Hyderabad's role in the pearl trade has given it the name "City of
Pearls" and up until the 18th century, the city was the only global
trading centre for Diamonds known as
Industrialisation began under the Nizams in the late 19th century,
helped by railway expansion that connected the city with major
ports. From the 1950s to the 1970s, Indian enterprises, such
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Nuclear Fuel Complex
National Mineral Development Corporation
National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC), Bharat
Electronics (BEL), Electronics Corporation of
India Limited (ECIL),
Defence Research and Development Organisation
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Hindustan
Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology
(CCMB), Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), State
Hyderabad (SBH) and
Andhra Bank (AB) were established in
the city. The city is home to
Hyderabad Securities formerly known
Hyderabad Stock Exchange (HSE), and houses the regional office
of the Securities and Exchange Board of
India (SEBI). In 2013,
Bombay Stock Exchange
Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) facility in
Hyderabad was forecast to
provide operations and transactions services to BSE-
Mumbai by the end
of 2014. The growth of the financial services sector has helped
Hyderabad evolve from a traditional manufacturing city to a
cosmopolitan industrial service centre. Since the 1990s, the
growth of information technology (IT), IT-enabled services (ITES),
insurance and financial institutions has expanded the service sector,
and these primary economic activities have boosted the ancillary
sectors of trade and commerce, transport, storage, communication, real
estate and retail.
Hyderabad's commercial markets are divided into four sectors: central
business districts, sub-central business centres, neighbourhood
business centres and local business centres. Many traditional and
historic bazaars are located throughout the city, Laad
the prominent among all is popular for selling a variety of
traditional and cultural antique wares, along with gems and
HITEC city, the hub of information technology companies
The establishment of
Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited (IDPL),
a public sector undertaking, in 1961 was followed over the decades by
many national and global companies opening manufacturing and research
facilities in the city. As of 2010[update], the city manufactured
one third of India's bulk drugs and 16% of biotechnology
products, contributing to its reputation as "India's
pharmaceutical capital" and the "
Genome Valley of India".
Hyderabad is a global centre of information technology, for which it
is known as Cyberabad (Cyber City). As of 2013[update], it
contributed 15% of India's and 98% of Andhra Pradesh's exports in IT
and ITES sectors and 22% of NASSCOM's total membership is from
the city. The development of HITEC City, a township with
extensive technological infrastructure, prompted multinational
companies to establish facilities in Hyderabad. The city is home
to more than 1300 IT and ITES firms that provide employment for
407,000 individuals; the global conglomerates include Microsoft,
Apple, Amazon, Google, IBM, Yahoo!, Oracle Corporation, Dell,
Facebook, CISCO,:3 and major Indian firms including Tech
Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Polaris, Cyient
and Wipro.:3 In 2009 the
World Bank Group ranked the city as the
second best Indian city for doing business. The city and its
suburbs contain the highest number of special economic zones of any
Like the rest of India,
Hyderabad has a large informal economy that
employs 30% of the labour force.:71 According to a survey
published in 2007, it had 40–50,000 street vendors, and their
numbers were increasing.:9 Among the street vendors, 84% are male
and 16% female,:12 and four fifths are "stationary vendors"
operating from a fixed pitch, often with their own stall.:15–16
Most are financed through personal savings; only 8% borrow from
moneylenders.:19 Vendor earnings vary from ₹50 (77¢ US)
to ₹800 (US$12) per day.:25 Other unorganised economic sectors
include dairy, poultry farming, brick manufacturing, casual labour and
domestic help. Those involved in the informal economy constitute a
major portion of urban poor.:71
Main article: Culture of Hyderabad
Makkah Masjid constructed during the
Qutb Shahi and Mughal rule in
Hyderabad emerged as the foremost centre of culture in
India with the
decline of the Mughal Empire. After the fall of
Delhi in 1857, the
migration of performing artists to the city particularly from the
north and west of the Indian sub continent, under the patronage of the
Nizam, enriched the cultural milieu. This migration resulted
in a mingling of North and South Indian languages, cultures and
religions, which has since led to a co-existence of Hindu and Muslim
traditions, for which the city has become noted.:viii A
further consequence of this north–south mix is that both Telugu and
Urdu are official languages of Telangana. The mixing of religions
has also resulted in many festivals being celebrated in
as Ganesh Chaturthi,
Bonalu of Hindu tradition and Eid
Eid al-Adha by Muslims.
Traditional Hyderabadi garb also reveals a mix of Muslim and South
Asian influences with men wearing sherwani and kurta–paijama and
women wearing khara dupatta and salwar kameez. Most
Muslim women wear burqa and hijab outdoors. In addition to the
traditional Indian and Muslim garments, increasing exposure to western
cultures has led to a rise in the wearing of western style clothing
In the past,
Qutb Shahi rulers and Nizams attracted artists,
architects and men of letters from different parts of the world
through patronage. The resulting ethnic mix popularised cultural
events such as mushairas (poetic symposia). The Qutb Shahi
dynasty particularly encouraged the growth of
leading to works such as the
Deccani Masnavi and Diwan poetry, which
are among the earliest available manuscripts in Urdu. Lazzat Un
Nisa, a book compiled in the 15th century at
Qutb Shahi courts,
contains erotic paintings with diagrams for secret medicines and
stimulants in the eastern form of ancient sexual arts. The reign
of the Nizams saw many literary reforms and the introduction of Urdu
as a language of court, administration and education. In 1824, a
Ghazal poetry, named Gulzar-e-Mahlaqa, authored by
Mah Laqa Bai—the first female
Urdu poet to produce a Diwan—was
published in Hyderabad.
Hyderabad has continued with these traditions in its annual Hyderabad
Literary Festival, held since 2010, showcasing the city's literary and
cultural creativity. Organisations engaged in the advancement of
literature include the Sahitya Akademi, the
Urdu Academy, the Telugu
Academy, the National Council for Promotion of
Urdu Language, the
Comparative Literature Association of India, and the Andhra Saraswata
Parishad. Literary development is further aided by state institutions
such as the State Central Library, the largest public library in the
state which was established in 1891, and other major libraries
including the Sri Krishna Devaraya Andhra Bhasha Nilayam, the British
Library and the Sundarayya Vignana Kendram.
Music and films
South Indian music
South Indian music and dances such as the
Kuchipudi and Bharatanatyam
styles are popular in the Deccan region. As a result of their culture
North Indian music
North Indian music and dance gained popularity during the
rule of the Mughals and Nizams, and it was also during their
reign that it became a tradition among the nobility to associate
themselves with tawaif (courtesans). These courtesans were revered as
the epitome of etiquette and culture, and were appointed to teach
singing, poetry and classical dance to many children of the
aristocracy. This gave rise to certain styles of court music,
dance and poetry. Besides western and Indian popular music genres such
as filmi music, the residents of
Hyderabad play city-based marfa
music, dholak ke geet (household songs based on local Folklore), and
qawwali, especially at weddings, festivals and other celebratory
events. The state government organises the
and Dance Festival, the Taramati Music Festival and the Premavathi
Dance Festival to further encourage the development of music.
Although the city is not particularly noted for theatre and
drama, the state government promotes theatre with multiple
programmes and festivals in such venues as the Ravindra
Shilpakala Vedika and Lalithakala Thoranam. Although not a
purely music oriented event, Numaish, a popular annual exhibition of
local and national consumer products, does feature some musical
The city is home to the Telugu film industry, popularly known as
Tollywood and as of 2012[update], produces the second largest
number of films in
India behind Bollywood. Films in the local
Hyderabadi dialect are also produced and have been gaining popularity
since 2005. The city has also hosted international film festivals
such as the International Children's Film Festival and the Hyderabad
International Film Festival. In 2005, Guinness World Records
Ramoji Film City
Ramoji Film City to be the world's largest film studio.
Art and handicrafts
An 18th century
Bidriware cup with lid, displayed at the V&A
The region is well known for its
styles which are branches of
Deccani painting. Developed during
the 16th century, the
Golconda style is a native style blending
foreign techniques and bears some similarity to the Vijayanagara
paintings of neighbouring Mysore. A significant use of luminous gold
and white colours is generally found in the
Golconda style. The
Hyderabad style originated in the 17th century under the Nizams.
Highly influenced by Mughal painting, this style makes use of bright
colours and mostly depicts regional landscape, culture, costumes and
Although not a centre for handicrafts itself, the patronage of the
arts by the Mughals and Nizams attracted artisans from the region to
Hyderabad. Such crafts include: Bidriware, a metalwork handicraft from
neighbouring Karnataka, which was popularised during the 18th century
and has since been granted a Geographical Indication (GI) tag under
the auspices of the
WTO act; and
Zari and Zardozi,
embroidery works on textile that involve making elaborate designs
using gold, silver and other metal threads. Another example of a
handicraft drawn to
Hyderabad is Kalamkari, a hand-painted or
block-printed cotton textile that comes from cities in Andhra Pradesh.
This craft is distinguished in having both a Hindu style, known as
Srikalahasti and entirely done by hand, and an Islamic style, known as
Machilipatnam that uses both hand and block techniques. Examples
of Hyderabad's arts and crafts are housed in various museums including
Salar Jung Museum
Salar Jung Museum (housing "one of the largest one-man-collections
in the world"), the AP State Archaeology Museum, the Nizam
Museum, the City Museum and the Birla Science Museum.
Main article: Hyderabadi cuisine
Hyderabadi biryani along with other Hyderabadi cuisine
Hyderabadi cuisine comprises a broad repertoire of rice, wheat and
meat dishes and the skilled use of various spices. Hyderabadi
biryani and Hyderabadi haleem, with their blend of Mughlai and Arab
cuisines, carry the national Geographical Indications tag.
Hyderabadi cuisine is influenced to some extent by French, but
more by Arabic, Turkish, Iranian and native Telugu and Marathwada
cuisines. Popular native dishes include nihari, chakna,
baghara baingan and the desserts qubani ka meetha, double ka meetha
and kaddu ki kheer (a sweet porridge made with sweet gourd).
Main article: Media in Hyderabad
One of Hyderabad's earliest newspapers, The Deccan Times, was
established in the 1780s. In modern times, the major Telugu
dailies published in
Hyderabad are Eenadu, Andhra Jyothy, Sakshi and
Namaste Telangana, while the major English papers are The Times of
India, The Hindu, and The Deccan Chronicle. The major
include The Siasat Daily,
The Munsif Daily
The Munsif Daily and Etemaad. Many coffee
table magazines, professional magazines and research journals are also
regularly published. The
Secunderabad Cantonment Board
established the first radio station in
Hyderabad State around 1919.
Deccan Radio was the first radio public broadcast station in the city
starting on 3 February 1935, with
FM broadcasting beginning in
2000. The available channels in
Hyderabad include All India
Radio, Radio Mirchi, Radio City, Red FM, Big FM and Fever FM.
Television broadcasting in
Hyderabad began in 1974 with the launch of
Doordarshan, the Government of India's public service
broadcaster, which transmits two free-to-air terrestrial
television channels and one satellite channel. Private satellite
channels started in July 1992 with the launch of Star TV.
Satellite TV channels are accessible via cable subscription,
direct-broadcast satellite services or internet-based
television. Hyderabad's first dial-up internet access became
available in the early 1990s and was limited to software development
companies. The first public internet access service began in
1995, with the first private sector internet service provider (ISP)
starting operations in 1998. In 2015, high-speed public WiFi was
introduced in parts of the city.
Main article: Education in Hyderabad
Osmania University College of Arts
Public and private schools in
Hyderabad are governed by the Central
Board of Secondary Education and follow a "10+2+3" plan. About
two-thirds of pupils attend privately run institutions. Languages
of instruction include English, Hindi, Telugu and Urdu. Depending
on the institution, students are required to sit the Secondary School
Certificate or the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education.
After completing secondary education, students enroll in schools or
junior colleges with a higher secondary facility. Admission to
professional graduation colleges in Hyderabad, many of which are
affiliated with either Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University
Hyderabad (JNTUH) or
Osmania University (OU), is through the
Engineering Agricultural and Medical Common Entrance Test
There are 13 universities in Hyderabad: two private universities, two
deemed universities, six state universities and three central
universities. The central universities are the University of
Hyderabad, Maulana Azad National
Urdu University and the English
and Foreign Languages University. Osmania University, established
in 1918, was the first university in
Hyderabad and as of 2012[update]
is India's second most popular institution for international
students. The Dr.
B. R. Ambedkar
B. R. Ambedkar Open University, established in
1982, is the first distance-learning open university in India.
Hyderabad is also home to a number of centres specialising in
particular fields such as biomedical sciences, biotechnology and
pharmaceuticals, such as the National Institute of Pharmaceutical
Education and Research (NIPER) and National Institute of Nutrition
Hyderabad has five major medical schools—Osmania Medical
College, Gandhi Medical College, Nizam's Institute of Medical
Deccan College of Medical Sciences
Deccan College of Medical Sciences and Shadan Institute of
Medical Sciences—and many affiliated teaching hospitals. The
Government Nizamia Tibbi College is a college of
Hyderabad is also the headquarters of the Indian Heart Association, a
non-profit foundation for cardiovascular education.
Hyderabad include the National Institute of Rural
Development, the Indian School of Business, the Institute of Public
Enterprise, the Administrative Staff College of
India and the Sardar
Vallabhbhai Patel National
Police Academy. Technical and engineering
schools include the International Institute of Information Technology,
Hyderabad (IIITH), Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani
Hyderabad (BITS Hyderabad), Gandhi Institute of Technology and
Hyderabad Campus (GITAM
Hyderabad Campus), and Indian
Institute of Technology,
Hyderabad (IIT-H) as well as agricultural
engineering institutes such as the International Crops Research
Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and the Acharya N. G.
Ranga Agricultural University.
Hyderabad also has schools of fashion
design including Raffles Millennium International,
NIFT Hyderabad and
Wigan and Leigh College. The National Institute of Design, Hyderabad
(NID-H), will offer undergraduate and postgraduate courses from
List of stadiums in Hyderabad
List of stadiums in Hyderabad and Sports in Hyderabad
Backyard cricket—an informal variant of cricket played in the
bylanes of the city almost by all age groups
The most popular sports played in
Hyderabad are cricket and
association football. At the professional level, the city has
hosted national and international sports events such as the 2002
National Games of India, the 2003 Afro-Asian Games, the 2004 AP
Hyderabad Open women's tennis tournament, the 2007 Military
World Games, the
2009 World Badminton Championships
2009 World Badminton Championships and the 2009 IBSF
World Snooker Championship. The city hosts a number of venues suitable
for professional competition such as the Swarnandhra Pradesh Sports
Complex for field hockey, the G. M. C. Balayogi Stadium in Gachibowli
for athletics and football, and for cricket, the Lal Bahadur
Shastri Stadium and Rajiv Gandhi International
Cricket Stadium, home
ground of the
Hyderabad has hosted
many international cricket matches, including matches in the 1987 and
the 1996 ICC
Cricket World Cups. The
Hyderabad cricket team
Hyderabad cricket team represents
the city in the Ranji Trophy—a first-class cricket tournament among
India's states and cities.
Hyderabad is also home to the Indian
Premier League franchise
Sunrisers Hyderabad champions of Indian
Premier League 2016. A previous franchise was the Deccan Chargers,
which won the 2009
Indian Premier League
Indian Premier League held in South Africa.
During British rule,
Secunderabad became a well-known sporting centre
and many race courses, parade grounds and polo fields were
built.:18 Many elite clubs formed by the Nizams and the British
such as the
Secunderabad Club, the
Nizam Club and the
Club, which is known for its horse racing especially the annual
Deccan derby, still exist. In more recent times, motorsports has
become popular with the
Andhra Pradesh Motor Sports Club organising
popular events such as the Deccan ¼ Mile Drag, TSD Rallies and
4x4 off-road rallying.
International-level sportspeople from
Hyderabad include: cricketers
Ghulam Ahmed, M. L. Jaisimha, Mohammed Azharuddin, V. V. S. Laxman,
Pragyan Ojha, Venkatapathy Raju, Shivlal Yadav, Arshad Ayub, Syed Abid
Mithali Raj and Noel David; football players Syed Abdul Rahim,
Syed Nayeemuddin and Shabbir Ali; tennis player Sania Mirza; badminton
players S. M. Arif, Pullela Gopichand, Saina Nehwal, P. V. Sindhu,
Jwala Gutta and Chetan Anand; hockey players
Syed Mohammad Hadi
Syed Mohammad Hadi and
Mukesh Kumar; rifle shooters
Gagan Narang and
Asher Noria and
bodybuilder Mir Mohtesham Ali Khan.
Main article: Transport in Hyderabad
Map representing the Intermediate Ring Road that connects the Inner
Ring Road with the Outer Ring Road
The most commonly used forms of medium distance transport in Hyderabad
include government owned services such as light railways and buses, as
well as privately operated taxis and auto rickshaws. Bus services
operate from the
Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station
Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station in the city centre
and carry over 130 million passengers daily across the entire
network.:76 Hyderabad's light rail transportation system, the
Multi-Modal Transport System (MMTS), is a three line suburban rail
service used by over 160,000 passengers daily. Complementing
these government services are minibus routes operated by Setwin
(Society for Employment Promotion & Training in Twin Cities).
Intercity rail services also operate from Hyderabad; the main, and
largest, station is
Secunderabad Railway Station, which serves as
South Central Railway zone
South Central Railway zone headquarters and a hub for
both buses and MMTS light rail services connecting
Hyderabad. Other major railway stations in
Hyderabad are Hyderabad
Deccan Station, Kacheguda Railway Station,
Begumpet Railway Station,
Malkajgiri Railway Station
Malkajgiri Railway Station and Lingampally Railway Station. The
Hyderabad Metro, a new rapid transit system, was opened on 29 November
As of 2012[update], there are over 3.5 million vehicles operating in
the city, of which 74% are two-wheelers, 15% cars and 3%
three-wheelers. The remaining 8% include buses, goods vehicles and
taxis. The large number of vehicles coupled with relatively low
road coverage—roads occupy only 9.5% of the total city
area:79—has led to widespread traffic congestion especially
since 80% of passengers and 60% of freight are transported by
road.:3 The Inner Ring Road, the Outer Ring Road, the Hyderabad
Elevated Expressway, the longest flyover in India, and various
interchanges, overpasses and underpasses were built to ease the
congestion. Maximum speed limits within the city are 50 km/h
(31 mph) for two-wheelers and cars, 35 km/h (22 mph)
for auto rickshaws and 40 km/h (25 mph) for light commercial
vehicles and buses.
Hyderabad sits at the junction of three National Highways linking it
to six other states: NH-7 runs 2,369 km (1,472 mi) from
Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, in the north to Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, in
the south; NH-65, runs 841 km (523 mi) east-west between
Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh, and Pune, Maharashtra; and the
280 km (174 mi) NH-163 links
Hyderabad to Bhopalpatnam,
Chhattisgarh NH-765 links
Hyderabad to Srisailam. Five state highways,
SH-1, SH-2, SH-4, SH-5 and SH-6, either start from, or pass through,
Air traffic was previously handled via
Begumpet Airport, but this was
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport (RGIA) (IATA: HYD,
ICAO: VOHS) in 2008, with the capacity of handling 12 million
passengers and 100,000 tonnes of cargo per annum. In 2011,
Airports Council International, an autonomous body representing the
world's airports, judged RGIA the world's best airport in the 5–15
million passenger category and the world's fifth best airport for
List of tourist attractions in Hyderabad
List of people from Hyderabad
List of tallest buildings in Hyderabad
List of flyovers and under-passes in Hyderabad
^ According to the
Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 part 2
Section 5:(1) On and from the appointed day,
Hyderabad in the existing
State of Andhra Pradesh, shall be the common capital of the State of
Telangana and the State of
Andhra Pradesh for such period not
exceeding ten years.
(2) After expiry of the period referred to in sub-section (1),
Hyderabad shall be the capital of the State of
Telangana and there
shall be a new capital for the State of Andhra Pradesh.
The common capital is defined as the existing area notified as the
Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation
Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation under the
Corporation Act, 1955. Though
Andhra Pradesh uses facilities in
Hyderabad during the transition period,
Telangana state is responsible
for day-to-day administration of the city. City MLAs are members of
the Legislature of
Telangana (§ 3 and 18(1) of the Act).
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