Hybrid intelligent system
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Hybrid intelligent system denotes a software system which employs, in parallel, a combination of methods and techniques from artificial intelligence subfields, such as: * Neuro-symbolic systems * Neuro-fuzzy systems * Hybrid connectionist-symbolic models * Fuzzy
expert system In artificial intelligence, an expert system is a computer system emulating the decision-making ability of a human expert. Expert systems are designed to solve complex problems by automated reasoning, reasoning through bodies of knowledge, repres ...
s * Connectionist expert systems * Evolutionary neural networks * Genetic fuzzy systems * Rough fuzzy hybridization *
Reinforcement learning Reinforcement learning (RL) is an area of machine learning concerned with how intelligent agents ought to take Action selection, actions in an environment in order to maximize the notion of Reward-based selection, cumulative reward. Reinforcemen ...
with fuzzy, neural, or evolutionary methods as well as symbolic reasoning methods. From the cognitive science perspective, every natural intelligent system is hybrid because it performs mental operations on both the symbolic and subsymbolic levels. For the past few years, there has been an increasing discussion of the importance of A.I. Systems Integration. Based on notions that there have already been created simple and specific AI systems (such as systems for
computer vision Computer vision is an Interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary scientific field that deals with how computers can gain high-level understanding from digital images or videos. From the perspective of engineering, it seeks to understand and automate t ...
,
speech synthesis Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. A computer system used for this purpose is called a speech synthesizer, and can be implemented in software or Computer hardware, hardware products. A text-to-speech (TTS) system conve ...
, etc., or software that employs some of the models mentioned above) and now is the time for integration to create broad AI systems. Proponents of this approach are researchers such as
Marvin Minsky Marvin Lee Minsky (August 9, 1927 – January 24, 2016) was an American cognitive scientist, cognitive and computer scientist concerned largely with research of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technolog ...
, Ron Sun, Aaron Sloman, and Michael A. Arbib. An example hybrid is a hierarchical control system in which the lowest, reactive layers are sub-symbolic. The higher layers, having relaxed time constraints, are capable of reasoning from an abstract world model and performing
planning Planning is the process of thinking regarding the activities required to achieve a desired goal. Planning is based on foresight, the fundamental capacity for mental time travel. The evolution of forethought, the capacity to think ahead, is consi ...
. Intelligent systems usually rely on hybrid reasoning processes, which include induction, deduction, abduction and reasoning by
analogy Analogy (from Greek language, Greek ''analogia'', "proportion", from ''ana-'' "upon, according to" lso "against", "anew"+ ''logos'' "ratio" lso "word, speech, reckoning" is a cognition, cognitive process of transferring information or Mean ...
.


See also

* AI alignment *
AI effect :''For the magnitude of effect of a pesticide, see Pesticide application. Of change in farming practices, see Agricultural intensification.'' The AI effect occurs when onlookers discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence program by arguin ...
*
Applications of artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) has been used in applications to alleviate certain problems throughout industry and academia. Artificial intelligence, AI, like electricity or computers, is a general purpose technology that has a multitude of applica ...
* Artificial intelligence systems integration *
Intelligent control Intelligent control is a class of Control theory, control techniques that use various artificial intelligence computing approaches like artificial neural networks, neural networks, Bayesian probability, fuzzy logic, machine learning, reinforcement l ...
; Lists *
List of emerging technologies This is a list of emerging technologies Emerging technologies are technologies whose development, practical applications, or both are still largely unrealized. These technologies are generally new but also include older technologies fi ...
* Outline of artificial intelligence


Notes


References

* R. Sun & L. Bookman, (eds.), Computational Architectures Integrating Neural and Symbolic Processes. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Needham, MA. 1994. http://www.cogsci.rpi.edu/~rsun/book2-ann.html * S. Wermter and R. Sun, (eds.) Hybrid Neural Systems. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. 2000. http://www.cogsci.rpi.edu/~rsun/book4-ann.html * R. Sun and F. Alexandre, (eds.) Connectionist-Symbolic Integration. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ. 1997. * Albus, J. S., Bostelman, R., Chang, T., Hong, T., Shackleford, W., and Shneier, M
Learning in a Hierarchical Control System: 4D/RCS
in the DARPA LAGR Program NIST, 2006 * A.S. d'Avila Garcez, Luis C. Lamb & Dov M. Gabbay
Neural-Symbolic Cognitive Reasoning
Cognitive Technologies, Springer (2009). {{ISBN, 978-3-540-73245-7. * International Journal of Hybrid Intelligent Systems http://www.softcomputing.net/ijhis/ * http://www.iospress.nl/html/14485869.php * International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems http://his.hybridsystem.com/ * HIS'01: http://www.softcomputing.net/his01/ * HIS'02: https://web.archive.org/web/20060209160923/http://tamarugo.cec.uchile.cl/~his02/ * HIS'03: http://www.softcomputing.net/his03/ * HIS'04: https://web.archive.org/web/20060303051902/http://www.cs.nmt.edu/~his04/ * HIS'05: https://web.archive.org/web/20051223013031/http://www.ica.ele.puc-rio.br/his05/ * HIS'06 https://web.archive.org/web/20110510025133/http://his-ncei06.kedri.info/ * HIS'7 September 17–19, 2007, Kaiserslautern, Germany, http://www.eit.uni-kl.de/koenig/HIS07_Web/his07main.html * hybrid systems resources: http://www.cogsci.rpi.edu/~rsun/hybrid-resource.html Artificial intelligence