HUTTERITE GERMAN (Hutterisch) is an
Upper German dialect of the
Bavarian variety of the
German language , which is spoken by Hutterite
Canada and the
United States .
Hutterite is also called
TIROLEAN, but this is an anachronism.
* 1 Distribution and literacy
* 2 History and related languages
* 3 See also
* 4 References
* 5 External links
* 6 Literature
DISTRIBUTION AND LITERACY
Hutterite is spoken in the US states of Washington ,
Montana , North
South Dakota ,
Oregon ; and in the Canadian
Saskatchewan , and
Manitoba . Its speakers
belong to the Schmiedleit, Lehrerleit, and Dariusleit Hutterite
groups, but there are also some few speakers among the older
generations of Prairieleit (the descendants of those Hutterites who
chose not to settle in colonies).
Hutterite children who grow up in
the colonies learn and speak first
Hutterite German before learning
English , the standard language of the surrounding areas.
As of 2003, there are about 34,000 speakers in the world, 85% of them
living in 333 communities in
Canada and the remaining 15% in 123
communities in the USA. Canadian adults are generally literate in
Early New High German
Early New High German (also called "Biblical German", the predecessor
Standard German used by
Martin Luther ) that they employ as the
written form for Scriptures while
Standard German is used in the USA
for religious activities. Children learn English at school; Canadian
Hutterites have a functional knowledge of English.
Hutterite is for
the most part an unwritten language, though in August 2006 Hutterite
author Linda Maendel released a children's story titled Lindas
glücklicher Tag (Linda's Happy Day) in which all the dialogue is
written in the dialect. Maendel is also working on a series of
biblical stories with Wycliff Bible translators.
HISTORY AND RELATED LANGUAGES
Hutterite German is a koiné language based on the Bavarian dialects
spoken in Tyrol , home of
Jacob Hutter , and Carinthia in the mid-18th
century. It is only 50% intelligible to a speaker of Pennsylvania
German , as the latter variant is based on dialects spoken around the
Electoral Palatinate .
Hutterite German therefore belongs to the
Southern Bavarian dialect group which is spoken in the southern parts
Bavaria and in
Austria except for the westernmost part (Vorarlberg
Although the Hutterites once spoke Tirolean German, they no longer
do. The switch among Hutterites from Tirolean German to Carinthian
German occurred during years of severe persecution in Europe when
Hutterite communities were devastated and survival depended on the
conversion of many Carinthian Landler refugees to
The language has adopted a limited number of Russian and also many
English loan words, which are the result of
Hutterite migrations into
Eastern Europe and now
North America . The core vocabulary is still
almost exclusively of German origin.
* Pennsylvania German
Hutterite German at
Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
* ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank,
Sebastian, eds. (2016). "
Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max
Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
* ^ The Ethnologue, 16th