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HUTTERITE GERMAN (Hutterisch) is an Upper German
Upper German
dialect of the Bavarian variety of the German language
German language
, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
. Hutterite
Hutterite
is also called TIROLEAN, but this is an anachronism.

CONTENTS

* 1 Distribution and literacy * 2 History and related languages * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links * 6 Literature

DISTRIBUTION AND LITERACY

Hutterite
Hutterite
is spoken in the US states of Washington , Montana
Montana
, North and South Dakota
South Dakota
, Minnesota
Minnesota
and Oregon
Oregon
; and in the Canadian provinces of Alberta
Alberta
, Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
, and Manitoba
Manitoba
. Its speakers belong to the Schmiedleit, Lehrerleit, and Dariusleit Hutterite groups, but there are also some few speakers among the older generations of Prairieleit (the descendants of those Hutterites who chose not to settle in colonies). Hutterite
Hutterite
children who grow up in the colonies learn and speak first Hutterite
Hutterite
German before learning English , the standard language of the surrounding areas.

As of 2003, there are about 34,000 speakers in the world, 85% of them living in 333 communities in Canada
Canada
and the remaining 15% in 123 communities in the USA. Canadian adults are generally literate in Early New High German
Early New High German
(also called "Biblical German", the predecessor to Standard German
Standard German
used by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
) that they employ as the written form for Scriptures while Standard German
Standard German
is used in the USA for religious activities. Children learn English at school; Canadian Hutterites have a functional knowledge of English. Hutterite
Hutterite
is for the most part an unwritten language, though in August 2006 Hutterite author Linda Maendel released a children's story titled Lindas glücklicher Tag (Linda's Happy Day) in which all the dialogue is written in the dialect. Maendel is also working on a series of biblical stories with Wycliff Bible translators.

HISTORY AND RELATED LANGUAGES

Hutterite
Hutterite
German is a koiné language based on the Bavarian dialects spoken in Tyrol , home of Jacob Hutter , and Carinthia in the mid-18th century. It is only 50% intelligible to a speaker of Pennsylvania German , as the latter variant is based on dialects spoken around the Electoral Palatinate . Hutterite
Hutterite
German therefore belongs to the Southern Bavarian
Southern Bavarian
dialect group which is spoken in the southern parts of Bavaria
Bavaria
and in Austria
Austria
except for the westernmost part (Vorarlberg ).

Although the Hutterites once spoke Tirolean German, they no longer do. The switch among Hutterites from Tirolean German to Carinthian German occurred during years of severe persecution in Europe when Hutterite
Hutterite
communities were devastated and survival depended on the conversion of many Carinthian Landler refugees to Hutterite
Hutterite
anabaptism .

The language has adopted a limited number of Russian and also many English loan words, which are the result of Hutterite
Hutterite
migrations into Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and now North America
North America
. The core vocabulary is still almost exclusively of German origin.

SEE ALSO

* Pennsylvania German * Plautdietsch language
Plautdietsch language
* Texas German

REFERENCES

* ^ Hutterite
Hutterite
German at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). " Hutterite
Hutterite
German". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ The Ethnologue, 16th

.