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Hungarians, also known as Magyars
Magyars
(Hungarian: magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary
Hungary
(Hungarian: Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language. There are an estimated 13.1–14.7 million ethnic Hungarians
Hungarians
and their descendants worldwide, of whom 8.5–9.8 million live in today's Hungary
Hungary
(as of 2011).[25] About 2.2 million Hungarians
Hungarians
live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
before the 1918–1920 dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the Treaty of Trianon, and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries, especially Romania, Austria, Slovakia, Serbia
Serbia
and Ukraine. Significant groups of people with Hungarian ancestry live in various other parts of the world, most of them in the United States, Canada, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Australia, and Argentina. Hungarians
Hungarians
can be classified into several subgroups according to local linguistic and cultural characteristics; subgroups with distinct identities include the Székelys, the Csángós, the Palóc, and the Jász people.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Pre-4th century AD 2.2 4th century to c. 830 2.3 c. 830 to c. 895 2.4 Entering the Carpathian Basin
Carpathian Basin
(c. 895) 2.5 After 900

3 Ethnic affiliations and genetic origins

3.1 Other influences

4 Hungarian diaspora 5 Maps 6 Folklore and communities 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

Name[edit] Further information: Name of Hungary The Hungarians' own ethnonym to denote themselves in the Early Middle Ages is uncertain. The exonym "Hungarian" is thought to be derived from "Ugor". Prior to the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin in 895/6 and while they lived on the steppes of Eastern Europe east of the Carpathian Mountains, written sources called the Magyars "Hungarians", specifically: "Ungri" by Georgius Monachus
Georgius Monachus
in 837, "Ungri" by Annales Bertiniani in 862, and "Ungari" by the Annales ex Annalibus Iuvavensibus in 881. The Magyars/ Hungarians
Hungarians
probably belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance, and it is possible that they became its ethnic majority.[26] In the Early Middle Ages, the Hungarians
Hungarians
had many names, including "Węgrzy" (Polish), "Ungherese" (Italian), "Ungar" (German), and "Hungarus".[27] The "H-" prefix is a later addition of Medieval Latin. Another possible explanation comes from the Old Russian
Old Russian
"Yugra" ("Югра"). It may refer to the Hungarians
Hungarians
during a time when they dwelt east of the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
along the natural borders of Europe and Asia before their conquest of the Carpathian Basin.[28] The Hungarian people
Hungarian people
refer to themselves by the demonym "Magyar" rather than "Hungarian".[26] "Magyar" is Finno-Ugric[29] from the Old Hungarian "mogyër". "Magyar" possibly derived from the name of the most prominent Hungarian tribe, the "Megyer". The tribal name "Megyer" became "Magyar" in reference to the Hungarian people
Hungarian people
as a whole.[30][31][32] "Magyar" may also derive from the Hunnic "Muageris" or "Mugel".[33] The Greek cognate of "Tourkia" (Greek: Τουρκία) was used by the scholar and Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII "Porphyrogenitus" in his De Administrando Imperio
De Administrando Imperio
of c. AD 950,[34][35] though in his use, "Turks" always referred to Magyars.[36] This was a misnomer, as while the Magyars
Magyars
had adopted some Turkic cultural traits, they are not a Turkic people. The historical Latin
Latin
phrase "Natio Hungarica" ("Hungarian nation") had a wider and political meaning because it once referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary, regardless of their ethnicity or mother tongue. History[edit] Pre-4th century AD[edit] Main article: Hungarian prehistory During the 4th millennium BC, the Uralic-speaking peoples who were living in the central and southern regions of the Urals split up. Some dispersed towards the west and northwest and came into contact with Iranian speakers who were spreading northwards.[37] From at least 2000 BC onwards, the Ugrian speakers became distinguished from the rest of the Uralic community, of which the ancestors of the Magyars, being located farther south, were the most numerous. Judging by evidence from burial mounds and settlement sites, they interacted with the Indo-Iranian Andronovo culture.[38] 4th century to c. 830[edit]

The possible homeland of the Hungarians, situated in the Southern Urals.

In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the Hungarians
Hungarians
moved from the west of the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
to the area between the southern Ural Mountains and the Volga River
Volga River
known as Bashkiria (Bashkortostan) and Perm Krai. In the early 8th century, some of the Hungarians
Hungarians
moved to the Don River to an area between the Volga, Don and the Seversky Donets rivers.[39] Meanwhile, the descendants of those Hungarians
Hungarians
who stayed in Bashkiria remained there as late as 1241. The Hungarians
Hungarians
around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate. Their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, i.e. Bulgars (Proto-Bulgarians, Onogurs) and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. Tradition holds that the Hungarians
Hungarians
were organized in a confederacy of seven tribes. The names of the seven tribes were: Jenő, Kér, Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat, Megyer, Nyék, and Tarján. c. 830 to c. 895[edit] Around 830, a rebellion broke out in the Khazar khaganate. As a result, three Kabar
Kabar
tribes[40] of the Khazars
Khazars
joined the Hungarians and moved to what the Hungarians
Hungarians
call the Etelköz, the territory between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River. The Hungarians
Hungarians
faced their first attack by the Pechenegs
Pechenegs
around 854,[39] though other sources state that an attack by Pechenegs
Pechenegs
was the reason for their departure to Etelköz. The new neighbours of the Hungarians
Hungarians
were the Varangians
Varangians
and the eastern Slavs. From 862 onwards, the Hungarians (already referred to as the Ungri) along with their allies, the Kabars, started a series of looting raids from the Etelköz
Etelköz
into the Carpathian Basin, mostly against the Eastern Frankish Empire (Germany) and Great Moravia, but also against the Balaton principality
Balaton principality
and Bulgaria.[41] Entering the Carpathian Basin
Carpathian Basin
(c. 895)[edit] Main articles: Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin
Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin
and Pannonian basin before Hungary

Hungarian Conquest of the Carpathian Basin, from the Chronicon Pictum, 1360.

In 895/896, under the leadership of Árpád, some Hungarians
Hungarians
crossed the Carpathians and entered the Carpathian Basin. The tribe called Magyar was the leading tribe of the Hungarian alliance that conquered the centre of the basin. At the same time (c. 895), due to their involvement in the 894–896 Bulgaro-Byzantine war, Hungarians
Hungarians
in Etelköz
Etelköz
were attacked by Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and then by their old enemies the Pechenegs. The Bulgarians
Bulgarians
won the decisive battle of Southern Buh. It is uncertain whether or not those conflicts were the cause of the Hungarian departure from Etelköz. From the upper Tisza
Tisza
region of the Carpathian Basin, the Hungarians intensified their looting raids across continental Europe. In 900, they moved from the upper Tisza
Tisza
river to Transdanubia (Pannonia),[citation needed] which later became the core of the arising Hungarian state. At the time of the Hungarian migration, the land was inhabited only by a sparse population of Slavs, numbering about 200,000,[39] who were either assimilated or enslaved by the Hungarians.[39] Archaeological findings (e.g. in the Polish city of Przemyśl) suggest that many Hungarians
Hungarians
remained to the north of the Carpathians after 895/896.[42] There is also a consistent Hungarian population in Transylvania, the Székelys, who comprise 40% of the Hungarians
Hungarians
in Romania.[43][44] The Székely people's origin, and in particular the time of their settlement in Transylvania, is a matter of historical controversy. After 900[edit] Main article: Hungarian invasions of Europe In 907, the Hungarians
Hungarians
destroyed a Bavarian army in the Battle of Pressburg and laid the territories of present-day Germany, France, and Italy
Italy
open to Hungarian raids, which were fast and devastating. The Hungarians
Hungarians
defeated the Imperial Army of Louis the Child, son of Arnulf of Carinthia
Arnulf of Carinthia
and last legitimate descendant of the German branch of the house of Charlemagne, near Augsburg
Augsburg
in 910. From 917 to 925, Hungarians
Hungarians
raided through Basle, Alsace, Burgundy, Saxony, and Provence.[45] Hungarian expansion was checked at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955, ending their raids against Western Europe, but raids on the Balkan Peninsula
Balkan Peninsula
continued until 970.[46] The Pope
Pope
approved Hungarian settlement in the area when their leaders converted to Christianity, and St. King Stephen I (Szent István) was crowned King of Hungary
Hungary
in 1001. The century between the arrival of the Hungarians from the eastern European plains and the consolidation of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
in 1001 was dominated by pillaging campaigns across Europe, from Dania (Denmark) to the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
(contemporary Spain and Portugal).[47] After the acceptance of the nation into Christian Europe under Stephen I, Hungary
Hungary
served as a bulwark against further invasions from the east and south, especially by the Turks.

Population growth of present-day territory of Hungary, regardless to ethnicity (900–1980)

At this time, the Hungarian nation numbered around 400,000 people.[39] The first accurate measurements of the population of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
including ethnic composition were carried out in 1850–51. There is a debate among Hungarian and non-Hungarian (especially Slovak and Romanian) historians about the possible changes in the ethnic structure of the region throughout history. Some historians support the theory that the proportion of Hungarians
Hungarians
in the Carpathian Basin was at an almost constant 80% during the Middle Ages.[48][49][50][51][52] Non- Hungarians
Hungarians
numbered hardly more than 20% to 25% of the total population.[48] The Hungarian population began to decrease only at the time of the Ottoman conquest,[48][49][52] reaching as low as around 39% by the end of the 18th century. The decline of the Hungarians
Hungarians
was due to the constant wars, Ottoman raids, famines, and plagues during the 150 years of Ottoman rule.[48][49][52] The main zones of war were the territories inhabited by the Hungarians, so the death toll depleted them at a much higher rate than among other nationalities.[48][52] In the 18th century, their proportion declined further because of the influx of new settlers from Europe, especially Slovaks, Serbs
Serbs
and Germans.[53] As a consequence of Turkish occupation and Habsburg colonization policies, the country underwent a great change in ethnic composition as its population more than tripled to 8 million between 1720 and 1787, while only 39% of its people were Hungarians, who lived primarily in the centre of the country.[48][49][50][52] Other historians, particularly Slovaks
Slovaks
and Romanians, argue that the drastic change in the ethnic structure hypothesized by Hungarian historians in fact did not occur. They argue that the Hungarians accounted for only about 30–40%[citation needed] of the Kingdom's population from its establishment. In particular, there is a fierce debate among Hungarians
Hungarians
and Romanian historians about the ethnic composition of Transylvania
Transylvania
through these times. In the 19th century, the proportion of Hungarians
Hungarians
in the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
rose gradually, reaching over 50% by 1900 due to higher natural growth and Magyarization. Between 1787 and 1910 the number of ethnic Hungarians
Hungarians
rose from 2.3 million to 10.2 million, accompanied by the resettlement of the Great Hungarian Plain
Great Hungarian Plain
and Voivodina
Voivodina
by mainly Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Hungarian settlers from the northern and western counties of the Kingdom of Hungary. In 1715 (after the Ottoman occupation), the Southern Great Plain
Southern Great Plain
was nearly uninhabited but now has 1.3 million inhabitants, nearly all of them Hungarians. Spontaneous assimilation was an important factor, especially among the German and Jewish minorities and the citizens of the bigger towns. On the other hand, about 1.5 million people (about two-thirds non-Hungarian) left the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
between 1890–1910 to escape from poverty.[54]

Magyars
Magyars
(Hungarians) in Hungary, 1890 census

The Treaty of Trianon: Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
lost 72% of its land and 3.3 million people of Hungarian ethnicity.

The years 1918 to 1920 were a turning point in the Hungarians' history. By the Treaty of Trianon, the Kingdom had been cut into several parts, leaving only a quarter of its original size. One-third of the Hungarians
Hungarians
became minorities in the neighbouring countries.[55] During the remainder of the 20th century, the Hungarians
Hungarians
population of Hungary
Hungary
grew from 7.1 million (1920) to around 10.4 million (1980), despite losses during the Second World War and the wave of emigration after the attempted revolution in 1956. The number of Hungarians
Hungarians
in the neighbouring countries tended to remain the same or slightly decreased, mostly due to assimilation (sometimes forced; see Slovakization
Slovakization
and Romanianization)[56][57][58] and to emigration to Hungary
Hungary
(in the 1990s, especially from Transylvania
Transylvania
and Vojvodina). After the "baby boom" of the 1950s (Ratkó era), a serious demographic crisis began to develop in Hungary
Hungary
and its neighbours.[59] The Hungarian population reached its maximum in 1980, then began to decline.[59] For historical reasons (see Treaty of Trianon), significant Hungarian minority populations can be found in the surrounding countries, most of them in Romania
Romania
(in Transylvania), Slovakia, and Serbia
Serbia
(in Vojvodina). Sizable minorities live also in Ukraine
Ukraine
(in Transcarpathia), Croatia
Croatia
(primarily Slavonia), and Austria
Austria
(in Burgenland). Slovenia
Slovenia
is also host to a number of ethnic Hungarians, and Hungarian language
Hungarian language
has an official status in parts of the Prekmurje
Prekmurje
region. Today more than two million ethnic Hungarians
Hungarians
live in nearby countries.[60] There was a referendum in Hungary
Hungary
in December 2004 on whether to grant Hungarian citizenship to Hungarians
Hungarians
living outside Hungary's borders (i.e. without requiring a permanent residence in Hungary). The referendum failed due to insufficient voter turnout. On 26 May 2010, Hungary's Parliament passed a bill granting dual citizenship to ethnic Hungarians
Hungarians
living outside of Hungary. Some neighboring countries with sizable Hungarian minorities expressed concerns over the legislation.[61] Ethnic affiliations and genetic origins[edit]

The place of origin for the regional groups of Hungarians
Hungarians
in the conquest period according to Kinga Éry

Thanks to Pál Lipták's researches it has been known for almost half a century that only 16.7 percent of 10th century human bones belong to the Euro-Mongoloid and Mongoloid types.[62][63] The European characteristics in the biological composition of the recent Hungarian population and the lack of Asian markers are not solely due to the thousand years of blending.[62] Biologically, the population around 1000 AD in Hungary
Hungary
was made up almost exclusively of Europeans.[62] According to a 2008 publication from the European Journal of Human Genetics, the Y-DNA haplogroup Haplogroup R1a1a-M17 was found amongst 57% of Hungarian male samples, genetically clustering them with that of their neighboring West Slavic neighbors, the Czechs, Poles, and Slovaks.[64] Another study on Y-Chromosome
Y-Chromosome
markers concluded that "modern Hungarian and Székelys
Székelys
(a subgroup of Hungarians
Hungarians
living in the Székely Land
Székely Land
in modern-day central Romania) are genetically related, and that they share similar components described for other Europeans, except for the presence of the Haplogroup P (M173) in Székely samples, which may reflect a Central Asian
Central Asian
connection from the time of the Hungarian migration from the Urals to Europe.[65] Neparaczki argues, based on new archeogenetic results, that the Conqueror Hungarians
Hungarians
were mostly a mixture of Hunnic, Slavic, and Germanic tribes and this composite people evolved in the steppes of Eastern Europe between 400 and 1000 AD.[66][67] This research group also established that "genetic continuity can be detected between ancient and modern Hungarians".[68] Another study on Y-Chromosome
Y-Chromosome
markers concluded that "modern Hungarian and Székely populations are genetically closely related", and that they "share similar components described for other Europeans, except for the presence of the haplogroup P*(xM173) in Székely samples, which may reflect a Central Asian
Central Asian
connection, and high frequency of haplogroup J in both Székelys
Székelys
and Hungarians".[69] A 2007 study on the mtDNA, after precising that " Hungarians
Hungarians
are unique among the other European populations because according to history the ancient Magyars
Magyars
had come from the eastern side of the Ural Mountains and settled down in the Carpathian basin
Carpathian basin
in the 9th century AD", shows that the haplogroup M, "characteristic mainly for Asian populations", is "found in approximately 5% of the total", which thus "suggests that an Asian matrilineal ancestry, even if in a small incidence, can be detected among modern Hungarians."[70] According to Dreisziger, there were not genetic anthropological and linguistic connections between the conquerors of 895 and modern Hungarian population and Hungarian language.[71] According to a 2008 study, the mitochondrial lines of the Hungarians are indistinct from that of neighbouring West Slavs, but they are distinct from that of the ancient Hungarians
Hungarians
(Magyars). Four 10th century skeletons from well documented cemeteries in Hungary
Hungary
of ancient Magyar individuals were sampled.[72] Two of the four males belonged to Y-DNA Haplogroup N confirming their Uralic origin. None out of 100 sampled modern Hungarians
Hungarians
carried the haplogroup, and just one of about 94 Székelys
Székelys
carried it. The study also stated that it was possible that the more numerous pre-existing populations or substantional later migrations, mostly Avars and Slavs, accepted the Uralic language of the elite.[72] An autosomal analysis,[73] studying non-European admixture in Europeans, found 4.4% of admixture of non-European and non-Middle Eastern origin among Hungarians, which was the strongest among sampled populations. It was found at 3.6% in Belarusians, 2.5% in Romanians, 2.3% in Bulgarians
Bulgarians
and Lithuanians, 1.9% in Poles
Poles
and 0% in Greeks. The authors stated "This signal might correspond to a small genetic legacy from invasions of peoples from the Asian steppes (e.g., the Huns, Magyars, and Bulgars) during the first millennium CE.". Compared to the European nations, Andrea Vágó-Zalán's study determined that the Bulgarians
Bulgarians
were genetically the closest and the Estonians
Estonians
and Finns
Finns
were among the furthest from the recent Hungarian population.[74] According to Pamjav Horolma's study, which is based on 230 samples and expected to include 6-8% Gypsy peoples, the small Hungarian haplogroup distribution study from Hungary
Hungary
is as follows: 26% R1a, 20% I2a, 19% R1b, 7% I, 6% J2, 5% H, 5% G2a, 5% E1b1b1a1, 3% J1, <1% N, <1% R2.[75] According to another study by Pamjav, the area of Bodrogköz suggested to be a population isolate found an elevated frequency of Haplogroup N: R1a-M458 (20.4%), I2a1-P37 (19%), R1a-Z280 (14.3%), and E1b-M78 (10.2%). Various R1b-M343 subgroups accounted for 15% of the Bodrogköz population. Haplogroup N1c-Tat covered 6.2% of the lineages, but most of it belonged to the N1c-VL29 subgroup, which is more frequent among Balto-Slavic speaking than Finno-Ugric
Finno-Ugric
speaking peoples. Other haplogroups had frequencies of less than 5%.[76][77] Among 100 Hungarian men, 90 of whom from the Great Hungarian Plain, the following haplogroups and frequencies are obtained: 30% R1a, 15% R1b, 13% I2a1, 13% J2, 9% E1b1b1a, 8% I1, 3% G2, 3% J1, 3% I*, 1% E*, 1% F*, 1% K*. The 97 Székelys
Székelys
belong to the following haplogroups: 20% R1b, 19% R1a, 17% I1, 11% J2, 10% J1, 8% E1b1b1a, 5% I2a1, 5% G2, 3% P*, 1% E*, 1% N.[78] It can be inferred that Szekelys have more significant German admixture. A study sampling 45 Palóc from Budapest and northern Hungary, found 60% R1a, 13% R1b, 11% I, 9% E, 2% G, 2% J2.[79] A study estimating possible Inner Asian admixture among nearly 500 Hungarians
Hungarians
based on paternal lineages only, estimated it at 5.1% in Hungary, at 7.4 in Székelys
Székelys
and at 6.3% at Csangos.[80] It has boldly been noted that this is an upper limit by deep SNPs and that the main haplogroups responsible for that contribution are J2-M172 (negative M47, M67, L24, M12), J2-L24, R1a-Z93, Q-M242 and E-M78, the latter of which is typically European, while N is still negligible (1.7%). In an attempt to divide N into subgroups L1034 and L708, some Hungarian, Sekler, and Uzbek samples were found to be L1034 SNP positive, while all Mongolians, Buryats, Khanty, Finnish, and Roma samples showed a negative result for this marker. The 2500 years old SNP L1034 was found typical for Mansi and Hungarians, the closest linguistic relatives.[81] Anthropologically, the type of Magyars
Magyars
of the conquest phase shows similarity to that of the Andronovo people,[82] in particular of the Sarmatian
Sarmatian
groups around the southern Urals.[83] The Turanid (South-Siberian) and the Uralid types from the Europo-Mongoloids were dominant among the conquering Hungarians.[84] Excavations of several Sarmatians showed that they belong to Haplogroup G2a, J1, J2 and R1a-Z93. The following information is inferred from 433 Hungarian samples from the Hungarian Magyar Y-DNA Project in Family Tree
Family Tree
(29 May 2017):[85]

26.1% R1a (15% Z280, 6.5% M458, 0.9% Z93=>S23201 "Altai/Tian Shan", 3.7% unknown) 19.2% R1b (6% L11-P312/U106, 5.3% P312, 4.2% L23/Z2103, 3.7% U106) 16.9% I2 (15.2% CTS10228, 1.4% M223, 0.5% L38) 8.3% I1 8.1% J2 (5.3% M410, 2.8% M102) 6.9% E1b1b1 (6% V13, 0.3% V22, 0.3% M123, 0.3% M81) 6.9% G2a 3.2% N (1.4% Z9136 "Ugric/Proto-Magyar", 0.5% M2019/VL67 "Siberia and Baykal", 0.5% Y7310 "Central Europe", 0.9% Z16981 "Baltic")- note: only unrelated males are sampled 2.3% Q (1.2% YP789 "Huns/Turkmens", 0.9% M346 "Siberia", 0.2% M242 "Xiongnu") 0.9% T 0.5% J1 0.2% L 0.2% C

Other influences[edit]

Origin of word roots in Hungarian[86]

Uncertain

30%

Uralic

21%

Slavic

20%

German

11%

Turkic

9.5%

Latin
Latin
and Greek

6%

Romance

2.5%

Other known

1%

Besides the various peoples mentioned above, the Magyars
Magyars
assimilated or were influenced by subsequent peoples arriving in the Carpathian Basin. Among these are the Cumans, Pechenegs, Jazones, West Slavs, Germans, Vlachs
Vlachs
(Romanians), amongst others. Ottomans, who occupied the central part of Hungary
Hungary
from c. 1526 until c. 1699, inevitably exerted an influence, as did the various nations (Germans, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, and others) that resettled depopulated territories after their departure. Similar to other European countries, Jewish, Armenians, and Roma (Gypsy) minorities have been living in Hungary since the Middle Ages. Hungarian diaspora[edit] Main article: Hungarian diaspora Hungarian diaspora
Hungarian diaspora
(Magyar diaspora) is a term that encompasses the total ethnic Hungarian population located outside of current-day Hungary.

Maps of the Hungarian diaspora

Hungarians
Hungarians
in Romania
Romania
(according to the 2002 census) 

Hungarians
Hungarians
in Vojvodina, Serbia
Serbia
(according to the 2011 census) 

Hungarians
Hungarians
in Slovakia
Slovakia
(according to the 2001 census) 

Hungarians
Hungarians
in the United States
United States
(according to the 2000 census) 

Maps[edit]

Kniezsa's (1938) view on the ethnic map of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
in the 11th century, based on toponyms. Kniezsa's view has been criticized by many scholars, because of its non-compliance with later archaeological and onomastics research, but his map is still regularly cited in modern reliable sources.[under discussion]

The "Red Map"[citation needed], based on the controversial 1910 census (peak of the magyarization): Hungarians
Hungarians
in the Kingdom of Hungary

Regions where Hungarian is spoken[relevant? – discuss]

Folklore and communities[edit]

Hungarians
Hungarians
dressed in folk costumes in Southern Transdanubia, Hungary

Vojvodina
Vojvodina
Hungarians
Hungarians
women's national costume

Kalotaszeg
Kalotaszeg
folk Costume in Transylvania, Romania

The Hungarian Puszta

The Turul, the mythical bird of Hungary

Csárdás
Csárdás
folk dance in Skorenovac
Skorenovac
(Székelykeve), Vojvodina, Serbia

See also[edit]

Hungary
Hungary
portal

Central Europe Demographics of Hungary List of Hungarians List of people of Hungarian origin

Ugric peoples Ugric languages Khanty people Mansi people Eastern Magyars

Magyarab people Jasz people Székelys
Székelys
of Bukovina Kunság Pole, Hungarian, two good friends

Hungarian mythology Hunor and Magor Shamanistic remnants in Hungarian folklore List of domesticated animals from Hungary

Notes[edit]

^ Though the number is based on the recent 2011 census data, it is a lower estimate, as both in Hungary
Hungary
and in Slovakia
Slovakia
census participants had the option to opt out and not declare their ethnicity, hence about 2 million people decided to do so.[1] ^ This number is a lower estimate, as 1.44 million people opted out declaring ethnicity in 2011. ^ Native Hungarian-speakers. ^ This number is a lower estimate, as 405,261 people (7.5% of the total population) did not specify their ethnicity at the 2011 Slovak Census.

References[edit]

^ Bojer, Anasztázia (2012). 2011. évi népszámlálás [2011 Census] (PDF). Central Statistics Office of Hungary
Hungary
(in Hungarian). Budapest. ISBN 978-963-235-417-0. Retrieved 1 August 2016.  ^ "1.1.4.2 A népesség nyelvismeret és nemek szerint" [1.1.4.2 Population by spoken language] (XLS). Central Statistical Office of Hungary
Hungary
(in Hungarian). 17 April 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2016.  ^ a b "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported: 2013 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States
United States
Census Bureau. 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2016.  ^ (in Romanian) "Comunicat de presă privind rezultatele definitive ale Recensământului Populaţiei şi Locuinţelor – 2011", at the 2011 Romanian census site; accessed July 11, 2013 ^ 2001 Slovakian Census ^ "The 2006 census". 2.statcan.ca. Archived from the original on 2009-06-25. Retrieved 2013-08-22.  ^ 2011 Serbian Census ^ "About number and composition population of UKRAINE by data All-Ukrainian census of the population 2001". State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. 2003. Archived from the original on 31 October 2004.  ^ "Anzahl der Ausländer in Deutschland nach Herkunftsland (Stand: 31. Dezember 2014)". De.statista.com. Retrieved 12 December 2017.  ^ "Bund Ungarischer Organisationen in Deutschland" [Confederation of Hungarian Organizations in Germany]. buod.de (in German). Archived from the original on 6 February 2006.  ^ Moschella, Alexandre (24 June 2002). "Um atalho para a Europa" [A shortcut to Europe] (in Portuguese). Revista Época Edição. Archived from the original on 27 February 2003.  ^ "Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn seit 2002 nach detaillierter Staatsangehörigkeit" [Population at the beginning of the year since 2002 by detailed nationality] (PDF). Statistics Austria
Austria
(in German). 14 June 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.  ^ "Australian Bureau of Statistics (Census 2006)". Abs.gov.au. 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2013-08-22.  ^ "Položaj Nacionalnih Manjina u Republici Hrvatskoj – Zakonodavstvo i Praska" [The Position of National Minorities in the Republic of Croatia
Croatia
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Press, pp. 19–80. ^ Raffay Ernő: A vajdaságoktól a birodalomig. Az újkori Románia története (From voivodeships to the empire. The modern history of Romania). Publishing house JATE Kiadó, Szeged, 1989, pp. 155–156) ^ a b "Nyolcmillió lehet a magyar népesség 2050-re". origo. Retrieved 2009-04-19.  ^ Hungary: Transit Country Between East and West. Migration Information Source. November 2003. ^ Veronika Gulyas (May 26, 2010). " Hungary
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Citizenship
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Bill Irks Neighbor". The Wall Street Journal.  ^ a b c Csanád Bálint (October 2008). "A történeti genetika és az eredetkérdés(ek)". Magyar Tudomány: 1170. Retrieved 2009-10-06.  Cited: "Lipták Pálnak köszönhetően közel fél évszázada tudjuk, hogy a 10. sz.-i embercsontoknak csak 16,7 %-a tartozik a mongolid és az europo-mongolid rasszhoz. Tehát a mai magyarság szerológiai, és genetikai összetételében egyértelműen kimutatott európai jelleg, ugyanakkor az ázsiainak hiánya nem egyedül az eltelt ezer év keveredéseinek köszönhető, hanem már a honfoglalás- és Szent István-kori Magyarország lakossága is szinte kizárólag biológiailag európai eredetűekből állt." Translation: "Due to Pál Lipták we have known for almost half a century that only 16.7 percent of 10th century human bones belong to the Euro-Mongoloid and Mongoloid races. Thus, the unambiguously established European characteristics in the genetic and serological composition of the recent Hungarian population and the lack of Asian markers are not solely due to the thousand years of blending but biologically the populations of the conquest period and of St Stephen's Hungary
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with four other European populations: a small incidence of descents with Asian origin.". Acta Biol Hung. Jun;58(2):245-56 ^ Dreisziger, Nándor. “Ármin Vámbéry (1832-1913) as a Historian of Hungarian Settlement in the Carpathian Basin.” AHEA: E-Journal of the American Hungarian Educators Association, Volume 6 (2013) [2] ^ a b Csányi, B.; Bogácsi-Szabó, E.; Tömöry, Gy.; Czibula, Á.; Priskin, K.; Csõsz, A.; Mende, B.; Langó, P.; Csete, K.; Zsolnai, A.; Conant, E. K.; Downes, C. S.; Raskó, I. (1 July 2008). " Y-Chromosome
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(PDF Download Available)". ResearchGate. Retrieved 18 August 2017.  ^ A limited genetic link between Mansi and Hungarians ^ István Fodor (1982). In search of a new homeland: the prehistory of the Hungarian people
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and the conquest. Corvina. p. 122.  ^ Antal Bartha, A magyar nép őstörténete, Akadémiai Kiadó, 1988, p.221. Quote

"Figyelemre érdemes, hogy a honfoglaló magyarok embertani alkata közel áll a dél-uráli szauro és szarmata népesség körében fellelhetö tipusokhoz."

^ Fóthi, Erzsébet (2000). "Anthropological conclusions of the study of Roman and Migration periods" (PDF). Acta Biologica Szegediensis. 44 (1-4): 87–94. Retrieved 1 August 2016.  ^ " Family Tree
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Sources[edit]

Molnar, Miklos (2001). A Concise History of Hungary. Cambridge Concise Histories (Fifth printing 2008 ed.). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66736-4.  Korai Magyar Történeti Lexicon (9–14. század) (Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History (9th–14th Centuries)) Budapest, Akadémiai Kiadó; 753. ISBN 963-05-6722-9. Károly Kocsis (DSc, University of Miskolc) – Zsolt Bottlik (PhD, Budapest
Budapest
University) – Patrik Tátrai: Etnikai térfolyamatok a Kárpát-medence határon túli régióiban + CD (for detailed data), Magyar Tudományos Akadémia (Hungarian Academy of Sciences) – Földrajtudományi Kutatóintézet (Academy of Geographical Studies); Budapest; 2006.; ISBN 963-9545-10-4

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