The HUNAS, HALA-HUNA, HARA-HUNA, ALCHON, ALXON, or WALXON were a
group of Xionite and/or
Hephthalite tribes (specifically the Kidarites
Alchon Huns ) who, via the
Khyber Pass , entered India at the
end of the 5th or early 6th century and occupied areas as far as Eran
Kausambi , greatly weakening the
Gupta Empire . They were
ultimately defeated by the Indian
Gupta Empire and the Indian king
In its farthest geographical extent in India, the Huna empire covered
the region up to
Malwa in central India.
Their repeated invasions and war losses were the main reason for the
decline of the Gupta Empire. Asia in 500 AD, showing the Huna
domain at its greatest extent.
* 1 History
* 2 Religion
* 3 See also
* 4 Notes
* 5 References
Chinese sources link the Central Asian tribes comprising the Hunas to
Xiongnu of north east Asia and the
Huns who later invaded and
settled in Europe. Similarly, Gerald Larson suggests that the Hunas
were a Turkic -Mongolian grouping from Central Asia. The works of
Ptolemy (2nd century) are among the first European texts to mention
the Huns, followed by the texts by Marcellinus and Priscus. They too
suggest that the
Huns were an inner Asian people.
According to Litvinsky, the initial Huna or Alxon raids on Gandhara
took place in the late 5th and early 6th century AD, upon the death of
the Gupta ruler,
Skandagupta (455–470), presumably led by the Tegin
Khingila . M. Chakravarty, based on Chinese and Persian histories
believes that the Hunas conquered
Gandhara from the Ki-to-lo
(Kidarites) in c. 475 AD.
Gandhara had been occupied by various
Kidarite principalities from the early 4th century AD, but it is still
a subject of debate as to whether rule was transferred from the
Kidarites directly to the Hephthalites. It is known that the Huns
Gandhara and the Punjab from the Kabul valley after
vanquishing the Kidarite principalities. Victory pillar of
Yashodharman at Sondani,
Mandsaur claiming victory over the Huns.
The Hunas are mentioned in the Tibetan chronicle Dpag-bsam-ljon-bzah
(The Excellent Kalpa-Vrksa), along people like the Yavanas, Kambojas,
Tukharas, Khaqsas, Daradas etc.
The Hunas minted coins inspired by Sassanian designs.
The religious beliefs of the Hunas is unknown, and believed to be a
combination of ancestor worship, totemism and animism.
Song Yun and Hui Zheng , who visited the chief of the Hephthalite
nomads at his summer residence in
Badakshan and later in
observed that they had no belief in the
Buddhist law and served a
large number of divinities."
Kidarites (Red Huns)
36 royal races
* Ancient India and
History of India
History of India
* History of
Hans Bakker 24th Gonda lecture
* ^ Iaroslav Lebedynsky, "Les Nomades", p172.
* ^ CNG Coins
* ^ India: A History by John Keay p.158
* ^ Kurbanov, Aydogdy (2010). "The Hephthalites: Archaeological and
Historical Analysis" (PDF). p. 24. Retrieved 17 January 2013. The
Hūnas controlled an area that extended from
Malwa in central India to
* ^ A B Gerald James Larson (1995). India\'s Agony Over Religion.
State University of New York Press. pp. 78–79. ISBN
* ^ Hyun Jin Kim, The Huns, Abingdon, Routledge, passim.
* ^ Joseph Kitagawa (2013). The Religious Traditions of Asia:
Religion, History, and Culture. Routledge. p. 229. ISBN
* ^ Tho-gar yul dań yabana dań Kambodza dań Khasa dań Huna dań
* ^ Pag-Sam-Jon-Zang (1908), I.9, Sarat Chandra Das; Ancient
Kamboja, 1971, p 66,
H. W. Bailey .
* ^ Source
* ^ Mircea Eliade; Charles J. Adams (1987). The Encyclopedia of
religion. Macmillan. pp. 530–532. ISBN 978-0-02-909750-2 .
* ^ "The White
Huns - The Hephthalites". Silkroad Foundation.
Retrieved 11 January 2013.
Iaroslav Lebedynsky , "Les Nomades", Paris 2007, ISBN