HUNAN PROVINCE (Chinese : 湖南; pinyin : _ Húnán _; Hunanese :
Shuangfeng , ;
The name _Hunan_ means "south of Lake Dongting ," a lake in the northeast of the province; _hu_ means "lake" while _nan_ means "south." Vehicle license plates from Hunan are marked _Xiang_ (Chinese : 湘), after the Xiang River , which runs from south to north through Hunan and forms part of the largest drainage system for the province.
Located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed in South Central China , Hunan is a southern province, bordered to the north by Hubei Province , to the east by Jiangxi Province , to the south by Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces , to the west by Guizhou Province , and to the northwest by Chongqing .
* 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Administrative divisions * 4 Politics
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Economic and technological development zones
* 6 Demographics
* 6.1 Hunanese Uyghurs * 6.2 Religion
* 7 Culture * 8 Tourism * 9 Education * 10 Sports * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 Notes * 14 External links
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Western Han painting on silk was found draped over the coffin in the grave of Lady Dai (c. 168 BC) at Mawangdui in Hunan.
Hunan's primeval forests were first occupied by the ancestors of the modern Miao , Tujia , Dong and Yao peoples . It entered the written history of China around 350 BC, when under the kings of the Zhou Dynasty , it became part of the State of Chu . After Qin conquered the Chu heartland in 278 BC, the region came under the control of Qin, and then the Han dynasty . At this time, and for hundreds of years thereafter, it was a magnet for migration of Han Chinese from the north, who displaced or assimilated the indigenous people, cleared forests and began farming rice in the valleys and plains. The agricultural colonization of the lowlands was carried out in part by the Han state, which managed river dikes to protect farmland from floods. To this day many of the small villages in Hunan are named after the Han families who settled there. Migration from the north was especially prevalent during the Eastern Jin Dynasty and the Southern and Northern Dynasties Periods, when nomadic invaders pushed these peoples south.
During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, Hunan was home to its own independent regime, Ma Chu .
Hunan became an important communications center due to its position
Yangzi River . It was an important centre of scholarly activity
Confucian thought, particularly in the
Yuelu Academy in
Hunan was relatively quiet until 1910 when there were uprisings
against the crumbling Qing dynasty, which were followed by the
Autumn Harvest Uprising of 1927. It was led by Hunanese
Mao Zedong , and established a short-lived
Hunan Soviet in
1927. The Communists maintained a guerrilla army in the mountains
along the Hunan-
Jiangxi border until 1934. Under pressure from the
Kuomintang (KMT) forces, they began the
Long March to
Shaanxi Province. After the departure of the Communists, the
KMT army fought against the Japanese in the second Sino-Japanese war .
They defended the
As Mao Zedong's home province, Hunan supported the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976. However, it was slower than most provinces in adopting the reforms implemented by Deng Xiaoping in the years that followed Mao's death in 1976.
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Furong Ancient Town, located in Yongshun County of Xiangxi
Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River , about half way along its length, situated between 108° 47'–114° 16' east longitude and 24° 37'–30° 08' north latitude . It covers an area of 211,800 square kilometres (81,800 square miles), making it the 10th largest provincial-level division. The east, south and west sides of the province are surrounded by mountains and hills, such as the Wuling Mountains to the northwest, the Xuefeng Mountains to the west, the Nanling Mountains to the south, and the Luoxiao Mountains to the east. The mountains and hills occupy more than 80% of the area and plains comprises less than 20% of the whole province.
The Xiang , the Zi , the Yuan and the Lishui Rivers converge on the Yangtze River at Lake Dongting in the north of Hunan. The center and northern parts are somewhat low and a U-shaped basin, open in the north and with Lake Dongting as its center. Most of Hunan lies in the basins of four major tributaries of the Yangtze River.
Hunan's climate is subtropical , and, under the Köppen climate classification , is classified as being humid subtropical (Köppen _Cfa_), with short, cool, damp winters, very hot and humid summers, and plenty of rainfall. January temperatures average 3 to 8 °C (37 to 46 °F) while July temperatures average around 27 to 30 °C (81 to 86 °F). Average annual precipitation is 1,200 to 1,700 millimetres (47 to 67 in).
Main article: List of administrative divisions of Hunan
Hunan is divided into fourteen prefecture-level divisions : thirteen prefecture-level cities and an autonomous prefecture :
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF HUNAN
№ DIVISION CODE ENGLISH NAME CHINESE PINYIN AREA IN KM2 POPULATION 2010 SEAT DIVISIONS
DISTRICTS COUNTIES AUT. COUNTIES CL CITIES
1 430100 CHANGSHA 长沙市 Chángshā Shì 11,819.46 7,044,118 Yuelu District 6 2
13 430200 ZHUZHOU 株洲市 Zhūzhōu Shì 11,262.20 3,855,609 Tianyuan District 4 4
8 430300 XIANGTAN 湘潭市 Xiāngtán Shì 5,006.46 2,748,552 Yuetang District 2 1
4 430400 HENGYANG 衡阳市 Héngyáng Shì 15,302.78 7,141,462 Zhengxiang District 5 5
7 430500 SHAOYANG 邵阳市 Shàoyáng Shì 20,829.63 7,071,826 Daxiang District 3 7 1 1
11 430600 YUEYANG 岳阳市 Yuèyáng Shì 14,897.88 5,477,911 Yueyanglou District 3 4
2 430700 CHANGDE 常德市 Chángdé Shì 18,177.18 5,747,218 Wuling District 2 6
12 430800 ZHANGJIAJIE 张家界市 Zhāngjiājiè Shì 9,516.03 1,476,521 Yongding District 2 2
9 430900 YIYANG 益阳市 Yìyáng Shì 12,325.16 4,313,084 Heshan District 2 3
3 431000 CHENZHOU 郴州市 Chēnzhōu Shì 19,317.33 4,581,778 Beihu District 2 8
10 431100 YONGZHOU 永州市 Yǒngzhōu Shì 22,255.31 5,180,235 Lengshuitan District 2 8 1
5 431200 HUAIHUA 怀化市 Huáihuà Shì 27,562.72 4,741,948 Hecheng District 1 5 5 1
6 431300 LOUDI 娄底市 Lóudǐ Shì 8,107.61 3,785,627 Louxing District 1 2
14 433100 Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture 湘西土家族苗族自治州 Xiāngxī Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu 15,462.30 2,547,833 Jishou
The fourteen prefecture -level divisions of Hunan are subdivided into 122 county -level divisions (35 districts , 16 county-level cities , 64 counties, 7 autonomous counties ). Those are in turn divided into 2587 township -level divisions (1098 towns , 1158 townships , 98 ethnic townships , 225 subdistricts , and eight district public offices ).
The Governor of Hunan is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Hunan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Hunan Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the " Hunan CPC Party Chief ".
As of the mid 19th century, Hunan exported rhubarb , musk, honey, tobacco, hemp , and birds. The Lake Dongting area is an important center of ramie production, and Hunan is also an important center of tea cultivation. Aside from agricultural products, in recent years Hunan has grown to become an important center for steel, machinery and electronics production, especially as China's manufacturing sector moves away from coastal provinces such as Guangdong and Zhejiang .
The Lengshuijiang area is noted for its stibnite mines, and is one of the major centers of antimony extraction in China.
Hunan is also well known for a few international makers of construction equipments such as concrete pumps , cranes , etc. These companies include Sany Group , Zoomlion and Sunward . Sany is one of the major players in the world. Liuyang is the major maker of fireworks in the world.
Its nominal GDP for 2011 was 1.90 trillion yuan (US$300 billion). Its per capita GDP was 20,226 yuan (US$2,961).
ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ZONES
Approved by the State Council, Chenzhou Export processing Zone (CEPZ) was established in 2005 and is the only export processing zone in Hunan province. The scheduled production area of CEPZ covers 3km2. The industrial positioning of CEPZ is to concentrate on developing export-oriented hi-tech industries, including electronic information, precision machinery, and new-type materials. The zone has good infrastructure, and the enterprises inside could enjoy the preferential policies of tax-exemption, tax-guarantee and tax-refunding. By the end of the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan ”, the CEPZ achieved a total export and import volume of over US$1 billion and provided more than 50,000 jobs. It aimed to be one of the first-class export processing zones in China.
YEAR POP. ±%
1912 27,617,000 —
1928 31,501,000 +14.1%
1936-37 28,294,000 −10.2%
1947 25,558,000 −9.7%
1954 33,226,954 +30.0%
1964 37,182,286 +11.9%
1982 54,008,851 +45.3%
1990 60,659,754 +12.3%
2000 63,274,173 +4.3%
2010 65,683,722 +3.8%
As of the 2000 census , the population of Hunan is 64,400,700 consisting of forty-one ethnic groups . Its population grew 6.17% (3,742,700) from its 1990 levels. According to the census, 89.79% (57,540,000) identified themselves as Han people , 10.21% (6,575,300) as minority groups . The minority groups are Tujia , Miao , Dong , Yao , Bai , Hui , Zhuang , Uyghurs and so on.
In Hunan, ethnic minority languages are spoken in the following prefectures.
* Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture : Qo Xiong language , Tujia language * Huaihua : Qo Xiong language , Dong language , Hm Nai language , Hmu language * Shaoyang : Maojia language , Hm Nai language , Pa-Hng language * Yongzhou : Mien language , Biao Min language * Chenzhou : Dzao Min language
Around 5,000 Uyghurs live around
The predominant religions in Hunan are Chinese folk religions , Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism . According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 20.19% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration , while 0.77% of the population identifies as Christian. The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 79.04% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities , Buddhism, Confucianism , Taoism, folk religious sects .
Puguang Buddhist Temple in Zhangjiajie . *
An ancestral shrine in the province.
Hunanese cuisine is noted for its use of chili peppers .
Hunan's culture industry generated 87 billion yuan (US$11.76 billion) in economic value in 2007, a major contributor to the province's economic growth. The industry accounts for 7.5 percent of the region's GDP - 0.9 percentage points higher than the previous year.
Wulingyuan features thousands of quartzite sandstone peaks.
Located in the south central part of the Chinese mainland, Hunan has long been known for its natural beauty. It is surrounded by mountains on the east, west, and south, and by the Yangtze River on the north. Its mixture of mountains and water makes it among the most beautiful provinces in China. For thousands of years, the region has been a major center of agriculture, growing rice, tea, and oranges. China's first all glass suspension bridge was also opened in Hunan, in Shiniuzhai National Geological Park .
* Shaoshan , the village where Mao Zedong was born * Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area (World Heritage Site ) * Yueyang Tower in Yueyang * Mount Heng in Hengyang * Zhangjiajie * Fenghuang County in Xiangxi Prefecture * Hong Jiang
Professional sports teams in Hunan include:
* ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines ). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
* ^ This may include:
* Buddhists ; * Confucians ; * Deity worshippers ; * Taoists ; * Members of folk religious sects ; * Small minorities of Muslims ; * And people not bounded to, nor practicing any, institutional or diffuse religion.
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* ^ http://www.enghunan.gov.cn/
* ^ http://www.baike.com/wiki/%E6%B9%96%E5%8D%97%E7%9C%81
* ^ RightSite.asia
* Economic profile for Hunan at HKTDC
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