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Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad[1] (Persian: نصیرالدین محمد‬‎, translit. Nasīr-ad-Dīn Muhammad; 6 March 1508 – 27 January 1556), better known by his regnal name, Humayun (Persian: همایون‬‎, translit. Humāyūn), was the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India
India
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
from 1530–1540 and again from 1555–1556. Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdom early but regained it with the aid of the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
of Persia, with additional territory. At the time of his death in 1556, the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
spanned almost one million square kilometres. In December 1530, Humayun
Humayun
succeeded his father to the throne of Farghana as ruler of the Mughal territories in the Indian subcontinent. At the age of 23, Humayun
Humayun
was an inexperienced ruler when he came to power. His half-brother Kamran Mirza
Kamran Mirza
inherited Kabul and Lahore, the northernmost parts of their father's empire. Mirza was to become a bitter rival of Humayun. Humayun
Humayun
lost Mughal territories to Sher Shah
Shah
Suri, but regained them 15 years later with Safavid aid. Humayun's return from Persia
Persia
was accompanied by a large retinue of Persian noblemen and signalled an important change in Mughal court culture. The Central Asian origins of the dynasty were largely overshadowed by the influences of Persian art, architecture, language and literature. There are many stone carvings and thousands of Persian manuscripts in India
India
dating from the time of Humayun. Subsequently, Humayun
Humayun
further expanded the Empire in a very short time, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, Akbar. His peaceful personality, patience and non-provocative methods of speech earned him the title ’Insān-i-Kamil (Perfect Man), among the Mughals.[5]

Contents

1 Background 2 Early reign 3 Sher Shah
Shah
Suri

3.1 In Agra 3.2 In Lahore 3.3 Withdrawing further

4 Retreat to Kabul 5 Refuge in Persia 6 Kandahar
Kandahar
and onwards 7 Restoration of the Mughal Empire

7.1 Marriage relations with the Khanzadas 7.2 Ruling Kashmir

8 Character 9 Death and legacy 10 Full title 11 See also 12 Footnotes 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links

Background[edit] The decision of Babur
Babur
to divide the territories of his empire between two of his sons was unusual in India, although it had been a common Central Asian practice since the time of Genghis Khan. Unlike most monarchies, which practised primogeniture, the Timurids followed the example of Genghis and did not leave an entire kingdom to the eldest son. Although under that system only a Chingissid could claim sovereignty and khanal authority, any male Chinggisid within a given sub-branch had an equal right to the throne (though the Timurids were not Chinggisid in their paternal ancestry).[6] While Genghis Khan's Empire had been peacefully divided between his sons upon his death, almost every Chinggisid succession since had resulted in fratricide.[7][page needed] Timur himself had divided his territories among Pir Muhammad, Miran Shah, Khalil Sultan
Khalil Sultan
and Shah
Shah
Rukh, which resulted in inter-family warfare.[6][full citation needed][non-primary source needed] Upon Babur's death, Humayun's territories were the least secure. He had ruled only four years, and not all umarah (nobles) viewed Humayun
Humayun
as the rightful ruler. Indeed, earlier, when Babur
Babur
had become ill, some of the nobles had tried to install his Brother-in-law, Mahdi Khwaja, as ruler. Although this attempt failed, it was a sign of problems to come.[8][full citation needed][non-primary source needed] Early reign[edit]

Babur
Babur
celebrates the birth of Humayun
Humayun
in the Charbagh
Charbagh
of Kabul.

When Humayun
Humayun
came to the throne of the Mughal Empire, several of his brothers revolted against him. Another brother Khalil Mirza (1509–30) supported Humayun
Humayun
but was assassinated. The Emperor commenced construction of a tomb for his brother in 1538, but this was not yet finished when Humayun
Humayun
was forced to flee to Persia. Sher Shah destroyed the structure and no further work was done on it after Humayun's restoration.[citation needed] Humayun
Humayun
had two major rivals for his lands: Sultan Bahadur
Sultan Bahadur
of Gujarat to the southwest and Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
(Sher Khan) settled along the river Ganges in Bihar
Bihar
to the east. Humayun's first campaign was to confront Sher Shah
Shah
Suri. Halfway through this offensive Humayun
Humayun
had to abandon it and concentrate on Gujarat, where a threat from Ahmed Shah had to be met. Humayun
Humayun
was victorious annexing Gujarat, Malwa, Champaner
Champaner
and the great fort of Mandu.[citation needed] During the first five years of Humayun's reign, Bahadur and Sher Khan extended their rule, although Sultan Bahadur
Sultan Bahadur
faced pressure in the east from sporadic conflicts with the Portuguese. While the Mughals had obtained firearms via the Ottoman Empire, Bahadur's Gujarat
Gujarat
had acquired them through a series of contracts drawn up with the Portuguese, allowing the Portuguese to establish a strategic foothold in north western India.[9] In 1535 Humayun
Humayun
was made aware that the Sultan of Gujarat
Gujarat
was planning an assault on the Mughal territories with Portuguese aid. Humayun gathered an army and marched on Bahadur. Within a month he had captured the forts of Mandu and Champaner. However, instead of pressing his attack, Humayun
Humayun
ceased the campaign and consolidated his newly conquered territory. Sultan Bahadur, meanwhile escaped and took up refuge with the Portuguese.[10] Sher Shah
Shah
Suri[edit]

The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Humayun, fights Bahadur Shah
Shah
of Gujarat, in the year 1535.

Shortly after Humayun
Humayun
had marched on Gujarat, Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
saw an opportunity to wrest control of Agra
Agra
from the Mughals. He began to gather his army together hoping for a rapid and decisive siege of the Mughal capital. Upon hearing this alarming news, Humayun
Humayun
quickly marched his troops back to Agra
Agra
allowing Bahadur to easily regain control of the territories Humayun
Humayun
had recently taken. In February 1537, however, Bahadur was killed when a botched plan to kidnap the Portuguese viceroy ended in a fire-fight that the Sultan lost.[citation needed] Whilst Humayun
Humayun
succeeded in protecting Agra
Agra
from Sher Shah, the second city of the Empire, Gaur the capital of the vilayat of Bengal, was sacked. Humayun's troops had been delayed while trying to take Chunar, a fort occupied by Sher Shah's son, in order to protect his troops from an attack from the rear. The stores of grain at Gauri, the largest in the empire, were emptied, and Humayun
Humayun
arrived to see corpses littering the roads.[11] The vast wealth of Bengal was depleted and brought East, giving Sher Shah
Shah
a substantial war chest.[9] Sher Shah
Shah
withdrew to the east, but Humayun
Humayun
did not follow: instead he "shut himself up for a considerable time in his Harem, and indulged himself in every kind of luxury."[11][full citation needed][non-primary source needed] Hindal, Humayun's 19-year-old brother, had agreed to aid him in this battle and protect the rear from attack, but he abandoned his position and withdrew to Agra, where he decreed himself acting emperor. When Humayun
Humayun
sent the grand Mufti, Sheikh Buhlul, to reason with him; the Sheikh was killed. Further provoking the rebellion, Hindal ordered that the Khutba, or sermon, in the main mosque surrounded.[12]

Raja Todar Mal, an ally of Sher Shah
Shah
Suri, constructed the Rohtas Fort to check Humayun
Humayun
from Persia, and also halt the local Muslim tribes from joining the claimant emperor.[13][14]

Humayun's other brother, Kamran Mirza, marched from his territories in the Punjab, ostensibly to aid Humayun. However, his return home had treacherous motives as he intended to stake a claim for Humayun's apparently collapsing empire. He brokered a deal with Hindal providing that his brother would cease all acts of disloyalty[12] in return for a share in the new empire, which Kamran would create once Humayun
Humayun
was deposed.[citation needed] In June 1539 Sher Shah
Shah
met Humayun
Humayun
in the Battle of Chausa on the banks of the Ganges, near Buxar. This was to become an entrenched battle in which both sides spent a lot of time digging themselves into positions. The major part of the Mughal army, the artillery, was now immobile, and Humayun
Humayun
decided to engage in some diplomacy using Muhammad Aziz as ambassador. Humayun
Humayun
agreed to allow Sher Shah
Shah
to rule over Bengal and Bihar, but only as provinces granted to him by his Emperor, Humayun, falling short of outright sovereignty. The two rulers also struck a bargain in order to save face: Humayun's troops would charge those of Sher Shah
Shah
whose forces then retreat in feigned fear. Thus honour would, supposedly, be satisfied.[15][non-primary source needed] Once the Army of Humayun
Humayun
had made its charge and Sher Shah's troops made their agreed-upon retreat, the Mughal troops relaxed their defensive preparations and returned to their entrenchments without posting a proper guard. Observing the Mughals' vulnerability, Sher Shah
Shah
reneged on his earlier agreement. That very night, his army approached the Mughal camp and finding the Mughal troops unprepared with a majority asleep, they advanced and killed most of them. The Emperor survived by swimming across the Ganges using an air filled "water skin," and quietly returned to Agra.[9][16] Humayun
Humayun
was assisted across the Ganges by Shams al-Din Muhammad.[17] In Agra[edit]

Humayun, detailed of miniature of the Baburname.

When Humayun
Humayun
returned to Agra, he found that all three of his brothers were present. Humayun
Humayun
once again not only pardoned his brothers for plotting against him, but even forgave Hindal for his outright betrayal. With his armies travelling at a leisurely pace, Sher Shah was gradually drawing closer and closer to Agra. This was a serious threat to the entire family, but Humayun
Humayun
and Kamran squabbled over how to proceed. Kamran withdrew after Humayun
Humayun
refused to make a quick attack on the approaching enemy, instead opting to build a larger army under his own name.[citation needed] When Kamran returned to Lahore, his troops followed him shortly afterwards, and Humayun, with his other brothers Askari and Hindal, marched to meet Sher Shah
Shah
just 240 kilometres (150 mi) east of Agra
Agra
at the battle of Kannauj
Kannauj
on 17 May 1540. Humayun
Humayun
once again made some tactical errors, and his army was soundly defeated. He and his brothers quickly retreated back to Agra, but they chose not to stay and retreated to Lahore, since Sher Shah
Shah
followed them. The founding of the short-lived Sur Dynasty
Dynasty
(which contained only him and his son) of northern India, with its capital at Delhi, resulted in Humayun's exile for 15 years in the court of Shah
Shah
Tahmasp I.[18] In Lahore[edit] The four brothers were united in Lahore, but every day they were informed that Sher Shah
Shah
was getting closer and closer. When he reached Sirhind, Humayun
Humayun
sent an ambassador carrying the message "I have left you the whole of Hindustan (i.e. the lands to the East of Punjab, comprising most of the Ganges Valley). Leave Lahore
Lahore
alone, and let Sirhind
Sirhind
be a boundary between you and me." Sher Shah, however, replied "I have left you Kabul. You should go there." Kabul
Kabul
was the capital of the empire of Humayun's brother Kamran, who was far from willing to hand over any of his territories to his brother. Instead, Kamran approached Sher Shah
Shah
and proposed that he actually revolt against his brother and side with Sher Shah
Shah
in return for most of the Punjab. Sher Shah
Shah
dismissed his help, believing it not to be required, though word soon spread to Lahore
Lahore
about the treacherous proposal, and Humayun
Humayun
was urged to make an example of Kamran and kill him. Humayun
Humayun
refused, citing the last words of his father, Babur, "Do nothing against your brothers, even though they may deserve it."[19][non-primary source needed] Withdrawing further[edit]

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Humayun
Humayun
decided it would be wise to withdraw still further. He and his army rode out through and across the Thar Desert, when the Hindu
Hindu
ruler Rao Maldeo Rathore allied with Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
against the Mughal Empire. In many accounts Humayun
Humayun
mentions how he and his pregnant wife had to trace their steps through the desert at the hottest time of year. Their rations were low, and they had little to eat; even drinking water was a major problem in the desert. When Hamida Bano's horse died, no one would lend the Queen (who was now eight months pregnant) a horse, so Humayun
Humayun
did so himself, resulting in him riding a camel for six kilometres (four miles), although Khaled Beg then offered him his mount. Humayun
Humayun
was later to describe this incident as the lowest point in his life. Humayun
Humayun
asked that his brothers join him as he fell back into Sindh. While the previously rebellious Hindal Mirza remained loyal and was ordered to join his brothers in Kandahar. Kamran Mirza
Kamran Mirza
and Askari Mirza instead decided to head to the relative peace of Kabul. This was to be a definitive schism in the family. Humayun
Humayun
headed for Sindh because he expected aid from the Emir
Emir
of Sindh, Hussein Umrani, whom he had appointed and who owed him his allegiance. Also, his wife Hamida hailed from Sindh; she was the daughter of a prestigious pir family (a pir is a Shia
Shia
or Sufi
Sufi
religious mystic) of Persian heritage long settled in Sindh. En route to the Emir's court, Humayun
Humayun
had to break journey because his pregnant wife Hamida was unable to travel further. Humayun
Humayun
sought refuge with the Hindu
Hindu
ruler of the oasis town of Amarkot (now part of Sindh
Sindh
province). Rana Prasad Rao of Amarkot duly welcomed Humayun
Humayun
into his home and sheltered the refugees for several months. Here, in the household of a Hindu
Hindu
Rajput
Rajput
nobleman, Humayun's wife Hamida Bano, daughter of a Sindhi family, gave birth to the future Emperor Akbar
Akbar
on 15 October 1542. The date of birth is well established because Humayun
Humayun
consulted his astronomer to utilise the astrolabe and check the location of the planets. The infant was the long-awaited heir-apparent to the 34-year-old Humayun
Humayun
and the answer of many prayers. Shortly after the birth, Humayun
Humayun
and his party left Amarkot for Sindh, leaving Hamida and her child in the custody of their Hindu
Hindu
hosts. A couple of years later, at Humayun's behest, Hamida would leave her infant son in the safety of remote Amarkot and join her husband as he fled into Persia. The infant Akbar
Akbar
was to live for more than five years, all alone, in the care of a Hindu, Rajput
Rajput
foster-family. This was to have a profound, indelible influence on his views and personality, and a momentous effect on the subsequent history of India. In particular, Akbar
Akbar
developed a strong affinity for the Rajputs, going out of his way to forge alliances (including marriage alliances) with them, and they would form the bedrock of support for his dynasty for two centuries. For a change, Humayun
Humayun
was not deceived in the character of the man on whom he has pinned his hopes. Emir
Emir
Hussein Umrani, ruler of Sindh, welcomed Humayun's presence and was loyal to Humayun
Humayun
just as he had been loyal to Babur
Babur
against the renegade Arghuns. While in Sindh, Humayun
Humayun
alongside Emir
Emir
Hussein Umrani, gathered horses and weapons and formed new alliances that helped regain lost territories. Until finally Humayun
Humayun
had gathered hundreds of Sindhi and Baloch tribesmen alongside his Mughals and then marched towards Kandahar
Kandahar
and later Kabul, thousands more gathered by his side as Humayun
Humayun
continually declared himself the rightful Timurid heir of the first Mughal Emperor, Babur. Retreat to Kabul[edit]

Humayun
Humayun
and his Mughal Army
Mughal Army
defeats Kamran Mirza
Kamran Mirza
in 1553.

After Humayun
Humayun
set out from his expedition in Sindh, along with 300 camels (mostly wild) and 2000 loads of grain, he set off to join his brothers in Kandahar
Kandahar
after crossing the Indus River
Indus River
on 11 July 1543 along with the ambition to regain the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and overthrow the Suri dynasty. Among the tribes that had sworn allegiance to Humayun were the Magsi, Rind and many others.[citation needed] In Kamran Mirza's territory, Hindal Mirza had been placed under house arrest in Kabul
Kabul
after refusing to have the Khutba
Khutba
recited in Kamran Mirza's name. His other brother Askari Mirza was now ordered to gather an army and march on Humayun. When Humayun
Humayun
received word of the approaching hostile army he decided against facing them, and instead sought refuge elsewhere. Akbar
Akbar
was left behind in camp close to Kandahar
Kandahar
for, as it was December it would have been too cold and dangerous to include the 14-month-old toddler in the forthcoming march through the dangerous and snowy mountains of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush. Askari Mirza found Akbar
Akbar
in the camp, and embraced him, and allowed his own wife to parent him, she apparently started treating him as her own.[citation needed] Once again Humayun
Humayun
turned toward Kandahar
Kandahar
where his brother Kamran Mirza was in power, but he received no help and had to seek refuge with the Shah
Shah
of Persia.[20] Refuge in Persia[edit]

Shah
Shah
Tahmasp provided Humayun
Humayun
with 12,000 cavalry and 300 veterans of his personal guard along with provisions, so that his guests may recover their domains in India.[21]

Shah Tahmasp I
Shah Tahmasp I
and the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Humayun
Humayun
in Isfahan.

Humayun
Humayun
fled to the refuge of the Safavid Empire
Safavid Empire
in Persia, marching with 40 men, his wife Bega Begum,[22] and her companion through mountains and valleys. Amongst other trials the Imperial party were forced to live on horse meat boiled in the soldiers' helmets. These indignities continued during the month it took them to reach Herat, however after their arrival they were reintroduced to the finer things in life. Upon entering the city his army was greeted with an armed escort, and they were treated to lavish food and clothing. They were given fine accommodations and the roads were cleared and cleaned before them. Shah
Shah
Tahmasp, unlike Humayun's own family, actually welcomed the Mughal, and treated him as a royal visitor. Here Humayun went sightseeing and was amazed at the Persian artwork and architecture he saw: much of this was the work of the Timurid Sultan Husayn Bayqarah
Husayn Bayqarah
and his ancestor, princess Gauhar Shad, thus he was able to admire the work of his relatives and ancestors at first hand.[citation needed] He was introduced to the work of the Persian miniaturists, and Kamaleddin Behzad
Kamaleddin Behzad
had two of his pupils join Humayun
Humayun
in his court. Humayun
Humayun
was amazed at their work and asked if they would work for him if he were to regain the sovereignty of Hindustan: they agreed. With so much going on Humayun
Humayun
did not even meet the Shah
Shah
until July, some six months after his arrival in Persia. After a lengthy journey from Herat
Herat
the two met in Qazvin where a large feast and parties were held for the event. The meeting of the two monarchs is depicted in a famous wall-painting in the Chehel Sotoun
Chehel Sotoun
(Forty Columns) palace in Esfahan. The Shah
Shah
urged that Humayun
Humayun
convert from Sunni
Sunni
to Shia
Shia
Islam, and Humayun
Humayun
eventually accepted, in order to keep himself and several hundred followers alive. Although the Mughals initially disagreed to their conversion they knew that with this outward acceptance of Shi'ism, Shah
Shah
Tahmasp was eventually prepared to offer Humayun
Humayun
more substantial support.[23] When Humayun's brother, Kamran Mirza, offered to cede Kandahar
Kandahar
to the Persians in exchange for Humayun, dead or alive, Shah
Shah
Tahmasp refused. Instead the Shah
Shah
staged a celebration for Humayun, with 300 tents, an imperial Persian carpet, 12 musical bands and "meat of all kinds". Here the Shah
Shah
announced that all this, and 12,000 elite cavalry[citation needed] were his to lead an attack on his brother Kamran. All that Shah
Shah
Tahmasp asked for was that, if Humayun's forces were victorious, Kandahar
Kandahar
would be his. Kandahar
Kandahar
and onwards[edit]

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The infant Akbar
Akbar
presents a painting to his father Humayun.

With this Persian Safavid aid Humayun
Humayun
took Kandahar
Kandahar
from Askari Mirza after a two-week siege. He noted how the nobles who had served Askari Mirza quickly flocked to serve him, "in very truth the greater part of the inhabitants of the world are like a flock of sheep, wherever one goes the others immediately follow". Kandahar
Kandahar
was, as agreed, given to the Shah
Shah
of Persia
Persia
who sent his infant son, Murad, as the Viceroy. However, the baby soon died and Humayun
Humayun
thought himself strong enough to assume power. Humayun
Humayun
now prepared to take Kabul, ruled by his brother Kamran Mirza. In the end, there was no actual siege. Kamran Mirza
Kamran Mirza
was detested as a leader and as Humayun's Persian army approached the city hundreds of Kamran Mirza's troops changed sides, flocking to join Humayun
Humayun
and swelling his ranks. Kamran Mirza
Kamran Mirza
absconded and began building an army outside the city. In November 1545, Hamida and Humayun
Humayun
were reunited with their son Akbar, and held a huge feast. They also held another, larger, feast in the child's honour when he was circumcised.

Humayun
Humayun
is reunited with Akbar.

However, while Humayun
Humayun
had a larger army than his brother and had the upper hand, on two occasions his poor military judgement allowed Kamran Mirza
Kamran Mirza
to retake Kabul
Kabul
and Kandahar, forcing Humayun
Humayun
to mount further campaigns for their recapture. He may have been aided in this by his reputation for leniency towards the troops who had defended the cities against him, as opposed to Kamran Mirza, whose brief periods of possession were marked by atrocities against the inhabitants who, he supposed, had helped his brother. His youngest brother, Hindal Mirza, formerly the most disloyal of his siblings, died fighting on his behalf. His brother Askari Mirza was shackled in chains at the behest of his nobles and aides. He was allowed go on Hajj, and died en route in the desert outside Damascus. Humayun's other brother, Kamran Mirza, had repeatedly sought to have Humayun
Humayun
killed. In 1552 Kamran Mirza
Kamran Mirza
attempted to make a pact with Islam
Islam
Shah, Sher Shah's successor, but was apprehended by a Gakhar. The Gakhars
Gakhars
were one of the minority of tribal groups who had consistently remained loyal to their oath to the Mughals. Sultan Adam of the Gakhars
Gakhars
handed Kamran Mirza
Kamran Mirza
over to Humayun. Humayun
Humayun
was inclined to forgive his brother. However he was warned that allowing Kamran Mirza's repeated acts of treachery to go unpunished could foment rebellion amongst his own supporters. So, instead of killing his brother, Humayun
Humayun
had Kamran Mirza
Kamran Mirza
blinded which would end any claim by the latter to the throne. Humayun
Humayun
sent Kamran Mirza
Kamran Mirza
on Hajj, as he hoped to see his brother thereby absolved of his offences. However Kamran Mirza
Kamran Mirza
died close to Mecca
Mecca
in the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
in 1557. Restoration of the Mughal Empire[edit]

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The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Humayun
Humayun
receiving the head of his opponent.

An image from an album commissioned by Shah
Shah
Jahan shows Humayun sitting beneath a tree in his garden in India.

Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
had died in 1545; his son and successor Islam
Islam
Shah
Shah
died in 1554. These two deaths left the dynasty reeling and disintegrating. Three rivals for the throne all marched on Delhi, while in many cities leaders tried to stake a claim for independence. This was a perfect opportunity for the Mughals to march back to India. The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Humayun
Humayun
gathered a vast army and attempted the challenging task of retaking the throne in Delhi. Humayun
Humayun
placed the army under the leadership of Bairam Khan, a wise move given Humayun's own record of military ineptitude, and it turned out to be prescient as Bairam proved himself a great tactician. At the Battle of Sirhind on 22 June 1555, the armies of Sikandar Shah
Shah
Suri were decisively defeated and the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
was re-established in India. Marriage relations with the Khanzadas[edit] The Gazetteer of Ulwur states:

Soon after Babur's death, his successor, Humayun, was in AD 1540 supplanted by the Pathan Sher Shah, who, in AD 1545, was followed by Islam
Islam
Shah. During the reign of the latter a battle was fought and lost by the Emperor's troops at Firozpur Jhirka, in Mewat, on which, however, Islam
Islam
Shah
Shah
did not loose his hold. Adil Shah, the third of the Pathan interlopers, who succeeded in AD 1552, had to contend for the Empire with the returned Humayun. In these struggles for the restoration of Babar's dynasty Khanzadas apparently do not figure at all. Humayun
Humayun
seems to have conciliated them by marrying the elder daughter of Jamal Khan, nephew of Babar's opponent, Hasan Khan, and by causing his great minister, Bairam Khan, to marry a younger daughter of the same Mewatti.[24]

Bairam Khan
Bairam Khan
led the army through the Punjab virtually unopposed. The fort of Rohtas, which was built in 1541–43 by Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri
to crush the Gakhars
Gakhars
who were loyal to Humayun, was surrendered without a shot by a treacherous commander. The walls of the Rohtas Fort
Rohtas Fort
measure up to 12.5 meters in thickness and up to 18.28 meters in height. They extend for 4 km and feature 68 semi-circular bastions. Its sandstone gates, both massive and ornate, are thought to have exerted a profound influence on Mughal military architecture.[citation needed] The only major battle faced by Humayun's armies was against Sikander Suri in Sirhind, where Bairam Khan
Bairam Khan
employed a tactic whereby he engaged his enemy in open battle, but then retreated quickly in apparent fear. When the enemy followed after them they were surprised by entrenched defensive positions and were easily annihilated.[25] After Sirhind, most towns and villages chose to welcome the invading army as it made its way to the capital. On 23 July 1555, Humayun
Humayun
once again sat on Babur's throne in Delhi. Ruling Kashmir[edit]

Copper coin of Humayun

With all of Humayun's brothers now dead, there was no fear of another usurping his throne during his military campaigns. He was also now an established leader and could trust his generals. With this new-found strength Humayun
Humayun
embarked on a series of military campaigns aimed at extending his reign over areas in eastern and western India. His sojourn in exile seems to have reduced his reliance on astrology, and his military leadership came to imitate the more effective methods that he had observed in Persia.[citation needed] Character[edit] Edward S. Holden writes; "He was uniformly kind and considerate to his dependents, devotedly attached to his son Akbar, to his friends, and to his turbulent brothers. The misfortunes of his reign arose in great, from his failure to treat them with rigor." He further writes; "The very defects of his character, which render him less admirable as a successful ruler of nations, make us more fond of him as a man. His renown has suffered in that his reign came between the brilliant conquests of Babur
Babur
and the beneficent statesmanship of Akbar; but he was not unworthy to be the son of the one and the father of the other."[26] Stanley Lane-Poole
Stanley Lane-Poole
writes in his book "Medieval India"; "His name meant the winner (Lucky/Conqueror), there is no kind in the history to be named as wrong as Humayun", he was of a forgiving nature. He further writes, "He was in fact unfortunate..........Scarcely had he enjoyed his throne for six months in Delhi
Delhi
when he slipped down from the polished steps of his palace and died in his forty-ninth year (Jan. 24, 1556). If there was a possibility of falling, Humayun
Humayun
was not the man to miss it. He tumbled through his life and tumbled out of it".[27] Death and legacy[edit]

Humayun's Tomb
Humayun's Tomb
in Delhi, India, was commissioned by his chief wife, Bega Begum

On 27 January 1556, Humayun, with his arms full of books, was descending the staircase from his library when the muezzin announced the Azaan
Azaan
(the call to prayer). It was his habit, wherever he heard the summons, to bow his knee in holy reverence. Trying to kneel, he caught his foot in his robe, tumbled down several steps and hit his temple on a rugged stone edge. He died three days later. His body was laid to rest in Purana Quila
Purana Quila
initially, but, because of an attack by Hemu
Hemu
on Delhi
Delhi
and the capture of Purana Qila, Humayun's body was exhumed by the fleeing army and transferred to Kalanaur in Punjab where Akbar
Akbar
was crowned. His tomb, which was commissioned by his favourite and devoted chief wife, Bega Begum,[28][29][30][31][32][33][34] stands in Delhi, where he was later buried in a grand way. Some believe that before falling from the staircase once Humayun
Humayun
was very ill and to save him his father (Babur) performed a practice known as Sadgah by which he gave his life to Humayun
Humayun
who was about to die. Full title[edit] His full title as Emperor of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
was Al-Sultan al-'Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Jam-i-Sultanat-i-haqiqi wa Majazi, Sayyid al-Salatin, Abu'l Muzaffar Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun
Humayun
Padshah Ghazi, Zillu'llah.[35] See also[edit]

Mughal emperors

Babur
Babur
(Johir) 1526 – 1530

Humayun
Humayun
(Nasir)

1530 – 1540 1555 – 1556

Akbar
Akbar
(Jalal) 1556 – 1605

Jahangir
Jahangir
(Saleem) 1605 – 1627

Shahryar (de facto) 1627 – 1628

Shah
Shah
Jahan (Khurram) 1628 – 1658

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
(Alamgir) 1658 – 1707

Muhammad Azam Shah
Shah
(titular) 1707

Bahadur Shah
Shah
I 1707 – 1712

Jahandar Shah 1712 – 1713

Farrukhsiyar 1713 – 1719

Rafi ud-Darajat 1719

Shah
Shah
Jahan II 1719

Muhammad Shah 1719 – 1748

Ahmad Shah
Shah
Bahadur 1748 – 1754

Alamgir II 1754 – 1759

Shah
Shah
Jahan III (titular) 1759 – 1760

Shah
Shah
Alam II 1760 – 1806

Jahan Shah
Shah
IV (titular) 1788

Akbar
Akbar
II 1806 – 1837

Bahadur Shah
Shah
II 1837 – 1857

v t e

Persian Inscriptions on Indian Monuments

Footnotes[edit]

^ a b c Mehta, Jaswant Lal (1986). Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 146. ISBN 9788120710153.  ^ Begum, Gulbadan (1902). The History of Humayun
Humayun
(Humayun-Nama). Royal Asiatic Society. p. 260.  ^ Lal, Muni (1980). Akbar. Vikas. p. 7. ISBN 9780706910766.  ^ Mukhia 2004, p. 124. ^ Naimur Rahman Farooqi (1989). Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations between Mughal India
India
and the Ottoman Empire, 1556-1748. Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli. p. 189. Abul Fazl has in fact dubbed Humayun
Humayun
"Insan-i-kamil" (Perfect man).  ^ a b Sharaf Al-Din: "Zafar-nama". ^ Soucek, Svat (2000). A History of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65704-0.  ^ Nizamuddin Ahmad: "Tabaqat-i-Akbari". ^ a b c Rama Shankar Avasthy: "The Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Humayun". ^ Banerji 1938 ^ a b Jauhar: "Tadhkirat al-Waqiat". ^ a b Gascoigne 1971, p. 50: "Hindal ... had been stationed ... for the purpose of securing Humayun's rear, but he had deserted his post ... another brother, Kamran, ... was also converging on Delhi from his territories in the Punjap - ostensibly to help Humayun
Humayun
but in reality ... to stake his own claim to his brother's crumbling empire. [Kamran] dissuaded Hindal from further open disloyalty, but ... the two brothers now disregarded Humayun's urgent appeals for help on his dangerous journey back through the territory which had been relinquished by Hindal to Sher Khan." ^ The Life and Times of Humāyūn by Ishwari Prasad, Published by Orient Longmans, 1956, p. 36 ^ Temples of Koh-e-Jud & Thar: Proceedings of the Seminar on Shahiya Temples of the Salt Range, Held in Lahore, Pakistan
Pakistan
by Kamil Khan Mumtaz, Siddiq-a-Akbar, Publ Anjuman Mimaran, 1989, p. 8 ^ Badauni: "Muntakhab al-Tawarikh". ^ Gascoigne 1971, pp. 50–51: "Humayun's brief advance brought his army out of its prepared defensive position, and Sher Shah, having withdrawn a few miles, returned at night to find the Mogul camp asleep and unprepared. The emperor himself escaped only because one of his water-bearers inflated his water-skin with air for Humayun
Humayun
to hold in his arms and float [across the Ganges] ... Humayun
Humayun
crept back to Agra." ^ Ruby Lal (22 September 2005). Domesticity and Power in the Early Mughal World. Cambridge University Press. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-0-521-85022-3.  ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 154. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.  ^ Abul-Fazel: "Akbar-nama". ^ Ikram, S. M. (1964). "X. The Establishment of the Mughal Empire". Muslim Civilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press. He ... turned toward Qandahar where his brother Kamran was in power, but he received no help and had to seek refuge with the Shah
Shah
of Persia.  ^ https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=04ellRQx4nMC&pg=PA108&dq=Shah+Tahmasp+Humayun+12,000+cavalry&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Shah%20Tahmasp%20Humayun%2012%2C000%20cavalry&f=false ^ Rapson, Edward James; Haig, Sir Wolseley; Burn, Sir Richard (1968). The Cambridge History of India. Volume 5. Cambridge University Press Archive. The tomb was built by Humayun's widow, Haji Begum, who shared his long exile at the court of the Safavids.  ^ Richards 1993, p. 11 ^ Powlett, P. W. (1878). Gazetteer of Ulwur. London: Trübner & Co. pp. 7–8.  ^ http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Humayun ^ Holden, Edward S. (2004) [1895]. Mughal Emperors of Hindustan (1398-1707). New Delhi, India: Asian Educational Service. pp. 123–127. ISBN 81-206-1883-1.  ^ Lane-Poole, Stanley (1903). Medieval India
India
under Mohammedan Rule (712-1764). New York, USA: G. P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 230–237.  ^ Kamiya, Takeo. "HUMAYUN'S TOMB in DELHI". UNESCO. Retrieved 12 July 2013.  ^ Banerji, S.K. (1938). Humayun
Humayun
Badshah. Oxford University Press. pp. 97, 232.  ^ Burke, S. M. (1989). Akbar, the Greatest Mogul. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. p. 191.  ^ Eraly, Abraham (2007). The Mughal world : Life in India's Last Golden Age. Penguin Books. p. 369. ISBN 9780143102625.  ^ Smith, Vincent Arthur (1919). Akbar: The Great Mogul 1542-1605. Clarendon Press. p. 125.  ^ Henderson, Carol E. (2002). Culture and Customs of India. Greenwood Press. p. 90. ISBN 9780313305139.  ^ "Mausoleum that Humayun
Humayun
never built". The Hindu. April 28, 2003. Retrieved 31 January 2013.  ^ "Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun
Humayun
Muhammad Hamayun". geni_family_tree. Retrieved 2017-10-31. 

References[edit]

Banerji, S. K. (1938). Humayun
Humayun
Badshah. Oxford University Press.  Gascoigne, Bamber (1971). The Great Moghuls. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 006-011467-3.  Mukhia, Harbans (2004). The Mughals of India. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-18555-0.  Richards, John F. (1993). Johnson, Gordon, ed. The Mughal Empire. The New Cambridge History of India. Part I Volume 5. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-25119-2. 

Bibliography[edit]

Begum, Gulbadan (1902). Humayun-nama: The history of Humayun. Translated by Annette S. Beveridge. Royal Asiatic Society. ; Persian and English text Begam Gulbadam; Annette S. Beveridge (1972). The history of Humayun
Humayun
= Humayun-nama. Begam Gulbadam. pp. 249–. GGKEY:NDSD0TGDPA1.  ., Jawhar (fl. 1554) (1832). The Tezkereh Al Vakiāt: Or, Private Memoirs of the Moghul Emperor Humayun. Translated by Charles Stewart. Oriental Translation Fund.  Cambridge History of India, Vol. III & IV, "Turks and Afghan" and "The Mughal Period". (Cambridge) 1928 Muzaffar Alam & Sanjay Subrahmanyan (Eds.) The Mughal State 1526–1750 (Delhi) 1998 William Irvine The Army of the Indian Moghuls. (London) 1902. (Last revised 1985) Jos Gommans Mughal Warfare (London) 2002  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Humayun". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Humayun

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Humayun.

Humayun Timurid Dynasty Born: 17 March 1508 Died: 27 January 1556

Regnal titles

Preceded by Babur Mughal Emperor 1530–1540 Succeeded by Sher Shah
Shah
Suri (as Shah
Shah
of Delhi)

Preceded by Muhammad Adil Shah (as Shah
Shah
of Delhi) Mughal Emperor 1555–1556 Succeeded by Akbar

v t e

Mughal Empire

Emperors

Babur Humayun Akbar Jahangir Shah
Shah
Jahan Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
(Alamgir) Muhammad Azam Shah Bahadur Shah
Shah
I Jahandar Shah Farrukhsiyar Rafi ud-Darajat Shah
Shah
Jahan II Muhammad Shah Ahmad Shah
Shah
Bahadur Alamgir II Shah
Shah
Jahan III Shah
Shah
Alam II Akbar
Akbar
II Bahadur Shah
Shah
II

Battles and conflicts

Battle of Panipat (1526) Gujarat
Gujarat
conquest Battle of Khanwa Battle of Ghaghra Siege of Sambhal Battle of Panipat (1556) Battle of Thanesar Siege of Chittorgarh Siege of Ranthambore Battle of Tukaroi Battle of Raj Mahal Battle of Haldighati Battle of Bhuchar Mori Siege of Kandahar Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23) Siege of Orchha Mughal–Safavid War (1649–53) Battle of Samugarh Battle of Khajwa Suppression of Tilpat rebellion Ahom–Mughal conflicts Siege of Purandhar Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War Mughal–Maratha Wars

Siege of Bijapur Siege of Jinji

Child's War Siege of Golconda Battle of Karnal Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Buxar Siege of Delhi

Architecture

Taj Mahal Gardens of Babur Fatehpur Sikri

Tomb of Salim Chishti

Humayun's Tomb Red Fort Lahore
Lahore
Fort Jahangir
Jahangir
Mahal Lalbagh Fort Akbar's Tomb Agra
Agra
Fort Chawk Mosque Shalimar Gardens Achabal Gardens Jahangir's Tomb Bibi Ka Maqbara Badshahi Mosque Shahi Bridge Shah
Shah
Jahan Mosque, Thatta Sheesh Mahal Sunehri Masjid Tipu Sultan Mosque Wazir Khan Mosque more

Adversaries

Ibrahim Lodi Rana Sanga Sher Shah
Shah
Suri Hemu Maharana Pratap Malik Ambar Gokula Pratapaditya Shivaji Lachit Borphukan Khushal Khattak Sir Josiah Child Guru Gobind Singh Henry Every Bajirao I Nader Shah Hector Munro

Provinces

Bengal Subah Gujarat
Gujarat
Subah

See also

Art Cuisine Culture Flag Gardens Language Military Painting Persians Tribe Weapons Timurid dynasty

family tree

Successor states

Maratha Empire Rajput
Rajput
states Jats Sikh Empire Nawabs of Bengal Awadh Nizam of Hyderabad Carnatic Kingdom of Mysore Rohilkhand

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 11090963 LCCN: n50034146 ISNI: 0000 0000 9722 2603 GND: 121823423 SUDOC: 124023789 BNF:

.