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Human migration involves the movement of people from one place to another with intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily, at a new location (geographic region). The movement often occurs over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration (within a single country) is also possible; indeed, this is the dominant form of human migration globally.[1] People may migrate as individuals, in family units or in large groups.[2] There are four major forms of migration: invasion, conquest, colonization and emigration/immigration.[3]

Persons moving from their home due to forced displacement (such as a natural disaster or civil disturbance) may be described as displaced persons or, if remaining in the home country, internally-displaced persons. A person who seeks refuge in another country can, if the reason for leaving the home country is political, religious, or another form of persecution, make a formal application to that country where refuge is sought and is then usually described[by whom?] as an asylum seeker. If this application is successful this person's legal status becomes that of a refugee.

In contemporary times,[when?] migration governance has become closely associated with state sovereignty. States retain the power of deciding on the entry and stay of non-nationals because migration directly affects some of the defining elements of a State.[citation needed]

Definitions

Persons moving from their home due to forced displacement (such as a natural disaster or civil disturbance) may be described as displaced persons or, if remaining in the home country, internally-displaced persons. A person who seeks refuge in another country can, if the reason for leaving the home country is political, religious, or another form of persecution, make a formal application to that country where refuge is sought and is then usually described[by whom?] as an asylum seeker. If this application is successful this person's legal status becomes that of a refugee.

In contemporary times,[when?] migration governance has become closely associated with state sovereignty. States retain the power of deciding on the entry and stay of non-nationals because migration directly affects some of the defining elements of a State.[citation needed]

Depending on the goal and reason for relocation, persons who migrate can be divided into three categories. These categories include migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers. Each category is defined broadly as the mixed circumstances might occur and motivate a person to change their location.

As such, migrants are traditionally described as persons who change the country of their residence for general reasons and purposes. These purposes may include the search for better job opportunities or healthcare needs. This term is the most generally defined one as anyone changing their geographic location permanently can be considered migrants.

In contrast to migrants, refugees are not narrowly defined and are described as persons who do not relocate willingly. The reasons for the refugees’ migration usually involve war actions within the country or other forms of oppression, coming either from the government or non-governmental sources. Refugees are usually associated with people who must unwillingly relocate as fast as possible; hence, such migrants will likely relocate undocumented.

Asylum seekerss are associated with persons that also leave their country unwillingly, yet, who also do not do that under oppressing circumstances such as the war or death threats. The motivation to leave the country for asylum seekers might involve an unstable economic or political situation in the country or high rates of crime. Thus, asylum seekers relocate predominantly in order to escape the degradation of the quality of their lives.[4]

The distinction between involuntary (fleeing political conflict or natural disaster) and voluntary migration (economic or labour migration) is difficult to make and partially subjective, as the motivators for migration are often correlated. The World Bank estimated that, as of 2010, 16.3 million or 7.6% of migrants qualified as refugees.[5] This number grew to 19.5 million by 2014 (comprising approximately 7.9% of the total number of migrants, based on the figure recorded in 2013).[6] At levels of roughly 3 percent the share of migrants among the world population has remained remarkably constant over the last 5 decades.[7]

Nomadic movements are normally not regarded as migrations, as the movement is generally seasonal, there is no intention to settle in the new place, and only a few people have retained this form of lifestyle in modern times. Temporary movement for the purpose of travel, tourism, pilgrimages, or the commute is also not regarded as migration, in the absence of an intention to live and settle in the visited places.

The number of migrants in the world 1960–2015.[8]

Structurally, there is substantial South-South and North-North migration; in 2013, 38% of all migrants had migrated from developing countries to other developing countries, while 23% had migrated from high-income OECD countries to other high-income countries.[9] The United Nations Population Fund says that "while the North has experienced a higher absolute increase in the migrant stock since 2000 (32 million) compared to the South (25 million), the South recorded a higher growth rate. Between 2000 and 2013 the average annual rate of change of the migrant population in developing regions (2.3%) slightly exceeded that of the developed regions (2.1%)."[10]

Migration patterns and numbers related to them

There exist many statistical estimates of worldwide migration patterns.

The World Bank has published three editions of its Migration and Remittances Factbook, beginning in 2008, with a second edition appearing in 2011 and a third in 2016.[11] The International Organisation for Migration (IOM) has published ten editions of the World Migration Report since 1999.[12] The United Nations Statistics Division also keeps a database on worldwide migration.[13] Recent advances in research on migration via the Internet promise better understanding of migration patterns and migration motives.[14][15]

Substantial internal migration can also take place within a country, either seasonal human migration (mainly related to agriculture and to tourism to urban places), or shifts of population into cities (As such, migrants are traditionally described as persons who change the country of their residence for general reasons and purposes. These purposes may include the search for better job opportunities or healthcare needs. This term is the most generally defined one as anyone changing their geographic location permanently can be considered migrants.

In contrast to migrants, refugees are not narrowly defined and are described as persons who do not relocate willingly. The reasons for the refugees’ migration usually involve war actions within the country or other forms of oppression, coming either from the government or non-governmental sources. Refugees are usually associated with people who must unwillingly relocate as fast as possible; hence, such migrants will likely relocate undocumented.

Asylum seekerss are associated with persons that also leave their country unwillingly, yet, who also do not do that under oppressing circumstances such as the war or death threats. The motivation to leave the country for asylum seekers might involve an unstable economic or political situation in the country or high rates of crime. Thus, asylum seekers relocate predominantly in order to escape the degradation of the quality of their lives.[4]

The distinction between involuntary (fleeing political conflict or natural disaster) and voluntary migration (economic or labour migration) is difficult to make and partially subjective, as the motivators for migration are often correlated. The World Bank estimated that, as of 2010, 16.3 million or 7.6% of migrants qualified as refugees.[5] This number grew to 19.5 million by 2014 (comprising approximately 7.9% of the total number of migrants, based on the figure recorded in 2013).[6] At levels of roughly 3 percent the share of migrants among the world population has remained remarkably constant over the last 5 decades.[7]

Nomadic movements are normally not regarded as migrations, as the movement is generally seasonal, there is no intention to settle in the new place, and only a few people have retained this form of lifestyle in modern times. Temporary movement for the purpose of travel, tourism, pilgrimages, or the commute is also not regarded as migration, in the absence of an intention to live and settle in the visited places.

Structurally, there is substantial South-South and North-North migration; in 2013, 38% of all migrants had migrated from developing countries to other developing countries, while 23% had migrated from high-income OECD countries to other high-income countries.[9] The United Nations Population Fund says that "while the North has experienced a higher absolute increase in the migrant stock since 2000 (32 million) compared to the South (25 million), the South recorded a higher growth rate. Between 2000 and 2013 the average annual rate of change of the migrant population in developing regions (2.3%) slightly exceeded that of the developed regions (2.1%)."[10]

Migration patterns and numbers related to them

There exist many statistical estimates of worldwide migration patterns.

The World Bank has published three editions of its Migration and Remittances Factbook, beginning in 2008, with a second edition appearing in 2011 and a third in 2016.[11] The Internation

There exist many statistical estimates of worldwide migration patterns.

The World Bank has published three editions of its Migration and Remittances Factbook, beginning in 2008, with a second edition appearing in 2011 and a third in 2016.[11] The World Bank has published three editions of its Migration and Remittances Factbook, beginning in 2008, with a second edition appearing in 2011 and a third in 2016.[11] The International Organisation for Migration (IOM) has published ten editions of the World Migration Report since 1999.[12] The United Nations Statistics Division also keeps a database on worldwide migration.[13] Recent advances in research on migration via the Internet promise better understanding of migration patterns and migration motives.[14][15]

Substantial internal migration can also take place within a country, either seasonal human migration (mainly related to agriculture and to tourism to urban places), or shifts of population into cities (urbanisation) or out of cities (suburbanisation). Studies of worldwide migration patterns, however, tend to limit their scope to international migration.

of the world's population

1970 84,460,125 2.3% 1975 90,368,010 2.2% 1980 101,983,149 2.3% 1985 113,206,691 2.3% Almost half of these migrants are women, which is one of the most significant migrant-pattern changes in the last half century.[10] Women migrate alone or with their family members and community. Even though female migration is largely viewed as associations rather than independent migration, emerging studies argue complex and manifold reasons for this.[17]

As of 2019, the top ten immigration destinations were:[18]

  • United States
  • Germany
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Russian Federation
  • United Kingdom
  • As of 2019, the top ten immigration destinations were:[18]


    In the same year, the top countries of origin were:[19]

    <

    (Besides these rankings according to absolute numbers of migrants, the Migration and Remittances Factbook also gives statistics for top immigration destination countries and top emigration origin countries according to percentage of the population; the countries that appear at the top of those rankings are completely different than the ones in the above rankings and tend to be much smaller countries.[20])

    As of 2013, the top 15 migration corridors (accounting for at least 2 million migrants each) were:[21]
    1. Mexico–United States
    2. Russian Federation–Ukraine
    3. Bangladesh–India
    4. Ukraine–Russian Federation
    5. Kazakhstan–Russian Federation
    6. [21]
    1. Mexico–United States
    2. Russian Federation–Ukraine
    3. Bangladesh–India
    4. Ukraine–Russian Federation
    5. Kazakhstan–Russian Federation
    6. China–United States
    7. Russian Federation–Kazakhstan
    8. Afghanistan–Pakistan
    9. Afghanistan–Iran
    10. China–Hong Kong
    11. India–United Arab Emirates
    12. West Bank and Gaza–Jordan
    13. India–United States
    14. India–Saudi Arabia
    15. Philippines–United States

    The impacts of human migration on the world economy has been largely positive. In 2015, migrants, who constituted 3.3% of the world population, contributed 9.4% of global GDP.[22]

    According to the Centre for Global Development, opening all borders could add $78 trillion to the world GDP.[23][24]

    Remittances

    Remittances (funds transferred by migrant workers to their home country) form a substantial part of the economy of some countries. The top ten remittance recipients in 2018.

    Rank Country Remittance (in billions of US dollars) Percent of GDP
    1  India 80 2.80
    2 Centre for Global Development, opening all borders could add $78 trillion to the world GDP.[23][24]

    Remittances (funds transferred by migrant workers to their home country) form a substantial part of the economy of some countries. The top ten remittance recipients in 2018.

    Rank Country Remittance (in billions of US dollars) Percent of GDP
    1 In addition to economic impacts, migrants also make substantial contributions in the areas of sociocultural and civic-political life. Sociocultural contributions occur in the following areas of societies: food/cuisine, sport, music, art/culture, ideas and beliefs; civic-political contributions relate to participation in civic duties in the context of accepted authority of the State.[25] It is in recognition of the importance of these remittances that the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 10 targets to substantially reduce the transaction costs of migrants remittances to less than 3 percent by 2030.[26]

    Voluntary migration

    Migration is usually divided into two categories: voluntary migration and forced migration.

    Voluntary migration is based on the initiative and the free will of the person and is influenced by a combination of factors: economic, political and social: either in the migrants` country of origin (determinant factors or "push factors") or in the country of destination (attraction factors or "pull factors").

    "Push-pull factors" are the reasons that push or attract people to a particular place. "Push" factors are the negative aspects of the country of origin, often decisive in people`s choice to emigrate and the "pull" factors are the positive aspects of a different country that encourages people to emigrate in search of a better life. Although the push-pull factors are apparently diametrically opposed, both are sides of the same coin, being equally important. Although specific to forced migration, any other harmful factor can be considered a "push factor" or determinant / trigger factor, such examples being: poor quality of life, lack of jobs, excessive pollution, hunger, drought or natural disasters. Such conditions represent decisive reasons for voluntary migration, the population preferring to migrate in order to prevent financially unfavorable situations or even emotional and physical suffering. [27] 

    Forced migration

    There exist contested definitions of "forced migration". However, the editors of a leading scientific journal on the subject, the Forced Migration Review, offer the following definition: Forced migration refers to the movements of refugees and internally displaced people (displaced by conflict) as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine, or development projects. [28]

    By the end of 2018, there were an estimated 67.2 million forced migrants globally - 25.9 million refugees displaced from their countries, and 41.3 million internally displaced persons that had been displaced within their countries for different reasons. [29]

    Labor migration theories in the 21st century

    Overview

    Numerous causes impel migrants to move to another country. For instance, globalization has increased the demand for workers in order to sustain national economies. Thus one category of economic migrants - generally from impoverished developing countries - migrates to obtain sufficient income for survival.[30][need quotation to verify][31] Such migrants often send some of their income home to family members in the form of economic remittances, which have become an economic staple in a number of developing countries.[32] People may also move or are forced to move as a result of conflict, of human-rights violations, of violence, or to escape persecution. In 2013 it was estimated[by whom?] that around 51.2 million people fell into this category.[30][need quotation to verify] Other reasons people may move include to gain access to opportunities and services or to escape extreme weather. This type of movement, usually from rural to urban areas, may class as internal migration.

    "Push-pull fact

    Voluntary migration is based on the initiative and the free will of the person and is influenced by a combination of factors: economic, political and social: either in the migrants` country of origin (determinant factors or "push factors") or in the country of destination (attraction factors or "pull factors").

    "Push-pull factors" are the reasons that push or attract people to a particular place. "Push" factors are the negative aspects of the country of origin, often decisive in people`s choice to emigrate and the "pull" factors are the positive aspects of a different country that encourages people to emigrate in search of a better life. Although the push-pull factors are apparently diametrically opposed, both are sides of the same coin, being equally important. Although specific to forced migration, any other harmful factor can be considered a "push factor" or determinant / trigger factor, such examples being: poor quality of life, lack of jobs, excessive pollution, hunger, drought or natural disasters. Such conditions represent decisive reasons for voluntary migration, the population preferring to migrate in order to prevent financially unfavorable situations or even emotional and physical suffering. [27] 

    There exist contested definitions of "forced migration". However, the editors of a leading scientific journal on the subject, the Forced Migration Review, offer the following definition: Forced migration refers to the movements of refugees and internally displaced people (displaced by conflict) as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine, or development projects. [28]

    By the end of 2018, there were an estimated 67.2 million forced migrants globally - 25.9 million refugees displaced from their countries, and 41.3 million internally displaced persons that had been displaced within their countries for different reasons. [29&#

    By the end of 2018, there were an estimated 67.2 million forced migrants globally - 25.9 million refugees displaced from their countries, and 41.3 million internally displaced persons that had been displaced within their countries for different reasons. [29]

    Numerous causes impel migrants to move to another country. For instance, globalization has increased the demand for workers in order to sustain national economies. Thus one category of economic migrants - generally from impoverished developing countries - migrates to obtain sufficient income for survival.[30][need quotation to verify][31] Such migrants often send some of their income home to family members in the form of economic remittances, which have become an economic staple in a number of developing countries.[32] People may also move or are forced to move as a result of conflict, of human-rights violations, of violence, or to escape persecution. In 2013 it was estimated[by whom?] that around 51.2 million people fell into this category.[30][need quotation to verify] Other reasons people may move include to gain access to opportunities and services or to escape extreme weather. This type of movement, usually from rural to urban areas, may class as internal migration.[30][need quotation to verify] Sociology-cultural and ego-historical factors also play a major role. In North Africa, for example, emigrating to Europe counts as a sign of social prestige. Moreover, many countries were former colonies. This means that many have relatives who live legally in the (former) colonial metro pole, and who often provide important help for immigrants arriving in that metro pole.[33] Relatives may help with job research and with accommodation. The geographical proximity of Africa to Europe and the long historical ties between Northern and Southern Mediterranean countries also prompt many to migrate.[34]

    The question whether a person takes the decision to move to another country depends on the relative skill premier of the source and host countries. One is speaking of positive selection when the host country shows a higher skill premium than the source country. Negative selection, on the other hand, occurs when the source country displays a lower skill premium. The relative skill premia defines migrants selectivity. Age heaping techniques display one method to measure the relative skill premium of a country.The question whether a person takes the decision to move to another country depends on the relative skill premier of the source and host countries. One is speaking of positive selection when the host country shows a higher skill premium than the source country. Negative selection, on the other hand, occurs when the source country displays a lower skill premium. The relative skill premia defines migrants selectivity. Age heaping techniques display one method to measure the relative skill premium of a country.[35]

    A number of theories attempt to explain the international flow of capital and people from one country to another.[36]

    Recent academic output on migration comprises mainly journal articles. The long-term trend shows a gradual increase in academic publishing on migration, which is likely to be related to both the general expansion of academic literature production, and the increased prominence of migration research.[37] Migration and research on it has further changed with the revolution in information and communication technologies.[38][39][40]

    Neoclassical economic theory