Hugh Marston Hefner (April 9, 1926 – September 27, 2017) was an
American businessman, magazine publisher and playboy. He was the
Playboy and editor-in-chief of the magazine, which he
founded in 1953. He was also the chief creative officer of Playboy
Enterprises, which is the publishing group that operates the
magazine. An advocate of sexual liberation and freedom of
expression, Hefner was a political activist and philanthropist in
several other causes and public issues.
1 Early life
3 Personal life
5 Politics and philanthropy
8 Film adaptation
10 Further reading
11 External links
Hefner was born during the Prohibition era in Chicago, Illinois, on
April 9, 1926. He was the first child of Grace Caroline (née
Swanson; 1895–1997) who worked as a teacher, and Glenn Lucius Hefner
(1896–1976), an accountant. His parents were from Nebraska. He
had a younger brother, Keith (1929–2016). Hefner's mother
was of Swedish descent, and his father had German and English
ancestry. Through his father's line, Hefner stated that he was
a direct descendant of Plymouth governor William Bradford. He
described his family as "conservative, Midwestern, [and]
Methodist". His mother had wanted him to become a missionary.
He attended Sayre Elementary School and Steinmetz High School, then
served from 1944 to 1946 as a
U.S. Army writer for a military
newspaper. Hefner graduated from the University of
Urbana–Champaign in 1949 with a
Bachelor of Arts in
Psychology and a
double minor in
Creative Writing and Art, having earned his degree in
two and a half years. After graduation, he took a semester of graduate
Sociology at Northwestern University, but dropped out soon
In January 1952, Hefner left his job as a copywriter for Esquire after
he was denied a $5 raise. In 1953, he took out a mortgage, generating
a bank loan of $600, and raised $8,000 from 45 investors, including
$1,000 from his mother ("Not because she believed in the venture," he
told E! in 2006, "but because she believed in her son."), to launch
Playboy, which was initially going to be called Stag Party. The first
issue, published in December 1953, featured
Marilyn Monroe from her
1949 nude calendar shoot and sold over 50,000 copies. (Hefner, who
never met Monroe, bought the crypt next to hers at the Westwood
Village Memorial Park Cemetery in 1992 for $75,000.)
Charles Beaumont science fiction short story "The Crooked
Man" was rejected by Esquire magazine in 1955, Hefner agreed to
publish the story in Playboy. The story highlighted straight men being
persecuted in a world where homosexuality was the norm. After the
magazine received angry letters, Hefner wrote a response to criticism
where he said, "If it was wrong to persecute heterosexuals in a
homosexual society then the reverse was wrong, too." In 1961,
Dick Gregory perform at the Herman Roberts Show Bar in
Chicago. Based on that performance, Hefner hired Gregory to work at
Playboy Club; Gregory attributed the subsequent launch of
his career to that night. In 1959, Hefner reinvented himself and
Chicago mansion in December of that year, a move which
Playboy into the public eye.
On June 4, 1963, Hefner was arrested for promoting obscene literature
after he published an issue of
Playboy that featured nude shots of
Jayne Mansfield in bed with a man present. The case went to trial
and resulted in a hung jury.
During the civil rights movement in 1966, Hefner sent
Alex Haley to
interview George Lincoln Rockwell, much to Rockwell's surprise because
Haley was black. Rockwell had founded the
American Nazi Party
American Nazi Party and
would be later described by some as the "American Hitler". Rockwell
agreed to meet with Haley only after gaining assurance from the
Playboy writer that he was not Jewish, although Rockwell kept a
handgun on the table throughout the interview. The interview was
recreated in Roots: The Next Generations in 1979, with James Earl
Jones as Haley and
Marlon Brando as Rockwell; Brando won a Primetime
Emmy Award for his portrayal of Rockwell. Haley had also
Malcolm X in 1963 and Martin Luther King Jr. in 1966 for
the newly established 1962 "playboy interview"; all three interviewees
would be assassinated by 1968.
Hefner with his trademark
Playboy Pipe in 1966
Hugh Hefner stated that "militant feminists" are "unalterably
opposed to the romantic boy-girl society that
Playboy promotes" and
ordered a hit piece in his magazine against them.
In the 1993
The Simpsons episode "Krusty Gets Kancelled", Hefner
guest-voiced himself. In 1999, Hefner financed the Clara Bow
documentary, Discovering the It Girl. "Nobody has what Clara had. She
defined an era and made her mark on the nation," he stated. Hefner
guest-starred as himself in the 2000
Sex and the City
Sex and the City episode "Sex and
Another City". In 2005, Hefner guest-starred on the
HBO TV shows
Curb Your Enthusiasm
Curb Your Enthusiasm and Entourage. Hefner guest-starred as
himself in a 2006 episode of Seth Green's
Robot Chicken on the
late-night programming block Adult Swim. In the 2007 Family Guy
episode "Airport '07", Hefner guest-voiced himself. He has a star
Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame for television and made several movie
appearances as himself on the small screen. In 2009, he received a
"worst supporting actor" nomination for a
Razzie award for his
performance as himself in Miss March. On his official
he joked about this nomination: "Maybe I didn't understand the
A documentary by Brigitte Berman, Hugh Hefner: Playboy, Activist and
Rebel, was released on July 30, 2010. He had previously granted full
access to documentary filmmaker and television producer Kevin Burns
for the A&E Biography special Hugh Hefner: American
1996. Hefner and Burns later collaborated on numerous other
television projects, most notably on The Girls Next Door, a reality
series that ran for six seasons (2005–2009) and 90 episodes.
In 2012, Hefner announced that his youngest son, Cooper, would likely
succeed him as the public face of Playboy.
Hefner at the premiere of Sylvester Stallone's movie F.I.S.T., 1978
Hefner with his then-partners
Holly Madison (left) and Bridget
Known to friends and family as simply "Hef," in 1949, Hefner
Northwestern University student Mildred ("Millie") Williams.
They had two children: daughter Christie (b. 1952) and son David (b.
1955). Before the wedding, Mildred confessed that she had an
affair while he was away in the army. He called the admission "the
most devastating moment of my life." A 2006 E! True Hollywood Story
profile of Hefner revealed that Mildred allowed him to have sex with
other women, out of guilt for her own infidelity and in the hope that
it would preserve their marriage. The two were divorced in
Hefner remade himself as a bon vivant and man about town, a lifestyle
he promoted in his magazine and two TV shows he hosted, Playboy's
Penthouse (1959–1960) and
Playboy After Dark (1969–1970). He
admitted to being "'involved' with maybe eleven out of twelve months'
worth of Playmates" during some of these years. Donna Michelle,
Marilyn Cole, Lillian Müller, Shannon Tweed, Barbi Benton, Karen
Christy, Sondra Theodore, and Carrie Leigh – who filed a $35
million palimony suit against him – were a few of his many
lovers. In 1971, he acknowledged that he experimented in
bisexuality. Also in 1971, Hefner established a second residence
Los Angeles with the acquisition of
Playboy Mansion West and, in
1975, moved there permanently from Chicago.
In 1985, Hefner had a minor stroke at age 59. After re-evaluating his
lifestyle, he made several changes. The wild, all-night parties were
toned down significantly and in 1988, daughter Christie took over the
operation of the
Playboy empire. The following year, he married
Playmate of the Year Kimberley Conrad; they were 36 years apart in
age. The couple had two sons: Marston Glenn (born 1990) and Cooper
Hefner (born 1991). The
E! True Hollywood Story profile noted that
Playboy Mansion had been transformed into a
family-friendly homestead. After he and Conrad separated in 1998, she
moved into a house next door to the mansion.
Hefner became known for moving an ever-changing coterie of young women
Playboy Mansion, including twins Sandy and Mandy Bentley. He
dated as many as seven women concurrently. He also dated Brande
Roderick, Izabella St. James, Tina Marie Jordan, Holly Madison,
Bridget Marquardt, and Kendra Wilkinson. Madison, Wilkinson and
Marquardt appeared on
The Girls Next Door depicting their lives at the
Playboy Mansion. In October 2008, all three girls decided to leave
the mansion. After an 11-year separation, Hefner filed for divorce
from Conrad, citing irreconcilable differences. Hefner has stated
that he only remained nominally married to her for the sake of his
children, and his youngest child had just turned 18.
In January 2009, Hefner began a relationship with Crystal Harris;
she joined the Shannon Twins after his previous "number one
girlfriend", Holly Madison, had ended their seven-year
relationship. On December 24, 2010, he became engaged to Harris,
to become his third wife. Harris broke off their engagement on
June 14, 2011, five days before their planned wedding. In
anticipation of the wedding, the July issue of Playboy, which reached
store shelves and customer's homes within days of the wedding date,
featured Harris on the cover and in a photo spread as well. The
headline on the cover read "Introducing America's Princess, Mrs.
Crystal Hefner". Hefner and Harris subsequently reconciled and
married on December 31, 2012.
Hefner's brother Keith died at the age of 87 on April 8, 2016, one day
before Hefner's 90th birthday.
In January 2016, the
Playboy Mansion was put on the market for $200
million, on condition that
Hugh Hefner would continue to work and live
in the mansion. Later that year it was sold to Daren Metropoulos,
a principal at private equity firm Metropoulos & Company, for $100
million. Metropoulos planned to reconnect the
Playboy Mansion property
with a neighboring estate that he purchased in 2009, combining the two
for a 7.3 acre (3-hectare) compound as his own private residence.
In May 2017,
Eugena Washington was the last Playmate of the Year to be
Hugh Hefner at the
Politics and philanthropy
Hugh M. Hefner First Amendment Award was created by Christie
Hefner "to honor individuals who have made significant contributions
in the vital effort to protect and enhance First Amendment rights for
He donated and raised money for the Democratic Party. In 2011, he
referred to himself as an independent due to disillusionment with both
the Democratic and Republican parties. However, in 2012, he
supported Barack Obama's reelection campaign.
In 1978, Hefner helped organize fund-raising efforts that led to the
restoration of the Hollywood Sign. He hosted a gala fundraiser at the
Playboy Mansion and contributed $27,000 (or 1/9 of the total
restoration costs) by purchasing the letter Y in a ceremonial
Hefner donated $100,000 to the University of Southern California's
School of Cinematic Arts to create a course called "Censorship in
Cinema", and $2 million to endow a chair for the study of
Both through his charitable foundation and individually, Hefner also
contributed to charities outside the sphere of politics and
publishing, throwing fundraiser events for Much Love Animal Rescue as
well as Generation Rescue, a controversial anti-vaccinationist
campaign organization supported by Jenny McCarthy.
On November 18, 2010, Children of the Night founder and president Dr.
Lois Lee presented Hefner with the organization's first-ever Founder's
Hero of the Heart Award in appreciation for his unwavering dedication,
commitment and generosity. On April 26, 2010, Hefner donated the
last $900,000 sought by a conservation group for a land purchase
needed to stop the development of the famed vista of the Hollywood
Sign. Sylvilagus palustris hefneri, an endangered subspecies of
marsh rabbit, is named after him in honor of financial support that he
Hefner supported legalizing same-sex marriage, and he stated that a
fight for gay marriage was "a fight for all our rights. Without it, we
will turn back the sexual revolution and return to an earlier,
Hefner died at his home in Holmby Hills, Los Angeles, California, on
September 27, 2017, at the age of 91. The causes were cardiac
arrest, respiratory failure, sepsis and an E. coli
He is interred at Westwood Memorial Park in Los Angeles, in the
$75,000 crypt beside Marilyn Monroe. "Spending eternity next to
Marilyn is an opportunity too sweet to pass up," Hefner had told the
Los Angeles Times in 2009.
In The Guardian, journalist
Suzanne Moore wrote that Hefner threatened
to file a lawsuit against her for calling him a "pimp". Defending
her position, Moore argued that "he was a man who bought and sold
women to other men". She further stated that "Part of Hefner's
business acumen was to make the selling of female flesh respectable
and hip, to make soft porn acceptable."
Writing for The Independent, in the same vein, English writer Julie
Bindel stated that Hefner "caused immeasurable damage by turning
porn – and therefore the buying and selling of women’s
bodies – into a legitimate business." Writing for
Christianity Today, Missiologist
Ed Stetzer wrote that during his
Christie Hefner visited the
Playboy Mansion, he would
have the residence systematically cleaned in order "to keep the
realities from his own daughter". Stezer further lamented the
consequences of Hefner's role as a "general" of the sexual revolution:
It’s hard to fathom that anyone would have known what this would
have turned into. Parents growing up today are fighting to keep their
children pure. Spouses are fighting to keep their marriages intact.
And many enslaved and trapped in the adult entertainment industry have
been figuratively and literally stripped not only of their clothes,
but their very value as people made in the image of God. If this does
not concern us, what will?
Hefner's former girlfriend, Holly Madison, said that while she lived
Playboy Mansion, Hefner "would encourage competition—and body
image issues—between his multiple live-in girlfriends. His legacy is
full of evidence of the exploitation of women for professional
On October 3, 2017, it was announced that
Academy Award winner actor
Jared Leto would play
Hugh Hefner in a biopic directed by Brett Ratner
with the screenplay by
Jeff Nathanson but the biopic was put
indefinitely on hold and was confirmed that Leto would not portray the
Playboy founder following an emergence of sexual harassment
allegations against Ratner on November 2, 2017.
Hugh Hefner spent $75,000 to be buried beside his favorite
Playmate". September 28, 2017.
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May 17, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
^ "Mr Playboy:
Hugh Hefner and the American Dream". Steven Watts.
Google Books. Retrieved October 10, 2009.
^ Algis Valiunas, "The
Playboy and His Western World" Archived May 31,
2010, at the Wayback Machine.. May 2010.
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^ "Hugh Hefner: Just A Typical Methodist Kid". Roger Ebert. 1967.
^ "Keith Hefner Dead: Hugh Hefner's Brother Dies at 87". April 8,
^ Mullen, William (August 8, 1984). "Hef". Spokane Chronicle.
Retrieved July 23, 2010.
^ Roberts, Gary Boyd. "#58 Royal Descents, Notable Kin, and Printed
Sources". New England Ancestors. Archived from the original on January
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The king of swingers reenters the singles scene".
Hugh Hefner On His Role In Fighting Segregation. Jezebel.com (July
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^ ,Charles McGrath (February 3, 2011). "How Hef Got His Groove Back".
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^ Westwood Village Memorial Cemetery. Seeing-Stars.com.
^ "Hugh Hefner, Gay Rights Pioneer", advocate.com
Dick Gregory understood the political power of comedy".
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Hugh Hefner Biography. biography.com.
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^ Acocella, Joan "The Girls Next Door", The New Yorker, March 20, 2006
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^ a b Cooper Hefner. TV.com
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Hugh Hefner Finally Files for Divorce". People. Retrieved September
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^ Miller, Korin (January 5, 2009). "Meet
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other girlfriend, Crystal Harris". Daily News. New York: Daily News,
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Hugh Hefner Marries Crystal
Hugh Hefner marries his "runaway bride"". Reuters.
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Los Angeles Times. Retrieved
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April 8, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
^ "Washington Post:
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Hugh Hefner wants to
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^ Hugh Hefner's Federal Campaign Contribution Report Archived December
31, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. NewsMeat.com.
^ Hefner, Hugh [@hughhefner] (July 30, 2011). "My parents were
Republican, I'm a registered Democrat, but these days I'm an
Independent, not happy with either Party" (Tweet) – via
^ Hefner, Hugh [@hughhefner] (November 7, 2012). "While I was playing
dominoes with the girls, we got the news that Obama had been
re-elected. We're celebrating at the Mansion" (Tweet) – via
^ a b "
Hugh Hefner saves iconic Hollywood sign". London: Times Online.
April 27, 2010. Retrieved December 26, 2010.
^ "The History of the Sign: 1978: A Sign is Reborn". Hollywood Sign.
Archived from the original on November 25, 2010. Retrieved December
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Hugh Hefner &
Jenny McCarthy Fund Autism Research". Celebrity
Halo. October 2008. Retrieved December 29, 2008.
^ 2010 founder's hero of the heart Award (PDF). November 18, 2010.
Retrieved May 9, 2015.
^ "My True Love Gave To Me ... A Bat Species!". CBS News. February 11,
2009. Retrieved March 30, 2012.
^ "Lower Keys Rabbit" (PDF). United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
Retrieved March 30, 2012.
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Playboy magazine, dies at 91". Washington Post. Retrieved
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dark side". CNN. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hugh Hefner.
Hugh M. Hefner Foundation
Hugh Hefner on Playboy.com
Hugh Hefner on IMDb
Hugh Hefner: The Ultimate Lifestyle Entrepreneur (About.com
Hugh Hefner on Biography.com
Hugh Hefner interview from 1966[dead link]
Hugh Hefner interview video at the Archive of American Television
Hugh Hefner (late Editor-in-chief, CCO and Founder)
Christie Hefner (former
Chairman and CEO)
Special Edition (magazine)
Playboy After Dark
Playboy Jazz Festival
Playboy Club (TV series)
Hugh Hefner: Playboy, Activist and Rebel
American Playboy: The
Hugh Hefner Story (TV series)
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