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Hugh Bamford Cott (6 July 1900 – 18 April 1987) was a British zoologist, an authority on both natural and military camouflage, and a scientific illustrator and photographer. Many of his field studies took place in Africa, where he was especially interested in the Nile crocodile, the evolution of pattern and colour in animals. During the Second World War, Cott worked as a camouflage expert for the British Army and helped to influence War Office policy on camouflage. His book Adaptive Coloration in Animals
Adaptive Coloration in Animals
(1940), popular among serving soldiers, was the major textbook on camouflage in zoology of the twentieth century. After the war, he became a Fellow of Selwyn College, Cambridge. As a Fellow of the Zoological Society of London, he undertook expeditions to Africa
Africa
and the Amazon to collect specimens, mainly reptiles and amphibians.

Contents

1 Life and career 2 Camouflage 3 Artwork 4 Legacy 5 Writings 6 References 7 Bibliography

7.1 By Cott 7.2 About Cott

8 External links

Life and career[edit] Cott was born in Ashby Magna, Leicestershire, England, on 6 July 1900; his father was the rector there.[1] He was schooled at Rugby. In 1919, he graduated from the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, and was commissioned into the Leicestershire
Leicestershire
Regiment. Between 1922 and 1925, he studied at Selwyn College, Cambridge.[2] He had intended to become a priest, and went to Cambridge to read theology, but after his first year he went on the university expedition to South America, where he studied natural forms in eastern Brazil
Brazil
in 1923, led by the entomologist Frank Balfour Browne, where he became fascinated by natural history, and changed his studies to zoology on his return.[3] He then went on an expedition to the lower Amazon (1925–1926), and on research trips to the Zambesi river
Zambesi river
area in Africa
Africa
(1927),[4] including Mozambique, Zambia
Zambia
and East Africa, and Lanzarote
Lanzarote
(1930). He married Joyce Radford in 1928. He was a lecturer in Zoology at Bristol University
Bristol University
from 1928 until 1932, when he moved to Glasgow University. He studied under another advocate of military camouflage, John Graham Kerr. His thesis, which he completed in 1935 under a Carnegie Fellowship, was on 'adaptive coloration' – both camouflage and warning coloration – in the Anura (frogs).[5] In 1938 he was made a Doctor of Science at Glasgow, and he became a Zoology lecturer at Cambridge University
Cambridge University
and Strickland Curator of Birds at the university's Museum of Zoology.[5][6] Cott served in the Leicestershire
Leicestershire
Regiment of the British Army[7] as a camouflage expert from 1919–1922, and, during the Second World War, with the Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers
as a camouflage instructor from 1939–1945.[5] Cott was chief instructor at the Camouflage Development and Training Camp at Helwan, Egypt, under filmmaker Geoffrey Barkas
Geoffrey Barkas
from its inception in November 1941.[8] After the war, Cott returned to Cambridge, becoming a Fellow of Selwyn College in 1945; he worked there until he retired in 1967.[9] He gave the Fison Memorial Lecture of 1958 on 'Protective Coloration in Animals'.[10] He continued to work from time to time after his retirement, for instance conducting a survey of crocodile nests on the Victoria Nile
Nile
for the Uganda National Parks
Uganda National Parks
in 1972.[11][12] He died at the age of 86 on 18 April 1987.[2] Camouflage[edit] Further information: Adaptive Coloration in Animals
Adaptive Coloration in Animals
and Camouflage

Disruptive coloration
Disruptive coloration
by Hugh Cott, from Adaptive Coloration in Animals (1940)

While trying to photograph a hen partridge on her nest, Cott waited for hours for the bird to return, finally taking some pictures of the empty nest before giving up. On developing the photographs, he realized the bird had been there all along, perfectly camouflaged.[13] As a camouflage expert during the Second World War, Cott likened the functions of military camouflage to those of protective coloration in nature. The three main categories of coloration in his book Adaptive Coloration in Animals are concealment, disguise, and advertisement. He studied, described and presented examples of such diverse camouflage effects as obliterative shading, disruption, differential blending, high contrast, coincident disruption, concealment of the eye, contour obliteration, shadow elimination, and mimicry. In his wartime lectures at Farnham Castle, he described nine categories of visual deception:[14]

merging, e.g. hare, polar bear[14] disruption, e.g. ringed plover[14] disguise, e.g. stick insect[14] mis-direction, e.g. butterfly and fish eyespots[14] dazzle, e.g. some grasshoppers[14] decoy, e.g. angler fish[14] smokescreen, e.g. cuttlefish[14] the dummy, e.g. flies, ants[14] false display of strength, e.g. toads, lizards[14]

Two rail-mounted guns are shown in the photograph. A countershaded one camouflaged by Hugh Cott (above) and one in conventional style (below), August 1940[15]

Cott's account of all this (illustrated by his own pen and ink drawings) is the 550-page book Adaptive Coloration in Animals (1940).[16] It was proof-read by Kerr, who commented on its publication 'It is by far the finest thing of the kind in existence'.[17] His co-workers' first-hand accounts of his work in military camouflage can be found in the memoirs of two of his fellow camoufleurs: Julian Trevelyan[18] and Roland Penrose.[19] Peter Forbes wrote of Cott's book:[20]

Cott's Adaptive Coloration in Animals
Adaptive Coloration in Animals
must be the only compendious zoology tract ever to be packed in a soldier's kitbag. The book also marks the apotheosis of the descriptive natural history phase of mimicry studies. Although Cott does report experiments on predation to test the efficacy of mimicry and camouflage, the book is essentially a narrative of examples plus theory.[20]

Cott was critical of attempts at camouflage not based on "vigorous disruptive contrasts".[21] 1943 painting by Colin Moss
Colin Moss
of a cooling tower camouflaged with a landscape scene

The book was written as war loomed, and published in wartime. Cott makes use of his knowledge of natural history to draw parallels between survival in nature and in war,[22] and to advise on military camouflage, for example commenting:

Various recent attempts to camouflage tanks, armoured cars, and the roofs of buildings with paint reveal an almost complete failure by those responsible to grasp the essential factor in the disguise of surface continuity and contour … in nature vigorous disruptive contrasts are frequently seen at work, and their wonderful effectiveness in hindering recognition needs to be experienced in the field to be fully appreciated.[21]

Forbes notes that Adaptive Coloration in Animals
Adaptive Coloration in Animals
is a narrative, short on the experimentation that followed after the war, but Forbes continues:[20]

But Cott's book is still valuable today for its enormous range, for its passionate exposition of the theories of mimicry and camouflage.[20]

Cott attempted to persuade the British army to use more effective camouflage techniques, including countershading. For example, in August 1940, with the Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
imminent, he painted two rail-mounted coastal guns, one in conventional style, one countershaded. In aerial photographs, the countershaded gun is essentially invisible.[15] Cott was triumphant, announcing:[15]

These photographs furnish most convincing proof of the effectiveness of countershading, and are especially valuable in that we have in them a direct comparison between the two methods.

However (like Kerr before him in the First World War), Cott did not succeed in influencing policy on camouflage, and he resigned from the Camouflage
Camouflage
Advisory Panel in 1940.[23] Artwork[edit]

Art with a purpose: Cott's invisible potoo, disruptively patterned[24]

Cott was a founding member of the Society of Wildlife Artists, and a fellow of the Royal Photographic Society.[5] From material gathered in field expeditions, he made contributions to the Cambridge University zoological museum. Cott possessed considerable artistic skill. Like Abbott Thayer, he used his artistry in his scientific work, including in Adaptive Coloration in Animals, to help argue the case he was making.[20] For example, his black-and-white potoo shows this rainforest bird sitting motionless on a mottled tree trunk, its behaviour and disruptive pattern combining to provide effective camouflage. The philosopher and jazz musician David Rothenberg wrote of Cott's art:[24]

Back to Hugh Cott's marvelous engraving of a potoo hidden in a black and white Costa Rican forest, frozen vertically like the tree trunk on which it hides. In nature the visible and invisible dance back and forth with each other, depending on how much we have learned to see. The science and art of this magic merge into one at the moment we grasp it.[24]

Legacy[edit] The journalist and author Peter Forbes praised Cott's balance of science and artistry:[20]

..in the conflict between artists and biologists, he was both. Cott was a competent illustrator as well as a biologist. Without having Nabokov's precisianism and anti-Darwinism, he brought an artistic sensibility to bear on these phenomena. His text is radiant with the wonder of these adaptations.[20]

Over 60 years after its publication, Adaptive Coloration in Animals remains a core reference on the subject; the evolutionary biologists Graeme Ruxton, Thomas N. Sherratt and Michael Speed conclude their book on animal coloration by writing

The study of animal coloration and associated anti-predator adaptations has a long history... this field of research has been blessed from the earliest years with the insights of particularly gifted scientists. The writings of Wallace, Bates, Müller, Poulton and Cott truly stand up to the test of time: these individuals deserve even better renown not just as great natural historians but as exceptional scientists too.[25]

The biologist Steven Vogel commented that

The zoologist Hugh Cott had the final word in Adaptive Coloration in Animals (1940), a definitive synthesis of everything known about camouflage and mimicry in nature. Cott ruffled fewer feathers [than Trofim Lysenko
Trofim Lysenko
or Vladimir Nabokov], and his well-organized and unfanatic ideas proved militarily effective, even under the scrutiny of improved techniques for target detection. Thayer’s principles reemerged in more temperate and rational terms, and camouflage schemes based on them survived both photometric analyses and enemy encounters. Biomimetic
Biomimetic
camouflage took its place as yet another technique in a sophisticated armamentarium of visual deceptions.[26]

Writings[edit] In addition to Adaptive Coloration in Animals, Cott wrote two essays on camouflage: “ Camouflage
Camouflage
in nature and in war” in the Royal Engineers Journal (December 1938), pp501–517; and ”Animal form in relation to appearance” in Lancelot Law Whyte, ed. Aspects of form: a symposium on form in nature and art (London: Percy Lund Humphries, 1951). As a scientific illustrator and photographer, he also wrote three other books: Zoological photography in practice (1956); Uganda in black and white (1959); and Looking at animals: a zoologist in Africa
Africa
(1975). He became interested in the relationship of bird colours with their role as warning colours, an idea that arose when he observed hornets attracted to some birds being skinned while ignoring others. This led him to study the palatability of birds and their eggs. Among his papers were several studies on the relative palatibility of the eggs based initially on the preferences of ferrets, rats and hedgehogs and later on the use of a panel of expert egg tasters. In one study he found that of 123 species of bird, the kittiwake eggs scored highly with 8.2 out of 10.[27][28][29][30] References[edit]

^ Forsyth, 2012. Page 67. ^ a b "Papers of Hugh Cott". SEPP/COT (formerly HC/1-2). Janus. Retrieved 25 July 2012.  ^ Forsyth, 2012. Page 127. ^ Cott, Hugh B. (1934). "The Zoological Society's Expedition to the Zambesi, 1927: No. 5. On a Collection of Lizards, mainly from Portuguese East Africa, with Descriptions of new Species of Zonurus, Monopeltis, and Chirindia". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 104 (1): 145–173. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1934.tb06228.x.  ^ a b c d "Hugh Bamford Cott". University of Glasgow. Retrieved 17 October 2012.  ^ Campbell, Bruce; Lack, Elizabeth (2013). A Dictionary of Birds. A & C Black. pp. Entry: H.B.C. – Hugh Bamford Cott.  ^ London Gazette 26 January 1920. Cott is in the Leicestershire Regiment. ^ Forbes, Peter. (2009) Pages 155-156. ^ Forsyth, 2012. Page 124. ^ "Fison Memorial Lectures" (PDF). King's College London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2014.  ^ Cott, Hugh B. (1961). "Scientific results of an inquiry into the ecology and economic status of the Nile
Nile
Crocodile
Crocodile
(Crocodilus niloticus) in Uganda and Northern Rhodesia". The Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. 29 (4): 211–356. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1961.tb00220.x.  ^ Pooley, Tony (April 1972). "Newsletter No. 4" (PDF). IUCN Crocodile Specialists Group. Retrieved 15 January 2014.  ^ Forsyth, 2012. Pages 122–123. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Forbes, Peter. (2009) Page 152-3. Farnham Lecture No. 5. ^ a b c Forbes, Peter. (2009) Pages 149-150. ^ Cott, Hugh. (1940) ^ Forsyth, 2012. Page 140. ^ Trevelyan, Julian. (1957) ^ Penrose, Roland. (1981) ^ a b c d e f g Forbes, Peter. (2009) Page 153. ^ a b Cott, 1940. Pages 53–54. Cited in Forsyth, 2012. Page 149. ^ Forsyth, 2012. Pages 147–148. ^ Forsyth, 2012. Page 173. ^ a b c Rothenberg, David (2011). Survival of the Beautiful: Art, Science and Evolution. Bloomsbury. p. 167.  ^ Ruxton, Sherratt and Speed, 2004. p. 200. ^ Vogel, Steven. The Deceptional Life. American Scientist. On the Bookshelf. September–October 2010. Volume 98, Number 5. Page: 436 DOI: 10.1511/2010.86.436 ^ Prchlik, Maria (25 November 2013). "Don't try this at home". Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Retrieved 5 January 2014.  ^ Cott, Hugh B. (1954). "The palatability of the eggs of birds: mainly based upon observations of an Egg Panel". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 124 (2): 335–464. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1954.tb07786.x.  ^ Cott, Hugh B. (1947). "The Edibility of Birds: Illustrated by Five Years' Experiments and Observations (1941–1946) on the Food Preferences of the Hornet, Cat and Man;and considered with Special Reference to the Theories of Adaptive Coloration". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 116 (3-4): 371–524. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1947.tb00131.x.  ^ Cott, Hugh B.; C. W. Benson (1969). "The palatability of birds, mainly based upon observations of a tasting panel in Zambia". Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology. 40: 357–384. doi:10.1080/00306525.1969.9639135. 

Bibliography[edit] By Cott[edit]

Books

Cott, Hugh B. (1940). Adaptive Coloration in Animals. Methuen. Cott, Hugh B. (1975). Looking at Animals: a Zoologist
Zoologist
in Africa. Scribner. Cott, Hugh B. (1959). Uganda in Black and White. Macmillan. Cott, Hugh B. (1956). Zoological Photography in Practice. Fountain Press.

Journals

Cott, Hugh B. (1936). "The effectiveness of protective adaptations in the Hive-Bee, illustrated by experiments on the feeding reactions, habit formation, and memory of the common toad (Bufo bufo bufo)". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 106 (1): 111–133. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1936.tb02283.x.  Cott, Hugh B. (1951). "The Palatability of the Eggs of Birds: Illustrated by Experiments on the Food Preferences of the Hedgehog (Erinaceus Europaeus)". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 121 (1): 1–41. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1951.tb00726.x.  Cott, Hugh B. (1952). "The palatability of the eggs of birds: illustrated by three seasons' experiments (1947, 1948 and 1950) on the food preferences of the Rat (Rattus norvegicus); and with special reference to the protective adaptations of eggs considered in relation to vulnerability". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 122 (1): 1–54. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1952.tb06312.x.  Cott, Hugh B. (1953). "The palatability of the eggs of birds: illustrated by experiments on the food preferences of the Ferret (Putorius furo) and Cat (Felis catus); with notes on other egg-eating Carnivora". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 123 (1): 123–141. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1953.tb00160.x.  Cott, Hugh B. (1938). Wonder Island of the Amazon Delta; on Marajo Cowboys Ride Oxen, Tree-Dwelling Animals Throng Dense Forests. National Geographic Magazine.

About Cott[edit]

Forbes, Peter (2009). Dazzled and Deceived: Mimicry
Mimicry
and Camouflage. Yale. ISBN 0-300-12539-9 Forsyth, Isla McLean (2012). From dazzle to the desert: a cultural-historical geography of camouflage. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. Forsyth, Isla (2014). "The practice and poetics of fieldwork: Hugh Cott and the study of camouflage". Journal of Historical Geography. 43: 128–137. doi:10.1016/j.jhg.2013.10.002.  Penrose, Roland (1981). Scrapbook 1900–1981. Thames and Hudson. Ruxton, G. D.; Sherratt, T. N.; Speed, M. P.; (2004). Avoiding Attack. The Evolutionary Ecology of Crypsis, Warning Signals and Mimicry. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-852860-4 Trevelyan, Julian (1957). Indigo days. MacGibbon and Kee.

External links[edit]

Janus: Cott's papers Archives Hub: Cott's own copies of books, with personal annotations, at Cambridge University
Cambridge University
Museum of Zoology University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
Story: Hugh Bamford Cott

v t e

Camoufleurs

1st World War

Lucien-Victor Guirand de Scévola Jean-Louis Forain Loyd A. Jones John Graham Kerr Paul Klee Franz Marc Alister Hardy André Mare Solomon Joseph Solomon Abbott Handerson Thayer Maximilian Toch Leon Underwood Edward Wadsworth Everett Warner Norman Wilkinson

2nd World War

Tony Ayrton Geoffrey Barkas Hugh Casson John Codner Edward Bainbridge Copnall Hugh B. Cott Victorine Foot Frederick Gore Stanley William Hayter Ivan Konev Jasper Maskelyne Oliver Messel Colin Moss Roland Penrose Peter Proud Fred Pusey Brian Robb Peter Scott Edward Seago Alan Sorrell Basil Spence Steven Sykes Ernest Townsend Julian Trevelyan Wilfred Clement Von Berg

v t e

Camouflage

Methods

Camouflage Countershading Active camouflage Counter-illumination Disruptive coloration Motion camouflage Multi-scale camouflage Multi-spectral camouflage Snow camouflage

In nature

As evidence for natural selection Crypsis Decorator crabs Flower mantises Mimicry

Batesian Müllerian Aggressive

Underwater camouflage

Pioneers

Peacetime

Edward Bagnall Poulton

The Colours of Animals

Abbott Handerson Thayer

Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom

Camoufleurs

Lucien-Victor Guirand de Scévola John Graham Kerr Norman Wilkinson Everett Warner Johann Georg Otto Schick Hugh Cott

Adaptive Coloration in Animals

Geoffrey Barkas Timothy O'Neill

Researchers

Roy Behrens Innes Cuthill Thomas N. Sherratt Martin Stevens

Military

Topics

Military camouflage Aircraft camouflage Dazzle camouflage Middle East Command Camouflage
Camouflage
Directorate Ship camouflage USN WWII camouflage measures

Patterns

Up to WWII

German WWII

Splittertarnmuster
Splittertarnmuster
(1931) Platanenmuster
Platanenmuster
(1937) Rauchtarnmuster
Rauchtarnmuster
(1939) Palmenmuster
Palmenmuster
(c 1941) Sumpfmuster
Sumpfmuster
(1943) Erbsenmuster
Erbsenmuster
(1944) Leibermuster
Leibermuster
(1945)

Other

Lozenge (1917 aircraft) Telo mimetico
Telo mimetico
(1929 tent) Denison smock
Denison smock
(1941) Frog Skin
Frog Skin
(1942)

Post-war

Lizard (1947) Flecktarn
Flecktarn
(1956) Rain pattern
Rain pattern
(1960)

Late 20th Century

Rhodesian Brushstroke
Rhodesian Brushstroke
(1965) ERDL (1967) Disruptive Pattern Material
Disruptive Pattern Material
(1969) wz. 68 Moro (1969) Tigerstripe M84 M90 Six-Color Desert Pattern (Chocolate Chip) U.S. "M81" Woodland (1981) wz. 89 Puma Jigsaw TAZ 83 TAZ 90 Camouflage
Camouflage
Europe Centrale Desert Night Camouflage wz. 93 Pantera Soldier 2000 Type 99 (China)

21st Century

Australian Multicam Bundeswehr Wüstentarn CADPAT
CADPAT
(2002) M05 MARPAT MultiCam Multi-Terrain Pattern Operational Camouflage
Camouflage
Pattern Tactical Assault Camouflage Type 07 Universal Camouflage
Camouflage
Pattern

Technology

Deployed

Berberys-R Nakidka

Prototypes

Diffused lighting camouflage
Diffused lighting camouflage
(1941) Yehudi lights
Yehudi lights
(1943) Adaptiv
Adaptiv
(2011)

v t e

Allied military deception in World War II

Deception planning

'A' Force

Dudley Clarke Victor Jones

London Controlling Section

John Bevan Dennis Wheatley Ronald Wingate

Ops (B)

Noel Wild Roger Fleetwood-Hesketh List of Ops (B)
Ops (B)
staff

D Division

Peter Fleming

Soviet military deception

Camouflage

Middle East Cmd Camouflage
Camouflage
Directorate

Geoffrey Barkas Tony Ayrton Hugh Cott Peter Proud Steven Sykes

Ghost Army

Louis Dalton Porter Ellsworth Kelly David Slepian Bill Blass Art Kane

Other

Ernest Townsend Jasper Maskelyne more

Operational units

R Force

David Strangeways

Other

Beach Jumpers

Decoys

Paradummy Starfish site

Double-Cross System

Twenty Committee

John Cecil Masterman

Double agents

Johnny Jebsen
Johnny Jebsen
(Artist) Juan Pujol García
Juan Pujol García
(Garbo) Roman Czerniawski
Roman Czerniawski
(Brutus) Roger Grosjean
Roger Grosjean
(Fido) Günther Schütz (Rainbow) Arthur Owens (Snow) Gösta Caroli (Summer) Wulf Schmidt (Tate) Nathalie Sergueiew (Treasure) Dušan Popov
Dušan Popov
(Tricycle) Werner von Janowski
Werner von Janowski
(Watchdog) Eddie Chapman
Eddie Chapman
(Zig-Zag) Josef Jakobs Mutt and Jeff

Fictional units (British / US)

Field armies

First United States Army Group Fourth British Army Twelfth British Army Fourteenth United States Army

Corps

British XIV British XVI US XXXIII US XXXV Airborne US XXXVII

Divisions

US 6th Airborne US 9th Airborne US 11th Infantry US 17th Infantry US 21st Airborne US 25th Armored US 48th Infantry US 55th Infantry British 58th Infantry US 59th Infantry

Brigades

1st SAS Brigade

Operations

Bodyguard

Copperhead D-Day naval deceptions Ferdinand Fortitude Graffham Ironside Titanic Quicksilver Zeppelin

Other

Accumulator Barclay Bertram Boardman Cascade Chettyford Cockade Forfar Hardboiled Mincemeat Pastel Scherhorn Span

Books

Bodyguard of Lies British Intelligence in the Second World War
Second World War
(Vol. 5) The Deceivers: Allied Military Deception in the Second World War

v t e

Natural history

Pioneering naturalists

Classical antiquity

Aristotle
Aristotle
(History of Animals) Theophrastus
Theophrastus
(Historia Plantarum) Aelian (De Natura Animalium) Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(Natural History) Dioscorides (De Materia Medica)

Renaissance

Gaspard Bauhin
Gaspard Bauhin
(Pinax theatri botanici) Otto Brunfels Hieronymus Bock Andrea Cesalpino Valerius Cordus Leonhart Fuchs Conrad Gessner
Conrad Gessner
(Historia animalium) Frederik Ruysch William Turner (Avium Praecipuarum, New Herball) John Gerard
John Gerard
(Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes)

Enlightenment

Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
(Micrographia) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek William Derham Hans Sloane Jan Swammerdam Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
(Systema Naturae) Georg Steller Joseph Banks Johan Christian Fabricius James Hutton John Ray
John Ray
(Historia Plantarum) Comte de Buffon (Histoire Naturelle) Bernard Germain de Lacépède Gilbert White
Gilbert White
(The Natural History of Selborne) Thomas Bewick
Thomas Bewick
(A History of British Birds) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
(Philosophie Zoologique)

19th century

George Montagu (Ornithological Dictionary) Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
(Le Règne Animal) William Smith Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
(On the Origin of Species) Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
(The Malay Archipelago) Henry Walter Bates
Henry Walter Bates
(The Naturalist on the River Amazons) Alexander von Humboldt John James Audubon
John James Audubon
(The Birds of America) William Buckland Charles Lyell Mary Anning Jean-Henri Fabre Louis Agassiz Philip Henry Gosse Asa Gray William Jackson Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker William Jardine (The Naturalist's Library) Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
(Kunstformen der Natur) Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker
(The Royal Natural History)

20th century

Abbott Thayer
Abbott Thayer
(Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom) Hugh B. Cott
Hugh B. Cott
(Adaptive Coloration in Animals) Niko Tinbergen (The Study of Instinct) Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
(On Aggression) Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
(The Dancing Bees) Ronald Lockley
Ronald Lockley
(Shearwaters)

Topics

Natural history
Natural history
museums (List) Parson-naturalists (List) Natural History Societies List of natural history dealers

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 79090760 LCCN: n85803179 ISNI: 0000 0000 5787 739X GND: 1043810358 SUDOC: 084997710 BNF: cb12316628n (data) SNAC: w6

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