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HOUSES OF THE HOLY is the fifth studio album by the English rock band Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
, released on 28 March 1973 by Atlantic Records . It is their first album composed of entirely original material and it represents a turning point in musical direction for the band, who had begun to record songs with more layering and production techniques .

Containing some of the band's most famous songs, including "The Song Remains the Same ", " The Rain Song ", and "No Quarter ", Houses of the Holy became a commercial success, and was later certified 11x platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) in 1999. In 2012, the album was ranked at #148 on Rolling Stone\'s 500 Greatest Albums of All Time . The title track was originally recorded for the album, but was delayed until the release of band's next album Physical Graffiti in 1975.

CONTENTS

* 1 Recording * 2 Composition * 3 Artwork and packaging * 4 Release and critical reception * 5 Accolades * 6 2014 reissue

* 7 Track listing

* 7.1 Standard edition * 7.2 Deluxe edition bonus disc

* 8 Personnel * 9 Charts * 10 Certifications * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links

RECORDING

Much of the album was recorded in Spring 1972 using the Rolling Stones Mobile Studio at Stargroves , a manor house and country estate in Hampshire county, England. Some songs from the album had initially been tried out earlier than this, such as "No Quarter ", which was first attempted during a session at Headley Grange Estate, in East Hampshire.

Several of the songs were produced as demos at the personal studios of guitarist Jimmy Page and bass player/keyboardist John Paul Jones . Having recently installed these studios in their homes, it enabled them to finish the arrangements which had been laid down earlier. In particular, Page was able to present complete arrangements of "The Rain Song " and "Over the Hills and Far Away ", while Jones had developed "No Quarter ".

Another bout of recording took place at Olympic Studios in May 1972, and during the band's 1972 North American tour additional recording sessions were conducted at Electric Lady Studios
Electric Lady Studios
in New York.

Some songs which were recorded from these various sessions did not make it onto Houses of the Holy, namely " Black Country Woman ", "Walter\'s Walk ", "The Rover ", and also the would-be title-track, " Houses of the Holy
Houses of the Holy
". All of these songs were retained and later released on subsequent Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
albums.

This is the last album recorded by the band to feature Robert Plant singing in his trademark high vocal range due to subsequent damage to his vocal chords.

COMPOSITION

This album was a stylistic turning point in the lifespan of Led Zeppelin. Guitar riffs became more layered within Page's production techniques and departed from the blues influences of earlier records. In the album's opening opus, "The Song Remains the Same", and its intricate companion suite, "The Rain Song", Robert Plant
Robert Plant
's lyrics matured toward a less overt form of the mysticism and fantasy of previous efforts. Houses of the Holy
Houses of the Holy
also featured styles not heard on the first four Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
albums. For example, "D\'yer Mak\'er " is a reggae -based tune (the name of the song being derived from the phonetic spelling of a British pronunciation of "Jamaica"); "No Quarter" features atmospheric keyboard sounds and an acoustic piano solo from Jones; " The Crunge " is a funk tribute; and "The Rain Song" is embellished by Jones on his newly acquired Mellotron
Mellotron
. The album's closing song "The Ocean ", which features an a cappella section and a doo-wop influenced coda, is dedicated to "the ocean" of fans who were massing to Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
concerts at this point of the band's career. Subsequently, one view is that the title "Houses of the Holy" refers to the massive venues they played full of their adoring fans. However, when Page was asked about the significance of the title in a Sirius XM interview in New York City 7 Nov. 2014, he responded, “It’s about all of us being houses of the Holy Spirit, in a sense.”

According to Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
archivist Dave Lewis:

In retrospect, 'Houses of the Holy' holds its ground with the middle period releases quite admirably. The barnstorming effect of the early era was now levelling off and though devoid of the electricity of 'Led Zeppelin I ' and 'II ', or the sheer diversity of the third album , and lacking the classic status of the fourth , 'Houses' took stock of their situation. In doing so, it laid several foundations on which they would expand their future collective musical aspirations.

ARTWORK AND PACKAGING

Giant\'s Causeway in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland

The cover art for Houses of the Holy
Houses of the Holy
was inspired by the ending of Arthur C. Clarke 's novel Childhood\'s End . The cover is a collage of several photographs which were taken at the Giant\'s Causeway , Northern Ireland, by Aubrey Powell of Hipgnosis . This location was chosen ahead of an alternative one in Peru
Peru
which was being considered.

The two children who modelled for the cover were siblings Stefan and Samantha Gates. The photo shoot was a frustrating affair over the course of ten days. Shooting was done first thing in the morning and at sunset in order to capture the light at dawn and dusk, but the desired effect was never achieved due to constant rain and clouds. The photos of the two children were taken in black and white and were multi-printed to create the effect of 11 individuals that can be seen on the album cover. The results of the shoot were less than satisfactory, but some accidental tinting effects in post-production created an unexpectedly striking album cover. The inner sleeve photograph was taken at Dunluce Castle
Dunluce Castle
nearby the Causeway.

In February 2010, Stefan Gates presented a half-hour BBC Radio 4 documentary entitled Stefan Gates's Cover Story, about his part in the making of the album cover. Gates claimed in the documentary to have felt there was something sinister about the image, although his sister disagreed. He also admitted never having heard the album. The programme ended with Gates returning to Giant's Causeway
Giant's Causeway
and listening to the album on a portable player, after which he claimed that a great weight had been lifted from him.

Like Led Zeppelin's fourth album , neither the band's name nor the album title was printed on the sleeve. However, manager Peter Grant did allow Atlantic Records to add a wrap-around paper title band to US and UK copies of the sleeve that had to be broken or slid off to access the record. This hid the children's buttocks from general display, but still the album was either banned or unavailable in some parts of the Southern United States for several years.

The first CD release of the album in the 1980s did have the title logos printed on the cover itself.

In 1974, the album was nominated for a Grammy Award in the category of best album package . The cover was rated #6 on VH1 's 50 Greatest Album
Album
Covers in 2003.

Page has stated that the album cover was the second version submitted by Hipgnosis. The first, by artist Storm Thorgerson , featured an electric green tennis court with a tennis racket on it. Furious that Thorgerson was implying their music sounded like a "racket", the band fired him and hired Powell in his place. Thorgerson did, however, go on to produce the album artwork for Led Zeppelin's subsequent albums Presence and In Through the Out Door
In Through the Out Door
.

RELEASE AND CRITICAL RECEPTION

PROFESSIONAL RATINGS

AGGREGATE SCORES

SOURCE RATING

Metacritic 98/100

REVIEW SCORES

SOURCE RATING

AllMusic

Robert Christgau A–

Classic Rock 9/10

The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph

Entertainment Weekly A

Mojo

MusicHound 4/5

Pitchfork Media 9.3/10

Rolling Stone (1973) (unfavourable)

Rolling Stone (2003)

Virgin Encyclopedia of Popular Music

This was Led Zeppelin's final studio release on Atlantic Records before forming their own label, Swan Song Records , in 1974. It was also the only Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
album that contained complete printed lyrics for each song. The epic scale suited Zeppelin: They had the largest crowds, the loudest rock songs, the most groupies, the fullest manes of hair. Eventually excess would turn into bombast, but on Houses, it still provided inspiration. —Gavin Edwards, Rolling Stone

Although intended for release in January 1973, delays in producing the album cover meant that it was not released until March, when the band was on its 1973 European tour . The album was promoted heavily before the commencement of Led Zeppelin's subsequent North American Tour , ensuring that it had ascended the top of the American chart by the beginning of the tour. Because much of the album had been recorded almost a year previously, many of the songs which are featured on the album had already been played live by Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
on their concert tours of North America, Japan, Europe and the UK in 1972–73.

Upon its release, the album received some mixed reviews, with much criticism from the music press being directed at the off-beat nature of tracks such as "The Crunge" and "D'yer Mak'er". Gordon Fletcher of Rolling Stone, on release, called the album "one of the dullest and most confusing albums I've heard this year", criticizing every song and comparing them to the band's previous work. However, the album was very successful commercially, entering the UK chart at number one, while in America its 39-week run (two of them spent at #1) on the Billboard Top 40 was their longest since their third album.

In 2012, the album was ranked #148 on Rolling Stone\'s 500 Greatest Albums of All Time .

ACCOLADES

PUBLICATION COUNTRY ACCOLADE YEAR RANK

The Book
Book
of Rock Lists United States "The Top 40 Albums (1973)" 1981 13

Grammy Award United States " Grammy Award for Best Recording Package " 1974 Nominee

Classic Rock United Kingdom "100 Greatest British Rock Album
Album
Ever" 2006 90

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
United States "The Definitive 200: Top 200 Albums of All-Time" 2007 51

Rolling Stone United States " The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time " 2012 148

Pitchfork Media United States "Top 100 Albums of the 1970s" 2004 75

(*) designates unordered lists.

2014 REISSUE

A remastered version of Houses of the Holy
Houses of the Holy
was reissued on 27 October 2014, along with Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
IV . The reissue comes in six formats: a standard CD edition, a deluxe two-CD edition, a standard LP version, a deluxe two-LP version, a super deluxe two-CD plus two-LP version with a hardback book, and as high resolution 96k/24-bit digital downloads. The deluxe and super deluxe editions feature bonus material. The reissue was released with a blue-colored version of the original album's artwork as its bonus disc's cover.

TRACK LISTING

STANDARD EDITION

SIDE ONE

NO. TITLE WRITER(S) LENGTH

1. "The Song Remains the Same "

* Jimmy Page * Robert Plant
Robert Plant

5:32

2. " The Rain Song "

* Page * Plant

7:39

3. "Over the Hills and Far Away "

* Page * Plant

4:50

4. " The Crunge "

* John Bonham
John Bonham
* John Paul Jones * Page * Plant

3:17

SIDE TWO

NO. TITLE WRITER(S) LENGTH

5. " Dancing Days "

* Page * Plant

3:43

6. "D\'yer Mak\'er "

* Bonham * Jones * Page * Plant

4:23

7. "No Quarter "

* Jones * Page * Plant

7:00

8. "The Ocean "

* Bonham * Jones * Page * Plant

4:31

DELUXE EDITION BONUS DISC

NO. TITLE WRITER(S) LENGTH

1. "The Song Remains the Same" (Guitar overdub reference mix )

* Page * Plant

5:29

2. "The Rain Song" (Mix minus piano)

* Page * Plant

7:45

3. "Over the Hills and Far Away" (Guitar mix backing track)

* Page * Plant

4:22

4. "The Crunge" (Rough mix - Keys up)

* Bonham * Jones * Page * Plant

3:16

5. "Dancing Days" (Rough mix with vocal)

* Page * Plant

3:46

6. "No Quarter" (Rough mix with JPJ keyboard overdubs - No vocal)

* Jones * Page * Plant

7:03

7. "The Ocean" (Working mix)

* Bonham * Jones * Page * Plant

4:26

TOTAL LENGTH: 36:10

PERSONNEL

* John Bonham
John Bonham
– drums , backing vocals * John Paul Jones – bass guitar , keyboards, synthesiser bass , backing vocals * Jimmy Page – acoustic , electric and pedal steel guitars , theremin on "No Quarter", production * Robert Plant
Robert Plant
– lead vocals * Barry Diament – mastering (original 1985 CD release) * Keith Harwood – mixing * Hipgnosis – sleeve design * Andy Johns – engineering , mixing (on "No Quarter") * Eddie Kramer
Eddie Kramer
– engineering, mixing * Bob Ludwig – mastering engineering * Aubrey Powell – cover photography * George Marino
George Marino
– mastering (remastered CD)

CHARTS

CHART (1973–74) Peak position

Australian Go-Set Top 20 Albums Chart 1

Austrian Albums Chart 3

Canadian RPM Top 100 Albums Chart 1

Danish Albums Chart 7

French Albums Chart 3

Italian Albums Chart 4

Japanese Albums Chart 3

Norwegian Albums Chart 4

Spanish Albums Chart 9

UK Albums Chart 1

US Billboard 200
Billboard 200
1

West German Albums Chart 8

Singles

YEAR SINGLE CHART POSITION

1973 "D'yer Mak'er" US Billboard Hot 100 20

1973 "Over The Hills And Far Away" US Billboard Hot 100 51

CERTIFICATIONS

REGION CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED UNITS /SALES

ARGENTINA (CAPIF ) Gold 30,000^

FRANCE (SNEP ) 2× Gold 200,000*

GERMANY (BVMI ) Gold 250,000^

SPAIN (PROMUSICAE ) Gold 50,000^

UNITED KINGDOM (BPI ) Platinum 300,000^

UNITED STATES (RIAA ) 11× Platinum 11,000,000^

*sales figures based on certification alone ^shipments figures based on certification alone

SEE ALSO

* List of best-selling albums in the United States * List of Billboard 200 number-one albums of 1973 * List of UK Albums Chart number ones of 1973

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Houses of the Holy, Led Zeppelin, Atlantic Records, R2-544300, Super Deluxe Edition Box, 2014 liner Notes, page 3 * ^ A B "American album certifications – Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
– Houses of the Holy". Recording Industry Association of America . If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH * ^ A B "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 14 August 2017. * ^ Lewis, Dave (2012). Led Zeppelin: From a Whisper to a Scream; The Complete Guide to the Music of Led Zeppelin. Omnibus Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-78038-547-1 . * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K Dave Lewis (1994), The Complete Guide to the Music of Led Zeppelin, Omnibus Press, ISBN 0-7119-3528-9 * ^ Hewett, Rick (8 December 2007). "Solved: Mystery of the iconic Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
album cover and its golden-haired children". Daily Mail. London. * ^ Classic Rock Covers: Led Zeppelin; Houses of the Holy. Atlantic, 1973. Designer: Hipgnosis (Storm Thorgerson, Aubrey Powell) Archived 21 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "The Greatest: 50 Greatest Album
Album
Covers". VH1. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015. * ^ Brad Tolinski and Greg Di Bendetto, "Light and Shade", Guitar World, January 1998. * ^ AllMusic review * ^ " Robert Christgau Review". Robertchristgau.com. Retrieved 9 August 2011. * ^ Batcup, Tim (November 2014). " Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
IV / Houses Of The Holy". Classic Rock . pp. 98–99. * ^ McCormick, Neil (23 April 2014). "Led Zeppelin\'s albums ranked from worst to best". The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
. Retrieved 8 December 2014. * ^ Tom Sinclair (20 June 2003). " Entertainment Weekly Review". EW.com. Retrieved 9 August 2011. * ^ Snow, Mat (November 2014). "More muscle in your bustle: Led Zeppelin Houses of the Holy". Mojo : 106. * ^ Graff, Gary; Durchholz, Daniel (eds) (1999). MusicHound Rock: The Essential Album
Album
Guide. Farmington Hills, MI: Visible Ink Press. p. 662. ISBN 1-57859-061-2 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Richardson, Mark (24 February 2015). "Led Zeppelin: Led Zeppelin IV/Houses of the Holy/Physical Graffiti". Pitchfork Media . Retrieved 10 October 2015. * ^ 1973 Rolling Stone Review * ^ 2003 Rolling Stone Review * ^ " Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
Houses of the Holy". Acclaimed Music . Retrieved 8 December 2014. * ^ "Reviews for Houses of the Holy
Houses of the Holy
by Led Zeppelin". Metacritic . Retrieved 13 July 2015. * ^ "Edwards, Gavin (30 July 2003). "Houses of the Holy" review". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 4 September 2008. * ^ Michael Wale, "Led Zeppelin", The Times , 11 July 1973. * ^ Fletcher, Gordon (7 June 1973). "Houses of the Holy". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 14 August 2017. * ^ "The Top 40 Albums 1973". rocklistmusic.co.uk. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2009. * ^ " Grammy Award for Best Album
Album
Package (Hipgnosis) – 2 March 1974". Grammy. Archived from the original on 26 October 2008. Retrieved 10 February 2009. * ^ "Classic Rock – 100 Greatest British Rock Album
Album
Ever – April 2006". Classic Rock. Retrieved 10 February 2009. * ^ "The Definitive 200: Top 200 Albums of All-Time". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (United States). Archived from the original on 27 September 2008. Retrieved 10 February 2009. * ^ "500 Greatest Albums Rolling Stone Music Lists". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 9 August 2011. * ^ "Staff Lists: Top 100 Albums of the 1970s". Pitchfork. 23 June 2004. Retrieved 9 August 2011. * ^ Bennett, Ross (29 July 2014). " Led Zeppelin