HOME
The Info List - House Of Valois





The House of Valois[1] (French pronunciation: ​[valwa]) was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet (or "Direct Capetians") to the French throne, and were the royal house of France
France
from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Anjou, Burgundy, and Alençon. The Valois descended from Charles, Count of Valois
Charles, Count of Valois
(1270–1325), the second surviving son of King Philip III of France
Philip III of France
(reigned 1270–1285). Their title to the throne was based on a precedent in 1316 (later retroactively attributed to the Merovingian
Merovingian
Salic law), which excluded females (Joan II of Navarre) as well as male descendants through the distaff line (Edward III of England), from the succession to the French throne.

Contents

1 Unexpected inheritance 2 Hundred Years' War 3 Centralization of power 4 Italian Wars 5 French Wars of Religion 6 List of Valois kings of France

6.1 Valois (direct) 6.2 Valois-Orléans 6.3 Valois-Angoulême

7 Valois king of Poland 8 Other significant titles held by the House of Valois

8.1 Counts and Dukes of Alençon 8.2 Counts and Dukes of Anjou 8.3 Dukes of Burgundy

8.3.1 Dukes of Brabant 8.3.2 Counts of Nevers

8.4 Dukes of Orléans

8.4.1 Counts of Angoulême

9 Illegitimate branches 10 Forms of address 11 See also 12 References

Unexpected inheritance[edit] The Capetian dynasty
Capetian dynasty
seemed secure both during and after the reign of Philip IV from 1285 to 1313. Philip had left three surviving sons (Louis, Philip and Charles) and a daughter (Isabella). Each son became king in turn but died young without male heirs, leaving only daughters who could not inherit the throne. When Charles IV died in 1328, the French succession became more problematic. In 1328 three candidates had plausible claims to the throne:

Philip, Count of Valois, son of Charles of Valois, who was the closest heir in male line and a grandson of Philip III. Because his father was the brother of the late Philip IV, he was therefore a nephew of Philip IV and the cousin of Louis X, Philip V and Charles IV. Further, Charles IV had chosen him as the regent before his death. Joan of Navarre, daughter of Louis X. Although Philip V had implemented Salic law
Salic law
to disbar females from inheriting the French Crown, she nevertheless had a strong claim as the heir-general of Philip IV, and had been initially supported by her maternal family upon the death of Louis X in her claim. She ultimately received the Kingdom of Navarre
Kingdom of Navarre
through its unique succession law. Edward III of England, son of Isabella of France, daughter and only surviving child of Philip IV. Edward claimed to be the heir as a grandson of Philip IV.

In England, Isabella of France
Isabella of France
claimed the throne on behalf of her son. Like the French, the English law of succession did not allow the succession of females,[2] but allowed the succession through the female line (as occurred de facto with Henry II of England). The French rejected Isabella's claims, arguing that since she herself, as a woman, could not succeed, then she could not transmit any such right to her son. Thus the French magnates chose Philip of Valois, who became Philip VI of France. The throne of Navarre went its separate way, to Joan of France, daughter of Louis X, who became Joan II of Navarre.

Philip III King of France r. 1270–1285

Charles of Valois b. 1270, d. 1325

Louis of Évreux b. 1276, d. 1319

Philip IV King of France King of Navarre r. 1285–1314

Philip VI King of France r. 1328–50

Louis X King of France King of Navarre r. 1314–16

Philip V King of France King of Navarre r. 1316–22

Charles IV King of France King of Navarre r. 1322–28

Isabella

Edward II King of England

Philip of Évreux King of Navarre b. 1306

Joan II Queen of Navarre b. 1312

Joan III of Burgundy b. 1308

Edward III King of England b. 1312

Charles of Évreux b. 1332

Philip of Burgundy b. 1323

Because diplomacy and negotiation had failed, Edward III would have to back his claims with force to obtain the French throne. For a few years, England and France
France
maintained an uneasy peace. Eventually, an escalation of conflict between the two kings led to the confiscation of the duchy of Aquitaine (1337). Instead of paying homage to the French king, as his ancestors had done, Edward claimed that he was the rightful King of France. These events helped launch the Hundred Years War (1337-1453) between England and France. Though England failed to win that prolonged conflict, English and British Monarchs until the late 18th Century continued to maintain, at least formally, a claim to the French throne. Hundred Years' War[edit] The Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
could be considered a lengthy war of succession between the houses of Valois and Plantagenet. The early reign of Philip VI was a promising one for France. The new king fought the Flemings on behalf of his vassal, the count of Flanders, and restored that count to power. Edward III's aggression against Scotland, a French ally, prompted Philip VI to confiscate Guyenne. In the past the English kings would have to submit to the King of France. But Edward, having descended from the French kings, claimed the throne for himself. France
France
was then at the height of its power. No one believed that the English king could make good his claim to France. Edward's initial strategy was to ally with Flanders and the princes of the Empire. The alliances were costly and not very productive. While on a truce the French and English kings intervened in the War of the Breton Succession. In 1346, Edward invaded France
France
and pillaged the countryside rather than attempt to hold territory. French forces led by Philip VI confronted Edward III at the Battle of Crécy, which resulted in a devastating and humiliating defeat for the French. Despite this, the most that Edward could make out of his victory was the capture of Calais. John II succeeded his father Philip VI in 1350. He was menaced by Charles II of Navarre, of the Évreux branch of the Capetian family, who aspired to the French throne by the right of his mother, the senior descendant of Philip IV of France. Charles' character eventually alienated both the French and English monarchs, because he readily switched sides whenever it suited his interest. In 1356, Edward, the Black Prince, eldest son and heir of Edward III, led an army to a chevauchée in France. John pursued the Black Prince, who tried to avoid battling the French king's superior force. Negotiations broke down. In the Battle of Poitiers, the French suffered another humiliating defeat, and their king was captured. Edward hoped to capitalize on the victory by invading France
France
and having himself crowned at Reims. But the new leader, the Dauphin Charles, avoided another pitched battle, and the city of Reims withstood siege. In the Treaty of Brétigny, the English king gained an enlarged Aquitaine in full sovereignty, gave up the duchy of Touraine, the counties of Anjou and Maine, the suzerainty of Brittany and of Flanders, and his claim to the French throne. Charles V became king in 1364. He supported Henry of Trastámara
Henry of Trastámara
in the Castilian Civil War, while the Black Prince supported the reigning king, Peter of Castile. The Black Prince won, but Peter refused to pay for his expenses. The Black Prince tried to recover his losses by raising taxes in Aquitaine, which prompted them to appeal to the King of France. War was renewed. The French recovered their territories place after place. When Charles died in 1380, only Calais, Bordeaux and Bayonne were left to the English. The ancient, great families of the feudal nobility had largely been replaced by an equally powerful class — the princes of the royal blood. With the confiscation of Guyenne, the only remaining non-Capetian peer was the Count of Flanders. The Montfort dukes of Brittany, the houses of Évreux and Bourbon, and the princes of the House of Valois, constituted the great nobility of the kingdom. Succeeding to the throne at the age of 11, the reign of Charles VI of France
France
was the first minority since that of Saint Louis' in 1226. Power devolved into the hands of his uncles, the dukes of Anjou, Berry and Burgundy. The dukes squandered the resources of the monarchy to pursue their own ends. Anjou pursued his claim in the Kingdom of Naples; Berry governed his large estates in Languedoc; and Burgundy, having married the heiress of Flanders, found it more convenient to rule his vast dominions from Paris. Charles terminated his uncles' regency at the age of 21, even though he would have been entitled to it as early as the age of 14. His early reign was promising, but the onset of madness, which he may have inherited from the Bourbon dukes through his mother, would prove to be disastrous for France. Burgundy, the most powerful of the princes and peers, naturally took power in his hands. But his nephew, Louis I, Duke of Orléans, the king's brother, contested his authority. Rivalry between the two princes and their descendants led to the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War. In 1415 Henry V of England, great-grandson of Edward III, invaded France. In the Battle of Agincourt, the Armagnac faction fought the English and were decimated. The dukes of Orléans and Bourbon were captured, and the Burgundian party gained ascendancy in Paris. Henry proceeded to conquer Normandy. The Armagnacs assassinated John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, a belated revenge for the assassination of Louis I, Duke of Orléans. The new duke, Philip the Good, allied himself with the English. In the Treaty of Troyes, Henry V of England became regent of France
France
and heir to that throne; he also married Catherine of Valois, the French king's daughter. The Dauphin Charles was effectively disinherited. To assume a greater appearance of legality, it was ratified by the Estates General later that year. To accept the Treaty of Troyes
Treaty of Troyes
would be a denial of the legitimacy of the Valois. While England was accustomed to change her kings, the French largely adhered to theirs. The treaty was recognized only in English-controlled territories in northern France, and by the allied dukes of Burgundy and Brittany. Henry V died before his sickly father-in-law, Charles VI, leaving the future of the Lancastrian Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
in the hands of his infant son Henry VI of England, and his brother, John, Duke of Bedford. The able leadership of Bedford prevented Charles VII from retaking control of northern France. In 1429, Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
successfully raised the siege of Orléans and had the king crowned at Reims, an important French propaganda victory. Power struggles between Bedford, his brother Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, and their uncle Cardinal Beaufort hampered the English war effort. The Duke of Burgundy, alienated by the blunders of Gloucester, reconciled with the King of France
France
in the Treaty of Arras, 1435. Bedford had died that same year. The warring parties arranged long truces, during which the French king prepared for the renewal of war, while the English relaxed and took a break from fresh taxes. By 1450, the French had reconquered Normandy, and Guyenne the next year. A final English attempt to recover their losses ended in defeat at the Battle of Castillon, 1453. With this victory, the English had been expelled in all of France
France
except Calais. The Valois succession was upheld and confirmed. Centralization of power[edit] With the expulsion of the English, Charles VII had reestablished his kingdom as the foremost power of Western Europe. He created France's first standing army since Roman times, and limited papal power in the Gallican Church by the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges. But his later years were marred by quarrels with his eldest son and heir, the Dauphin Louis, who refused to obey him. The dauphin was banished from court for his intrigues, and did not return to France
France
until his father's death. Louis XI succeeded his father in 1461. At the beginning of his reign Louis reversed his father's policies, abolishing the Pragmatic Sanction to please the pope and the standing armies, which he distrusted, in favor of Swiss mercenaries. As a prince he had leagued with the nobility against his father, but as a king he found that his power could only be maintained by subduing them. He was the lifelong enemy of Charles the Bold, Count of Charolais, and later Duke of Burgundy. In 1465 the League of the Public Weal, an alliance of the feudal princes, which consisted of Charles, Duke of Berry, the king's brother, the Count of Charolais, the Dukes of Brittany, Bourbon, Lorraine (then a member of the House of Anjou), and several others, attempted to restore their feudal prerogatives. Louis feared a further escalation of the conflict against this formidable coalition. To obtain peace he conceded all their demands, including the Duchy of Normandy to his brother, which carried with it one-third of the offices of state. Louis seldom relied on the fortunes of war, but on intrigue and diplomacy. He maintained his power by paying pensions to well-placed people in the courts of his vassals and in neighboring states. He retook Normandy from his brother at the first opportunity. He bought off Edward IV of England
Edward IV of England
to desist from attacking France. He fomented rebellions in the Burgundian dominions. At the death of Charles the Bold in 1477, he seized the duchy of Burgundy, which he claimed as a reverted fief, even though the original grant did not specify the exclusion of female heirs. But the marriage of Mary of Burgundy, heiress of Charles the Bold, to Maximilian of Austria, would prove problematic for later generations. In 1481, the last male of the House of Anjou died, willing all the Angevin possessions to the king. At the end of his reign royal power had become absolute in France. Italian Wars[edit] Charles VIII succeeded his father in 1483, at the age of 13. During his minority the nobles again attempted to seize power, but they were defeated by Charles' sister Anne of France. Charles' marriage to Anne of Brittany prevented a future total Habsburg encirclement of France. As the heir of the House of Anjou, Charles VIII decided to press his claim to the Kingdom of Naples. It was the beginning of the Italian Wars. In September 1494 Charles invaded Italy with 25,000 men, and attained his object by 22 February 1495, virtually unopposed. But the speed and power of the French advance frightened the powers of Italy. The League of Venice, which consisted of the Republics of Venice and Florence, the Duchies of Milan and Mantua, the Kings of Spain and Naples, the Emperor and the Pope, united against the French. Charles, who did not wish to be trapped in Naples, had to fight against them in the Battle of Fornovo. Charles succeeded in returning to France, but all his conquests and booty were lost. The debts he incurred for the campaign prevented him from resuming the war, and he died in an accident in 1498. With his death the senior line of the House of Valois became extinct. He was succeeded by his cousin, the Duke of Orleans, who became Louis XII of France. Louis XII married his predecessor's widow, Anne of Brittany, in order to retain that province for France. The new king also continued his predecessor's policy in Italy. The Dukes of Orleans were descended from Valentina Visconti, and through her claimed the Duchy of Milan. From 1499 to 1512, excepting a brief period in 1500, Louis XII was Duke of Milan. French military activity continued in Italy, with various leagues formed to counter the dominant power. Louis died without a son, and was succeeded by his cousin and son-in-law, Francis of Angoulême, who became Francis I of France
Francis I of France
in 1515. Francis I belonged to a cadet branch of the House of Orleans. In the Battle of Marignano, Francis defeated the Swiss, who had ousted his predecessor from Milan, and took control of the duchy. In the Imperial Election of 1519, the Kings of Spain, France, and England fought for the imperial title. The King of Spain was a grandson of the deceased emperor, but the electors thought him to be a foreigner as much as the French king. The kings resorted to bribes, and the Spanish king became Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The election of the Spanish king to the imperial throne made him the first monarch in Europe, both in title and in reality. Annoyed, the French king demanded that the emperor pay homage for Flanders and Artois; the emperor responded by reasserting his claim to the duchy of Burgundy. The rivalry of the French royal house with the Habsburgs dominated the rest of the sixteenth century. The emperor took Milan from the French in 1521. The King of England and the pope supported the emperor. France
France
was surrounded by enemies on all sides. Domestic troubles led to the defection of Charles III, Duke of Bourbon
Charles III, Duke of Bourbon
and Constable of France, to the emperor. In 1525, at the Battle of Pavia, the French were defeated and the king himself was captured. Francis obtained his release through the Treaty of Madrid, in which he renounced claims in Naples and Milan, surrendered Burgundy to Spain, abandoned sovereignty over Flanders and Artois, and gave up two of his sons as hostages. Francis repudiated the treaty. Having often found himself alone in his struggle against the emperor, Francis formed the Franco-Ottoman alliance
Franco-Ottoman alliance
with the sultan, to the scandal of Christian Europe. Francis supported the conversion of the German princes to Protestantism, as it increased his potential allies against the emperor. In his own dominions, the Protestants were suppressed. Henry II succeeded to the throne in 1547. He continued his father's policies, as did his successors. He persecuted Protestants in his kingdom, while Protestants abroad were his allies. Henry captured the three bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun. French offensives failed in Italy. In 1556, Charles V abdicated, splitting the Habsburg dominions between his son, Philip II of Spain, who gained Spain and the Low Countries, and his brother Ferdinand I, who became emperor. The French retook Calais after England allied with Spain. The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559) ended the Italian Wars. The French lost all their Italian territories except Saluzzo, and were confirmed in the possession of Calais and the three bishoprics. It was a diplomatic victory for Philip II, who gave up nothing which belonged to himself. The Spanish king retained Franche-Comté
Franche-Comté
and was confirmed in his possession of Milan, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and the State of Presidi, making him the most powerful ruler in Italy. French Wars of Religion[edit] The last phase of Valois rule in France
France
was marked by the French Wars of Religion. Henry II died in a jousting accident in 1559. His eldest son and heir, Francis II, succeeded him. The new king was already King of Scotland by right of his wife, Mary, Queen of Scots. The queen's maternal relatives, the House of Guise, gained an ascendancy over the young king. The House of Guise
House of Guise
was a cadet branch of the ducal House of Lorraine. They claimed descent from Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and had designs on the French throne. They considered the House of Bourbon, princes of the blood, as their natural enemies. The leading Bourbons, the brothers Antoine, King of Navarre, and Louis, Prince of Condé, were Protestants. The House of Guise
House of Guise
identified themselves as champions of the Catholic cause. They were on the point of executing Condé when the young king died. With the succession of her minor son Charles IX in 1560, Catherine de' Medici maneuvered for a balance of power. She released Condé, hoping to use the Bourbons as a counterweight against the Guises. Antoine of Navarre converted to Catholicism and became Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom. The Massacre of Vassy
Massacre of Vassy
sparked the "first" religious war between the Catholics and the Huguenots. Navarre and Guise died in this war. Anne de Montmorency, Constable of France, was the notable casualty of the second war. Condé died in the third war. The Huguenots were unable to win a substantive victory, but were able to keep an army in the field. Henry, King of Navarre, married Margaret of France, sister of Charles IX, in 1572. The marriage, which had been expected to reconcile the Protestants and Catholics, proved to be a disappointment. The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre ensued; the Huguenots who flocked in Paris for the wedding were massacred en masse. Navarre and Condé were spared, forced to convert, and detained. The guilt of having permitted the massacre would haunt Charles for the rest of his life. In 1573, the king's brother, Henry, Duke of Anjou, was elected King of Poland. In 1574, only three months after Henry's coronation as King of Poland, he succeeded to the French throne as Henry III. The next year the king's only remaining brother, the Duke of Alençon, fled the court and joined with Condé and Navarre. This combined threat forced the new king to grant the demands of the rebels. Alençon was made Duke of Anjou. The concessions to the Huguenots disquieted the Catholics, who formed the Catholic League. The League was led by the princes of the House of Lorraine
House of Lorraine
— the dukes of Guise, Mayenne, Aumale, Elboeuf, Mercœur and Lorraine, supported by Spain. The Huguenots held the southwest and were allied to England and the princes of Germany. The death of the king's brother, in 1584, meant that the Huguenot King of Navarre had become heir presumptive to the throne of France. Pressured by the Catholic League, the king issued the Treaty of Nemours, which outlawed Protestantism and made Protestants incapable of holding royal office. In the resulting War of the Three Henrys, the royalists led by the king, the Huguenots led by Henry of Navarre, and the Catholic League led by Henry of Guise, fought a three-way contest for the control of France. After the humiliation of the Day of the Barricades, Henry III fled from Paris. Guise had entered Paris against his express prohibition; he resolved to assassinate the audacious duke. The assassination of Guise drew the odium of the Catholic League. Henry III sought the alliance of Navarre. The two kings were on the point of taking Paris with their great army, when the French king fell by the hands of an assassin. With his death the male line of the House of Valois had been completely extinguished, after reigning for 261 years in France. List of Valois kings of France[edit]

French Monarchy

Capetian Dynasty (House of Valois)

Philip VI

Children John II Philip, Duke of Orléans

John II

Children Charles V Louis I of Anjou John, Duke of Berry Philip the Bold

Charles V

Children Charles VI Louis, Duke of Orléans

Charles VI

Children Isabella of Valois Michelle of Valois Catherine of Valois Charles VII

Charles VII

Children Louis XI Charles, Duke of Berry

Louis XI

Children Charles VIII

Charles VIII

v t e

French Monarchy

Capetian Dynasty, House of Valois (Valois-Orléans branch)

Louis XII

Children Claude of France Renée of France

v t e

French Monarchy

Capetian Dynasty, House of Valois (Valois-Angoulême branch)

Francis I

Children Francis, Dauphin of Viennois Henry II Magdalene, Queen of Scots Charles of Valois Margaret, Duchess of Savoy

Henry II

Children Francis II Elizabeth, Queen of Spain Claude, Duchess of Lorraine Louis, Duke of Orléans Charles IX Henry III Margaret, Queen of Navarre Francis, Duke of Anjou Joan of Valois Victoria of Valois

Francis II

Charles IX

Henry III

v t e

Valois (direct)[edit]

Philip VI, the Fortunate 1328–1350, son of Charles of Valois John II, the Good 1350–1364 Charles V, the Wise 1364–1380 Charles VI, the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad 1380–1422 Charles VII, the Victorious or the Well-Served 1422–1461 Louis XI, the Prudent 1461–1483 Charles VIII, the Affable 1483–1498

Valois-Orléans[edit]

Louis XII, the Father of the People 1498–1515, great-grandson of Charles V of France

Valois-Angoulême[edit]

Francis I – 1515–1547, great-great-grandson of Charles V of France Henry II – 1547–1559 Francis II – 1559–1560 Charles IX – 1560–1574 Henry III – 1574–1589

The application of the Salic Law
Salic Law
meant that with the extinction of the Valois in the male line, the Bourbons succeeded to the throne as descendants of Louis IX. Valois king of Poland[edit]

Henry III of France
Henry III of France
– 1573–1574

Other significant titles held by the House of Valois[edit] Counts and Dukes of Alençon[edit] House of Valois-Alençon

Charles II, count (1325–1346), second son of Charles of Valois Charles III, count (1346–1361) Peter II, count (1361–1391) John I, count (1391–1414) John I, duke (1414–1415) John II, duke (1415–1424 and 1449–1474) René I, duke (1478–1492) Charles IV, duke (1492–1525)

Counts and Dukes of Anjou[edit] House of Valois-Anjou

Louis I, duke (1360–1383) (also king of Jerusalem and Naples as Louis I), second son of John II of France Louis II (1377–1417), son of (also king of Naples as Louis II) Louis III (1403–1434), son of (also king of Naples as Louis III) René I (1409–1480), brother of (also king of Jerusalem and Naples as René I) Charles IV (1436–1481),

Dukes of Burgundy[edit] House of Valois-Burgundy

Philip II the Bold (1363–1404), fourth son of John II of France John II the Fearless (1404–1419) Philip III the Good (1419–1467) Charles I the Bold (1467–1477) Mary I the Rich (1477–1482)

Dukes of Brabant[edit] House of Valois-Burgundy-Brabant

Anthony I (1406–1415), second son of Philip the Bold
Philip the Bold
of Burgundy John IV (1415–1427) Philip I (1427–1430)

Counts of Nevers[edit] House of Valois-Burgundy-Nevers

Philip II (1404–1415), third son of Philip the Bold
Philip the Bold
of Burgundy Charles I (1415–1464) John II (1464–1491)

Dukes of Orléans[edit] House of Valois-Orléans

Louis I, Duke of Orléans
Duke of Orléans
(1372–1407), younger son of Charles V of France Charles, Duke of Orléans
Duke of Orléans
(1394–1465) Louis II, Duke of Orléans
Duke of Orléans
(1462–1515), later also King of France
France
as Louis XII

Counts of Angoulême[edit] House of Valois-Orléans-Angoulême

John, Count of Angoulême
John, Count of Angoulême
(1399–1467), a younger son of Louis I, Duke of Orléans Charles, Count of Angoulême
Charles, Count of Angoulême
(1459–1496) Francis, Count of Angoulême (1494–1547), later also King of France as Francis I

Illegitimate branches[edit]

House of Valois-Dunois, counts of Longueville (see Jean de Dunois), descended from a son of Louis I, Duke of Orléans House of Valois-Saint-Remy, counts of Saint-Rémy (see Jeanne of Valois-Saint-Rémy), descended from a son of Henry II of France

Forms of address[edit] Forms of address for Valois kings and princes included "Most Christian Majesty"." Dauphin" . "your Grace" . "Your Majesty" . "Most regal Majesty " . See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to House of Valois.

Ancien Régime French monarchs family tree Valois Tapestries

References[edit]

^ Valois meaning, literally, "of the valley" or "from the valley" ^ Empress Matilda
Empress Matilda
had claimed the English throne in the early 12th century. However her claim was contested by Stephen of Blois, occasioning a lengthy civil war, and Mathilda was not usually regarded as a legitimate monarch.

*Royal House* House of Valois Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty

Preceded by House of Capet Ruling House of France 1328–1589 Succeeded by House of Bourbon

Preceded by Capetian House of Burgundy Ruling House of the Duchy of Burgundy 1363–1482 Succeeded by House of Habsburg

v t e

Heads of state of France

Styled President of the Republic after 1871, except from 1940 to 1944 (Chief of State) and 1944 to 1947 (Chairman of the Provisional Government). Detailed monarch family tree Simplified monarch family tree

Merovingians (486–751)

Clovis I Childebert I Chlothar I Charibert I Guntram Chilperic I Sigebert I Childebert II Chlothar II Dagobert I Sigebert II Clovis II Chlothar III Childeric II Theuderic III Clovis IV Childebert III Dagobert III Chilperic II Chlothar IV Theuderic IV Childeric III

Carolingians, Robertians and Bosonids (751–987)

Pepin the Short Carloman I Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(Charles I) Louis I Charles II Louis II Louis III Carloman II Charles the Fat OdoR Charles III Robert IR RudolphB Louis IV Lothair Louis V

House of Capet
House of Capet
(987–1328)

Hugh Capet Robert II Henry I Philip I Louis VI Louis VII Philip II Louis VIII Louis IX Philip III Philip IV Louis X John I Philip V Charles IV

House of Valois
House of Valois
(1328–1589)

Philip VI John II Charles V Charles VI Charles VII Louis XI Charles VIII Louis XII Francis I Henry II Francis II Charles IX Henry III

House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(1422–1453)

Henry VI of England

House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(1589–1792)

Henry IV Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis XV Louis XVI Louis XVII

First Republic (1792–1804)

National Convention Directory Consulate

First Empire (1804–1815)

Napoleon
Napoleon
I Napoleon
Napoleon
II

Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
(1815–1830)

Louis XVIII Charles X Louis XIX Henry V

July Monarchy
July Monarchy
(1830–1848)

Louis Philippe I

Second Republic (1848–1852)

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure Executive Commission Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte

Second Empire (1852–1870)

Napoleon
Napoleon
III

Government of National Defense (1870–1871)

Louis-Jules Trochu

Third Republic (1871–1940)

Adolphe Thiers Patrice de Mac-Mahon Jules Armand Dufaure* Jules Grévy Maurice Rouvier* Sadi Carnot Charles Dupuy* Jean Casimir-Perier Charles Dupuy* Félix Faure Charles Dupuy* Émile Loubet Armand Fallières Raymond Poincaré Paul Deschanel Alexandre Millerand Frédéric François-Marsal* Gaston Doumergue Paul Doumer André Tardieu* Albert Lebrun

Vichy France
Vichy France
(1940–1944)

Philippe Pétain

Provisional Government (1944–1947)

Charles de Gaulle Félix Gouin Georges Bidault Vincent Auriol Léon Blum

Fourth Republic (1947–1958)

Vincent Auriol René Coty

Fifth Republic (1958–present)

Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher* Georges Pompidou Alain Poher* Valéry Giscard d'Estaing François Mitterrand Jacques Chirac Nicolas Sarkozy François Hollande Emmanuel Macron

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk*. Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before being fully elected.

v t e

Royal houses of Europe

Nordic countries

Denmark

Knýtlinga Fairhair Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Finland

Bjelbo Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov

Norway

Fairhair Knýtlinga Hardrada Gille Sverre Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Sweden

Munsö Stenkil Sverker Eric Bjelbo Estridsen Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse-Kassel Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte

Iceland

Fairhair Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Britain and Ireland

England

Mercia Wuffing Kent Sussex Essex Bernicia Deira Northumbria Uí Ímair Wessex Knýtlinga Normandy Angevin Plantagenet Lancaster York Tudor

Scotland

Fergus Óengus Strathclyde Mann and the Isles Alpin Northumbria Bernicia Uí Ímair Galloway Dunkeld Sverre Balliol Bruce Stuart

Wales

Dinefwr Aberffraw Gwynedd Mathrafal Cunedda Tudor

Ireland

Ulaid Dál Riata Érainn Corcu Loígde Laigin Connachta Uí Néill Ó Gallchobhair Ó Domhnail Ó Néill Ó Máel Sechlainn Mac Murchada Ó Briain Mac Lochlainn Ó Conchobhair

Gaelic Ireland

Laigin Síl Conairi Ulaid Dáirine Osraige Cruthin Dál nAraidi Connachta Uí Fiachrach Uí Briúin Uí Néill Síl nÁedo Sláine Clann Cholmáin Eóganachta Chaisil Glendamnach Raithlind Uí Dúnlainge Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
(Norse) Uí Ceinnselaig Dál gCais Ó Briain Mac Carthaig Ó Conchobhair Ó Ruairc De Burgh (Norman) FitzGerald (Norman) Ó Domhnaill Ó Néill

Great Britain

Stuart Orange-Nassau Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Windsor

Eastern Europe

Albania

Angevin Progon Arianiti Thopia Kastrioti Dukagjini Wied Zogu Ottoman Savoy

Armenia2

Orontid Artaxiad Arsacid Bagratid Artsruni Rubenids Hethumids Lusignan Savoy

Bosnia

Boričević Kulinić Kotromanić Kosača Ottoman Habsburg-Lorraine

Bulgaria

Dulo Krum Cometopuli Asen Smilets Terter Shishman Sratsimir Battenberg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Croatia

Trpimirović Domagojević Svačić Ottoman Luxembourg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine Bonaparte Savoy (disputed)

Cyprus2

Plantagenet Lusignan Ottoman Savoy

Georgia1

Pharnavazid Artaxiad Arsacid Ottoman Chosroid Bagrationi

Greece

Argead Macedonian Doukas Komnenos Angelos Laskaris Palaiologos Ottoman Wittelsbach Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Lithuania

Mindaugas Gediminids Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

Moldavia

Dragoș (Drăgoșești) Rossetti Bogdan-Muşat Movilești Drăculeşti Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Racoviță Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Basarab

Montenegro

Vojislavljević Balšić Ottoman Crnojević Petrović-Njegoš

Romania

House of Basarab Rossetti Bogdan-Mușat Movilești Drăculești Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Romanov Racoviță Ottoman Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Romania/Royal family

Russia1

Rurik Borjigin Godunov Shuysky Vasa Romanov

Serbia

Vlastimirović Vukanović Nemanjić Lazarević Mrnjavčević Dejanović Branković Ottoman Obrenović Karađorđević

Turkey1

Ottoman

Ukraine

Rurikids Piast Gediminids Olshanski Olelkovich Giray Romanov Habsburg-Lorraine

1 Transcontinental country. 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia
Asia
but having socio-political connections with Europe.

Western Europe

Belgium

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

France

Merovingian Carolingian Capet Valois Bourbon Bonaparte Orléans

Italy

Aleramici Appiani Bonaparte Bourbon-Parma Bourbon-Two Sicilies Carolingian Della Rovere Este Farnese Flavian Gonzaga Grimaldi Habsburg Julio-Claudian Malatesta Malaspina Medici Montefeltro Nerva–Antonine Ordelaffi Orsini Palaiologos Pallavicini Savoy Severan Sforza Visconti

Luxembourg

Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Bourbon-Parma

Monaco

Grimaldi

Netherlands

Bonaparte Orange-Nassau (Mecklenburg) (Lippe) (Amsberg)

Portugal

Vímara Peres Burgundy Aviz Habsburg Spanish Braganza

Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Spain

Asturias Barcelona Jiménez Burgundy Champagne Capet Évreux Trastámara Habsburg Bourbon

Bonaparte Savoy

Central Europe

Austria

Babenberg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Bohemia

Přemyslid Piast Luxembourg Jagiellon Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Germany

Ascania Carolingian Conradines Ottonian Luitpolding Salian Süpplingenburg Hohenstaufen Welf Habsburg Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Nassau Luxembourg Wittelsbach Schwarzburg Brunswick-Lüneburg House of Pomerania Hohenzollern Württemberg Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Mecklenburg Vasa Palatine Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov Bonaparte Wettin Lippe Zähringen

Hungary

Árpád Přemyslid Wittelsbach Angevin Luxembourg Hunyadi Jagiellon Szapolyai Ottoman Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein

Poland

Piast Přemyslid Samborides Griffins Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski

After partitions:

Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Kingdom of Poland Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Wettin Duchy of Warsaw Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk Hohenzollern Duchy of Poznań

v t e

France topics

History

Periods

Timeline Prehistory Celtic Gaul Roman Gaul Kingdom of the Visigoths Francia

West Francia

Middle Ages Early modern era Long nineteenth century

Revolutionary era Napoleonic era Belle Époque

Twentieth century

Regimes

Absolute monarchy

Ancien Régime

First Republic First Empire Constitutional monarchy

Bourbon Restoration July Monarchy

Second Republic Second Empire Government of National Defense Third Republic France
France
during the Second World War

Free France Vichy France Provisional Government of the French Republic

Fourth Republic Fifth Republic

Geography

Administrative divisions Cities Islands Lakes Mountains Rivers

Politics

Constitution Elections

presidential

Foreign relations Government Human rights

Intersex LGBT

Judiciary Law

enforcement

Military Parliament Political parties

Economy

Agriculture Banking

Central bank

Economic history Energy Euro Exports Franc (former currency) French subdivisions by GDP Stock exchange Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Trade unions Transport

Society

Crime Demographics Education Health care People Poverty Religion Social class Welfare

Culture

Architecture Art Cinema (comedy) Cuisine Fashion Gardens Language Literature Media Music Philosophy Public holidays Sport Symbols Theatre

Outline

Book Category Portal

.