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The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland. The dynasty's patrilineal Breton ancestors had held the office of High Steward of Scotland
High Steward of Scotland
since the 12th century, after arriving by way of Norman England. The royal Stewart line was founded by Robert II, and they were Kings and Queens of Scots from the late 14th century until the union with England in 1707. Mary, Queen of Scots, was brought up in France, where she adopted the French spelling of the name, Stuart. Her son, James VI of Scotland, inherited the thrones of England and Ireland upon the death of Elizabeth I in 1603. Except for the period of the Commonwealth, 1649–1660, the Stuarts were monarchs of the British Isles and its growing empire, until the death of Queen Anne in 1714.[note 3] In total, nine Stewart/Stuart monarchs ruled Scotland alone from 1371 until 1603. James VI of Scotland
James VI of Scotland
then inherited the realms of Elizabeth I of England, becoming James I of England and Ireland in the Union of the Crowns. Following the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
in 1688, two Stuart queens ruled the isles: Mary II and Anne. Both were the Protestant daughters of James VII and II by his first wife. Their father had converted to Catholicism and his new wife gave birth to a son in 1688, who would be brought up a Roman Catholic and would precede his half-sisters; so James was deposed by Parliament in 1689, in favour of his daughters. But neither had any children who survived to adulthood, so under the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Act of Security 1704, the crown passed to the House of Hanover
House of Hanover
on the death of Queen Anne in 1714. During the reign of the Stuarts, Scotland developed from a relatively poor and feudal country into a prosperous, modern and centralised state.[clarification needed] They ruled during the transitive period in European history between the Middle Ages, via the Renaissance, to the midpoint of the Early modern period. Monarchs such as James IV were known for sponsoring exponents of the Northern Renaissance
Renaissance
such as the poet Robert Henryson, among others. After the Stuarts reigned over all of Great Britain, the arts and sciences continued to develop; William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
wrote many of his best known plays during the Jacobean era, while institutions such as the Royal Society
Royal Society
and the Royal Mail
Royal Mail
were established during the reign of Charles II.

Contents

1 Origins

1.1 Etymology 1.2 Background

2 History 3 Present-day 4 List of monarchs

4.1 Monarchs of Scotland 4.2 Monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland

5 Family tree

5.1 Origin 5.2 House of Stewart 5.3 House of Stuart

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Sources 10 Further reading 11 External links

Origins[edit] Etymology[edit]

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The name "Stewart" derives from the political position of office similar to a governor, known as a steward. It was originally adopted as the family surname by Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland, who was the third member of the family to hold the position. Prior to this, family names were not used, but instead they had patronyms defined through the father; for example the first two High Stewards were known as FitzAlan
FitzAlan
and FitzWalter respectively. The gallicised spelling was first borne by John Stewart of Darnley after his time in the French wars. During the 16th century, the French spelling Stuart was adopted by Mary, Queen of Scots, when she was living in France. She sanctioned the change to ensure the correct pronunciation of the Scots version of the name Stewart, because retaining the letter 'w' would have made it difficult for French speakers, who followed the Germans in usually rendering "w" as /v/. The spelling Stuart was also used by her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley; he was the father of James VI and I, so the official spelling Stuart for the British royal family derives from him.

Principal members of the house of Stuart following the 1603 Union of the Crowns.

Background[edit] The ancestral origins of the Stuart family are quite obscure—what is known for certain is that they can trace their ancestry back to Alan FitzFlaad, a Breton who came over to Great Britain not long after the Norman conquest.[2] Alan had been the hereditary steward of the Bishop of Dol in the Duchy of Brittany;[3] Alan had a good relationship with the ruling Norman monarch Henry I of England
Henry I of England
who awarded him with lands in Shropshire.[3] The FitzAlan
FitzAlan
family quickly established themselves as a prominent Anglo-Norman noble house, with some of its members serving as High Sheriff of Shropshire.[3][4] It was the great-grandson of Alan named Walter FitzAlan
Walter FitzAlan
who became the first hereditary High Steward of Scotland, while his brother William's family would go on to become Earls of Arundel. When the civil war in the Kingdom of England, known as The Anarchy, broke out between legitimist claimant Matilda, Lady of the English and her cousin who had usurped her, King Stephen, Walter had sided with Matilda.[5] Another supporter of Matilda was her uncle David I of Scotland from the House of Dunkeld.[5] After Matilda was pushed out of England into the County of Anjou, essentially failing in her legitimist attempt for the throne, many of her supporters in England fled also. It was then that Walter followed David up to the Kingdom of Scotland, where he was granted lands in Renfrewshire
Renfrewshire
and the title for life of Lord High Steward.[5] The next monarch of Scotland, Malcolm IV, made the High Steward title a hereditary arrangement. While High Stewards, the family were based at Dundonald, South Ayrshire
Dundonald, South Ayrshire
between the 12th and 13th centuries. History[edit]

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Stewart of Stewart

Stewart of Albany

Stewart of Barclye

Stewart of Garlies

Stewart of Minto

Stewart of Atholl

Stewart of Bute

Stuart of Bute

Stewart of Ardvorlich

Stewart of Physgill

Stewart of Rothesay

The sixth High Steward of Scotland, Walter Stewart (1293–1326), married Marjorie, daughter of Robert the Bruce, and also played an important part in the Battle of Bannockburn
Battle of Bannockburn
gaining further favour. Their son Robert was heir to the House of Bruce, the Lordship of Cunningham and the Bruce lands of Bourtreehill; he eventually inherited the Scottish throne when his uncle David II died childless in 1371. In 1503, James IV attempted to secure peace with England by marrying King Henry VII's daughter, Margaret Tudor. The birth of their son, later James V, brought the House of Stewart into the line of descent of the House of Tudor, and the English throne. Margaret Tudor
Margaret Tudor
later married Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, and their daughter, Margaret Douglas, was the mother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. In 1565, Darnley married his half-cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, the daughter of James V. Darnley's father was Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, a member of the Stewart of Darnley branch of the House. Lennox was a descendant of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland, also descended from James II, being Mary's heir presumptive. Thus Darnley was also related to Mary on his father's side and because of this connection, Mary's heirs remained part of the House of Stuart. Following John Stewart of Darnley's ennoblement for his part at the Battle of Baugé
Battle of Baugé
in 1421 and the grant of lands to him at Aubigny and Concressault, the Darnley Stewarts' surname was gallicised to Stuart. Both Mary, Queen of Scots, and Lord Darnley had strong claims on the English throne, through their mutual grandmother, Margaret Tudor. This eventually led to the accession of the couple's only child James as King of Scotland, England, and Ireland in 1603. However, this was a Personal Union, as the three Kingdoms shared a monarch, but had separate governments, churches, and institutions. Indeed, the personal union did not prevent an armed conflict, known as the Bishops' Wars, breaking out between England and Scotland in 1639. This was to become part of the cycle of political and military conflict that marked the reign of Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland, culminating in a series of conflicts known as the War of the Three Kingdoms. The trial and execution of Charles I by the English Parliament in 1649 began 11 years of republican government known as the English Interregnum. Scotland initially recognised the late King's son, also called Charles, as their monarch, before being subjugated and forced to enter Cromwell's Commonwealth by General Monck's occupying army. During this period, the principal members of the House of Stuart
House of Stuart
lived in exile in mainland Europe. The younger Charles returned to Britain to assume his three thrones in 1660 as "Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland", but would date his reign from his father's death eleven years before. In feudal and dynastic terms, the Scottish reliance on French support was revived during the reign of Charles II, whose own mother was French. His sister Henrietta married into the French royal family. Charles II left no legitimate children, but his numerous illegitimate descendants included the Dukes of Buccleuch, the Dukes of Grafton, the Dukes of Saint Albans and the Dukes of Richmond.

Monument to the Royal Stuarts
Monument to the Royal Stuarts
in St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
– Work of Antonio Canova.

These French and Roman Catholic connections proved unpopular and resulted in the downfall of the Stuarts, whose mutual enemies identified with Protestantism and because James VII and II offended the Anglican establishment by proposing tolerance not only for Catholics but for Protestant Dissenters. The Glorious Revolution caused the overthrow of King James in favour of his son-in-law and his daughter, William and Mary. James continued to claim the thrones of England and Scotland to which he had been crowned, and encouraged revolts in his name, and his grandson Charles (also known as Bonnie Prince Charlie) led an ultimately unsuccessful rising in 1745, ironically becoming symbols of conservative rebellion and Romanticism. Some blame the identification of the Roman Catholic Church with the Stuarts for the extremely lengthy delay in the passage of Catholic emancipation until Jacobitism
Jacobitism
(as represented by direct Stuart heirs) was extinguished; however it was as likely to be caused by entrenched anti-Catholic prejudice among the Anglican establishment of England. Despite the Whig intentions of tolerance to be extended to Irish subjects, this was not the preference of Georgian Tories and their failure at compromise played a subsequent role in the present division of Ireland.[citation needed] Present-day[edit] The Royal House of Stuart
House of Stuart
became extinct with the death of Cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart, brother of Charles Edward Stuart, in 1807. Duke Francis of Bavaria is the current senior heir.[6] However, Charles II had a number of illegitimate sons whose surviving descendants in the male line include Charles Gordon-Lennox, 11th Duke of Richmond; Henry FitzRoy, 12th Duke of Grafton; Murray Beauclerk, 14th Duke of St Albans; and Richard Scott, 10th Duke of Buccleuch. In addition, James II's illegitimate son, James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, founded the House of FitzJames
House of FitzJames
comprising two branches, one in France and one in Spain. The last of the French branch died in 1967; the senior heir of James II's male line descendants is Jacobo Hernando Fitz-James Stuart, 16th Duke of Peñaranda de Duero. List of monarchs[edit] Monarchs of Scotland[edit]

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Portrait Name From Until Relationship with predecessor

Robert II 22 February 1371 19 April 1390 nephew[7] of David II who died without issue. Robert's mother Marjorie Bruce was daughter of Robert I.

Robert III 19 April 1390 4 April 1406 son of Robert II of Scotland.

James I 4 April 1406 21 February 1437 son of Robert III of Scotland.

James II 21 February 1437 3 August 1460 son of James I of Scotland.

James III 3 August 1460 11 June 1488 son of James II of Scotland.

James IV 11 June 1488 9 September 1513 son of James III of Scotland.

James V 9 September 1513 14 December 1542 son of James IV of Scotland.

Mary 14 December 1542 24 July 1567 daughter of James V of Scotland.

James VI 24 July 1567 27 March 1625 son of Mary, Queen of Scots.

Monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland[edit]

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These monarchs used the title "King/Queen of Great Britain", although that title had no basis in law until the Acts of Union 1707
Acts of Union 1707
came into effect on 1 May 1707. Legally, they each simultaneously occupied two thrones, as "King/Queen of England" and "King/Queen of Scotland".

Portrait Name From Until Relationship with predecessor

James VI and I 24 March 1603 27 March 1625 Great-Great grandson of Henry VII of England. King of Scotland alone until inheriting the titles King of England
King of England
and Ireland, including claim to France from the extinct Tudors.

Charles I 27 March 1625 30 January 1649 (executed) son of James VI and I

Charles II 30 January 1649 (de jure); 2 May 1660 (de facto) 6 February 1685 son of Charles I. Prohibited by Parliament from assuming the throne during a republican period of government known as the Commonwealth of England, but then accepted as king in 1661.

James VII and II 6 February 1685 11 December 1688 brother of Charles II, who died without legitimate issue. Son of Charles I. Overthrown at the Revolution of 1688. Died in 1701.

Mary II 13 February 1689 28 December 1694 daughter of James II & VII, who was still alive and pretending to the throne. Co-monarch was William III & II who outlived his wife.

Anne 8 March 1702 1 August 1714 sister of Mary II. daughter of James II & VII. Name of state changed to Great Britain with the political Acts of Union 1707, though family has used title since James I & VI. Died childless, rights pass to House of Hanover.

Armorial tablet of the Stewarts at Falkland Palace, Fife

Family tree[edit] See also: Stuart Scottish monarchs family tree and Stuart British monarchs family tree Round provided a family tree[8] to embody his essential findings, which is adapted below.

 

 

 

 

Alan, Dapifer Dolensis (Seneschal or Steward of Dol)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alan, Dapifer Dolensis, Took part in First Crusade, 1097.

 

Flaald Occurs at Monmouth, 1101/2

 

Rhiwallon Monk of St Florent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alan Fitz
Fitz
Flaad, Founder of Sporle Priory

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jordan Fitz
Fitz
Alan, Dapifer in Britanny, Benefactor of Sele Priory.

 

William Fitz
Fitz
Alan, Lord of Oswestry Founder/benefactor of Haughmond Abbey, Died 1160

 

Walter Fitz
Fitz
Alan Dapifer Regis Scotiae, Founder of Paisley Abbey, Died 1177

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alan Fitz
Fitz
Jordan, Dapifer Dolensis.

 

William Fitz
Fitz
Alan II, Lord of Oswestry
Oswestry
and Clun

 

Alan the Steward Senescallus Regis Scotiae

Origin[edit]

Alan fitz Flaad

William FitzAlan, Lord of Oswestry

William Fitz
Fitz
Alan, 1st Lord of Oswestry
Oswestry
and Clun

William Fitz
Fitz
Alan, 2nd Lord of Oswestry
Oswestry
and Clun John Fitzalan, Lord of Oswestry

John FitzAlan, 6th Earl of Arundel

House of FitzAlan

Jordan fitz Alan, Seneschal of Dol Walter fitz Alan, 1st High Steward of Scotland

Alan fitz Walter, 2nd High Steward of Scotland

Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland

Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland

James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland

Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland

Robert II of Scotland John Stewart of Ralston

John Stewart of Bonkyll

Alexander Stewart of Bonkyll

Earls of Angus (extinct 1361)

Alan Stewart of Dreghorn

Stewart of Darnley

Earls of Lennox Stewart of Garlies

Earls of Galloway Stewart of Burray Stewart of Physgill (Phisgal) Stewart of Minto

Lords Blantyre

Stewart of Tongrie Stewart of Barclye

Walter Stewart of Garlies and Dalswinton

John Stewart of Dalswinton

Walter Stewart of Garlies and Dalswinton

James Stewart of Pearston

Stewart of Pearston

Stewart of Lorn

Clan Stewart
Clan Stewart
of Appin

Earls of Atholl Earls of Buchan

Earls of Traquair (illegitimate)

John Stewart of Daldon Robert Stewart of Daldowie

Walter Bailloch

Earls of Menteith

Robert Stewart, Lord of Darnley

Simon fitz Alan

Clan Boyd

House of Stewart[edit]

Robert II of Scotland

Robert III of Scotland

David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay James I of Scotland

Alexander Stewart, Duke of Rothesay James II of Scotland

James III of Scotland

James IV of Scotland

James, Duke of Rothesay Arthur Stewart, Duke of Rothesay James V of Scotland

James, Duke of Rothesay Arthur, Duke of Albany Mary, Queen of Scots

Alexander Stewart, Duke of Ross

James Stewart, Duke of Ross John Stewart, Earl of Mar

Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany

Alexander Stewart, Bishop of Moray John Stewart, Duke of Albany

David Stewart, Earl of Moray John Stewart, Earl of Mar

Sir John Stewart (illegitimate)

Stewart of Ballechin

Walter, Lord of Fife Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany

Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany

Robert Stewart Walter Stewart

Lords Avandale

Lords Stuart of Ochiltree

Barons Castle Stewart

Earls Castle Stewart

Alasdair Stewart James Mor Stewart

James "Beg" Stewart
James "Beg" Stewart
(illegitimate)

Stewart of Balquhidder

Stewart of Ardvorlich Stewart of Glen Buckie Stewart of Gartnafuaran Stewart of Annat

John Stewart, Earl of Buchan Robert Stewart, Earl of Ross

Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, the Wolf of Badenoch

Illegitimate sons

Stewart of Atholl

David Stewart, Earl of Strathearn Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl

Alan Stewart, 4th Earl of Caithness David Stewart, Master of Atholl

John Stewart, Sheriff of Bute (illegitimate)

Clan Stuart of Bute

House of Stuart[edit] Descended from the Stewarts of Darnley (Stewarts of Lennox)

Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, husband of Mary, Queen of Scots

James VI and I

Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales Charles I of England

Charles II of England

James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth
Monmouth
(illegitimate)

Dukes of Buccleuch

Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth
Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth
(illegitimate) Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland
Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland
(illegitimate)

Dukes of Cleveland (extinct 1774)

Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton
Duke of Grafton
(illegitimate)

Dukes of Grafton

George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland
George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland
(illegitimate) Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans
Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans
(illegitimate)

Dukes of St Albans

Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond
Duke of Richmond
(illegitimate)

Dukes of Richmond, Lennox and Gordon

James II of England

Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge James Stuart, Duke of Cambridge Charles Stuart, Duke of Kendal Edgar, Duke of Cambridge Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge James Francis Edward Stuart

Charles Edward Stuart Henry Benedict Stuart

James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick
James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick
(illegitimate)

House of FitzJames

Dukes of Berwick Dukes of Fitz-James (extinct 1967)

Henry FitzJames (illegitimate)

Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester

Robert Stuart, Duke of Kintyre and Lorne

See also[edit]

Jacobitism, for more on the legitimist House of Stuart, following the Glorious Revolution. John Barbour, the first Stewart court poet and genealogist List of Scottish monarchs List of British monarchs Clan Stewart Barony and Castle of Corsehill
Barony and Castle of Corsehill
Stewarton in Ayrshire
Ayrshire
and the Stuart connection. List of coats of arms of the House of Stuart

Notes[edit]

^ a b titular claim rather than de facto ^ The progenitor of the Stuarts was Walter fitz Alan, a Normanised Breton.[1] ^ While the Earls of Galloway are the senior surviving line of the Stuarts, they descend from a line which originated from the second son of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland. Thus, they are not members of the Stewart/Stuart royal line, but they are part of the peerage.

References[edit]

^ Mackenzie, A. M., MA., D.Litt., The Rise of the Stewarts, London, 1935, pps.8–9. ^ "J.H. Round: The Origin of the Stewarts: Part 1". MedievalGenealogy.org.uk.  Retrieved on 13 November 2008. ^ a b c Bartlett, England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings, 1075–1225, 544. ^ Lieber, Encyclopædia Americana, 30. ^ a b c King, The Anarchy
The Anarchy
of King Stephen's Reign, 249. ^ Alleyne, Richard; de Quetteville, Harry (7 April 2008). "Act repeal could make Franz Herzog von Bayern new King of England
King of England
and Scotland". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 June 2008.  ^ The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography ^ "Studies in peerage and family history". 

Sources[edit]

King, Edmund (1994). The Anarchy
The Anarchy
of King Stephen's Reign. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820364-0.  Barrow, G. W. S. (2003). The Kingdom of the Scots. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1802-3.  Barrow, G. W. S. (2004). Stewart family (per. c.1110–c.1350). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/49411. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  Round, J. Horace (1901). Studies in Peerage and Family History. Westminster, London: Archibald Constable & Co Ltd. 

Further reading[edit]

Addington, Arthur C. The Royal House of Stuart: The Descendants of King James VI of Scotland
James VI of Scotland
(James I of England). 3v. Charles Skilton, 1969–76. Cassavetti, Eileen. The Lion & the Lilies: The Stuarts and France. Macdonald & Jane's, 1977.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to House of Stuart.

Stewart Scotland on the official website of the British monarchy Stuart Britain on the official website of the British monarchy Jacobites on the official website of the British monarchy Official website of the Stewarts of Argyll

Royal house House of Stuart

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New title England and Scotland united

Ruling house of the Kingdom of Great Britain 1707–1714 Succeeded by House of Hanover

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Angevin Progon Arianiti Thopia Kastrioti Dukagjini Wied Zogu Ottoman Savoy

Armenia2

Orontid Artaxiad Arsacid Bagratid Artsruni Rubenids Hethumids Lusignan Savoy

Bosnia

Boričević Kulinić Kotromanić Kosača Ottoman Habsburg-Lorraine

Bulgaria

Dulo Krum Cometopuli Asen Smilets Terter Shishman Sratsimir Battenberg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Croatia

Trpimirović Domagojević Svačić Ottoman Luxembourg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine Bonaparte Savoy (disputed)

Cyprus2

Plantagenet Lusignan Ottoman Savoy

Georgia1

Pharnavazid Artaxiad Arsacid Ottoman Chosroid Bagrationi

Greece

Argead Macedonian Doukas Komnenos Angelos Laskaris Palaiologos Ottoman Wittelsbach Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Lithuania

Mindaugas Gediminids Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

Moldavia

Dragoș (Drăgoșești) Rossetti Bogdan-Muşat Movilești Drăculeşti Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Racoviță Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Basarab

Montenegro

Vojislavljević Balšić Ottoman Crnojević Petrović-Njegoš

Romania

House of Basarab Rossetti Bogdan-Mușat Movilești Drăculești Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Romanov Racoviță Ottoman Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Romania/Royal family

Russia1

Rurik Borjigin Godunov Shuysky Vasa Romanov

Serbia

Vlastimirović Vukanović Nemanjić Lazarević Mrnjavčević Dejanović Branković Ottoman Obrenović Karađorđević

Turkey1

Ottoman

Ukraine

Rurikids Piast Gediminids Olshanski Olelkovich Giray Romanov Habsburg-Lorraine

1 Transcontinental country. 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia
Asia
but having socio-political connections with Europe.

Western Europe

Belgium

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

France

Merovingian Carolingian Capet Valois Bourbon Bonaparte Orléans

Italy

Aleramici Appiani Bonaparte Bourbon-Parma Bourbon-Two Sicilies Carolingian Della Rovere Este Farnese Flavian Gonzaga Grimaldi Habsburg Julio-Claudian Malatesta Malaspina Medici Montefeltro Nerva–Antonine Ordelaffi Orsini Palaiologos Pallavicini Savoy Severan Sforza Visconti

Luxembourg

Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Bourbon-Parma

Monaco

Grimaldi

Netherlands

Bonaparte Orange-Nassau (Mecklenburg) (Lippe) (Amsberg)

Portugal

Vímara Peres Burgundy Aviz Habsburg Spanish Braganza

Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Spain

Asturias Barcelona Jiménez Burgundy Champagne Capet Évreux Trastámara Habsburg Bourbon

Bonaparte Savoy

Central Europe

Austria

Babenberg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Bohemia

Přemyslid Piast Luxembourg Jagiellon Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Germany

Ascania Carolingian Conradines Ottonian Luitpolding Salian Süpplingenburg Hohenstaufen Welf Habsburg Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Nassau Luxembourg Wittelsbach Schwarzburg Brunswick-Lüneburg House of Pomerania Hohenzollern Württemberg Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Mecklenburg Vasa Palatine Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov Bonaparte Wettin Lippe Zähringen

Hungary

Árpád Přemyslid Wittelsbach Angevin Luxembourg Hunyadi Jagiellon Szapolyai Ottoman Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein

Poland

Piast Přemyslid Samborides Griffins Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski

After partitions:

Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Kingdom of Poland Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Wettin Duchy of Warsaw Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk Hohenzoller

.