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The HOUSE OF STUART, originally STEWART and, in Gaelic, STIùBHART was a European royal house that originated in Scotland. The dynasty's patrilineal Breton ancestors had held the office of High Steward of Scotland since the 12th century, after arriving by way of Norman England . The royal Stewart line was founded by Robert II , and they were Kings and Queens of Scots from the late 14th century until the union with England in 1707. Mary I, Queen of Scots was brought up in France, where she adopted the French spelling of the name, _Stuart_. Her son, James VI of Scotland , inherited the thrones of England and Ireland upon the death of Elizabeth I in 1603. Except for the period of the Commonwealth, 1649–1660, the Stuarts were monarchs of the British Isles and its growing empire , until the death of Queen Anne in 1714.

In total, nine Stewart/Stuart monarchs ruled Scotland alone from 1371 until 1603. James VI of Scotland then inherited the realms of Elizabeth I of England, becoming James I of England and Ireland in the Union of the Crowns . Following the Glorious Revolution in 1688, two Stuart queens ruled the isles: Mary II and Anne . Both were the Protestant daughters of James VII and II by his first wife. Their father had converted to Catholicism and his new wife gave birth to a son in 1688, who would be brought up a Roman Catholic and would precede his half-sisters; so James was deposed by Parliament in 1689, in favour of his daughters. But neither had any children who survived to adulthood, so under the terms of the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Act of Security 1704 , the crown passed to the House of Hanover on the death of Queen Anne in 1714.

During the reign of the Stuarts, Scotland developed from a relatively poor and feudal country into a prosperous, modern and centralised state. They ruled during the transitive period in European history between the Middle Ages , via the Renaissance , to the midpoint of the Early modern period . Monarchs such as James IV were known for sponsoring exponents of the Northern Renaissance such as the poet Robert Henryson , among others. After the Stuarts reigned over all of Great Britain, the arts and sciences continued to develop; William Shakespeare wrote many of his best known plays during the Jacobean era , while institutions such as the Royal Society and the Royal Mail were established during the reign of Charles II .

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins

* 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 Background

* 2 History * 3 Present-day

* 4 List of monarchs

* 4.1 Monarchs of Scotland * 4.2 Monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland

* 5 Family tree

* 5.1 Origin * 5.2 House of Stewart * 5.3 House of Stuart

* 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Sources * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

ORIGINS

ETYMOLOGY

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The name "Stewart" derives from the political position of office similar to a governor, known as a _steward _. It was originally adopted as the family surname by Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland , who was the third member of the family to hold the position. Prior to this, family names were not used, but instead they had patronyms defined through the father; for example the first two High Stewards were known as _ Fitz _Alan and FitzWalter respectively. The gallicised spelling was first borne by John Stewart of Darnley after his time in the French wars. During the 16th century, the French spelling _Stuart_ was adopted by Mary, Queen of Scots , when she was living in France . She sanctioned the change to ensure the correct pronunciation of the Scots version of the name _Stewart_, because retaining the letter 'w' would have made it difficult for French speakers, who followed the Germans in usually rendering "w" as /v/. The spelling _Stuart_ was also used by her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley ; he was the father of James VI and I , so the official spelling _Stuart_ for the British royal family derives from him. Principal members of the house of Stuart following the 1603 Union of the Crowns.

BACKGROUND

The ancestral origins of the Stuart family are quite obscure—what is known for certain is that they can trace their ancestry back to Alan FitzFlaad , a Breton who came over to Great Britain not long after the Norman conquest . Alan had been the hereditary steward of the Bishop of Dol in the Duchy of Brittany ; Alan had a good relationship with the ruling Norman monarch Henry I of England who awarded him with lands in Shropshire . The FitzAlan family quickly established themselves as a prominent Anglo-Norman noble house, with some of its members serving as High Sheriff of Shropshire . It was the great-grandson of Alan named Walter FitzAlan who became the first hereditary High Steward of Scotland , while his brother William's family would go on to become Earls of Arundel .

When the civil war in the Kingdom of England , known as The Anarchy , broke out between legitimist claimant Matilda, Lady of the English and her cousin who had usurped her, King Stephen , Walter had sided with Matilda. Another supporter of Matilda was her uncle David I of Scotland from the House of Dunkeld . After Matilda was pushed out of England into the County of Anjou , essentially failing in her legitimist attempt for the throne, many of her supporters in England fled also. It was then that Walter followed David up to the Kingdom of Scotland , where he was granted lands in Renfrewshire and the title for life of Lord High Steward. The next monarch of Scotland, Malcolm IV , made the High Steward title a hereditary arrangement. While High Stewards, the family were based at Dundonald, South Ayrshire between the 12th and 13th centuries.

HISTORY

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STEWART OF STEWART STEWART OF ALBANY

STEWART OF BARCLYE STEWART OF GARLIES STEWART OF MINTO

STEWART OF ATHOLL STEWART OF BUTE STUART OF BUTE

STEWART OF ARDVORLICH STEWART OF PHYSGILL STEWART OF ROTHESAY

The sixth High Steward of Scotland, Walter Stewart (1293–1326), married Marjorie , daughter of Robert the Bruce , and also played an important part in the Battle of Bannockburn gaining further favour. Their son Robert was heir to the House of Bruce , the Lordship of Cunningham and the Bruce lands of Bourtreehill ; he eventually inherited the Scottish throne when his uncle David II died childless in 1371.

In 1503, James IV attempted to secure peace with England by marrying King Henry VII 's daughter, Margaret Tudor . The birth of their son, later James V , brought the House of Stewart into the line of descent of the House of Tudor , and the English throne. Margaret Tudor later married Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus , and their daughter, Margaret Douglas , was the mother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley . In 1565, Darnley married his half-cousin Mary, Queen of Scots , the daughter of James V . Darnley's father was Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox , a member of the Stewart of Darnley branch of the House. Lennox was a descendant of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland , also descended from James II , being Mary's heir presumptive . Thus Darnley was also related to Mary on his father's side and because of this connection, Mary's heirs remained part of the House of Stuart. Following John Stewart of Darnley 's ennoblement for his part at the Battle of Baugé in 1421 and the grant of lands to him at Aubigny and Concressault , the Darnley Stewarts' surname was gallicised to _Stuart_.

Both Mary, Queen of Scots, and Lord Darnley had strong claims on the English throne, through their mutual grandmother, Margaret Tudor. This eventually led to the accession of the couple's only child James as King of Scotland, England, and Ireland in 1603. However, this was a Personal Union , as the three Kingdoms shared a monarch, but had separate governments, churches, and institutions. Indeed, the personal union did not prevent an armed conflict, known as the Bishops\' Wars , breaking out between England and Scotland in 1639. This was to become part of the cycle of political and military conflict that marked the reign of Charles I of England , Scotland and Ireland, culminating in a series of conflicts known as the War of the Three Kingdoms . The trial and execution of Charles I by the English Parliament in 1649 began 11 years of republican government known as the English Interregnum . Scotland initially recognised the late King's son, also called Charles , as their monarch, before being subjugated and forced to enter Cromwell's Commonwealth by General Monck 's occupying army. During this period, the principal members of the House of Stuart lived in exile in mainland Europe . The younger Charles returned to Britain to assume his three thrones in 1660 as " Charles II of England , Scotland and Ireland", but would date his reign from his father's death eleven years before.

In feudal and dynastic terms, the Scottish reliance on French support was revived during the reign of Charles II , whose own mother was French. His sister Henrietta married into the French royal family. Charles II left no legitimate children, but his numerous illegitimate descendants included the Dukes of Buccleuch , the Dukes of Grafton , the Dukes of Saint Albans and the Dukes of Richmond . Monument to the Royal Stuarts in St. Peter\'s Basilica – Work of Antonio Canova .

These French and Roman Catholic connections proved unpopular and resulted in the downfall of the Stuarts, whose mutual enemies identified with Protestantism and because James VII and II offended the Anglican establishment by proposing tolerance not only for Catholics but for Protestant Dissenters. The Glorious Revolution caused the overthrow of King James in favour of his son-in-law and his daughter, William and Mary . James continued to claim the thrones of England and Scotland to which he had been crowned, and encouraged revolts in his name, and his grandson Charles (also known as Bonnie Prince Charlie) led an ultimately unsuccessful rising in 1745 , ironically becoming symbols of conservative rebellion and Romanticism . Some blame the identification of the Roman Catholic Church with the Stuarts for the extremely lengthy delay in the passage of Catholic Emancipation until Jacobitism (as represented by direct Stuart heirs) was extinguished; however it was as likely to be caused by entrenched anti-Catholic prejudice among the Anglican establishment of England. Despite the Whig intentions of tolerance to be extended to Irish subjects , this was not the preference of Georgian Tories and their failure at compromise played a subsequent role in the present division of Ireland.

PRESENT-DAY

The Royal House of Stuart became extinct with the death of Cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart , brother of Charles Edward Stuart , in 1807. Duke Francis of Bavaria is the current senior heir. However, Charles II had a number of illegitimate sons whose surviving descendants in the male line include Charles Gordon-Lennox, 10th Duke of Richmond , Murray Beauclerk, 14th Duke of St Albans , Henry FitzRoy, 12th Duke of Grafton and Richard Scott, 10th Duke of Buccleuch . In addition, James II's illegitimate son, James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick , founded the House of FitzJames comprising two branches, one in France and one in Spain. The last of the French branch died in 1967 and the last of James II's male line descendants, Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart, 18th Duchess of Alba of the Spanish branch, died in November 2014.

LIST OF MONARCHS

MONARCHS OF SCOTLAND

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PORTRAIT NAME FROM UNTIL RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR

Robert II of Scotland 22 February 1371 19 April 1390 nephew of David II of Scotland who died without issue. Robert's mother Marjorie Bruce was daughter of Robert I of Scotland .

Robert III of Scotland 19 April 1390 4 April 1406 son of Robert II of Scotland.

James I of Scotland 4 April 1406 21 February 1437 son of Robert III of Scotland.

James II of Scotland 21 February 1437 3 August 1460 son of James I of Scotland.

James III of Scotland 3 August 1460 11 June 1488 son of James II of Scotland.

James IV of Scotland 11 June 1488 9 September 1513 son of James III of Scotland.

James V of Scotland 9 September 1513 14 December 1542 son of James IV of Scotland.

Mary I of Scotland 14 December 1542 24 July 1567 daughter of James V of Scotland.

James VI of Scotland 24 July 1567 27 March 1625 son of Mary, Queen of Scots and Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley .

MONARCHS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND

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These monarchs used the title "King/Queen of Great Britain", although that title had no basis in law until the Acts of Union 1707 came into effect on 1 May 1707. Legally, they each simultaneously occupied two thrones , as "King/Queen of England" and "King/Queen of Scotland".

PORTRAIT NAME FROM UNTIL RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR

James I of Great Britain 24 March 1603 27 March 1625 Great-Great grandson of Henry VII of England . King of Scotland alone until inheriting the titles King of England and Ireland, including claim to France from the extinct Tudors .

Charles I of Great Britain & Ireland 27 March 1625 30 January 1649 (executed) son of James VI and I

Charles II , of Great Britain 2 May 1660 (de facto) 6 February 1685 son of Charles I. Prohibited by Parliament from assuming the throne during a republican period of government known as the Commonwealth of England , but then accepted as king in 1661.

James VII of Scotland and James II of England and Ireland 6 February 1685 11 December 1688 brother of Charles II of Great Britain & Ireland, who died with without legitimate issue. Son of Charles I. Overthrown at the Revolution of 1688 . Died in 1701.

Mary II of Great Britain and Ireland 13 February 1689 28 December 1694 daughter of James II of England and Ireland & VII of Scotland, who was still alive and pretending to the throne. Co-monarch was William III & II who outlived his wife.

Anne of Great Britain and Ireland 8 March 1702 1 August 1714 sister of Mary II. daughter of James II of England and Ireland & VII of Scotland. Name of state changed to Great Britain with the political Acts of Union 1707 , though family has used title since James I "> Armorial tablet of the Stewarts at Falkland Palace, Fife

FAMILY TREE

See also: Stuart Scottish monarchs family tree and Stuart British monarchs family tree

Round provided a family tree to embody his essential findings, which is adapted below.

ALAN, _Dapifer Dolensis_ (Seneschal or Steward of Dol)

ALAN, _Dapifer Dolensis_, Took part in First Crusade, 1097. FLAALD Occurs at Monmouth , 1101/2 RHIWALLON Monk of St Florent.

ALAN FITZ FLAAD, Founder of Sporle Priory

JORDAN FITZ ALAN, _Dapifer_ in Britanny, Benefactor of Sele Priory . WILLIAM FITZ ALAN , Lord of Oswestry Founder/benefactor of Haughmond Abbey , Died 1160 WALTER FITZ ALAN _Dapifer Regis Scotiae_, Founder of Paisley Abbey , Died 1177

ALAN FITZ JORDAN, _Dapifer Dolensis_. WILLIAM FITZ ALAN II , Lord of Oswestry and Clun ALAN THE STEWARD _Senescallus Regis Scotiae_

ORIGIN

* Alan fitz Flaad

* William FitzAlan, Lord of Oswestry

* William Fitz Alan, 1st Lord of Oswestry and Clun

* William Fitz Alan, 2nd Lord of Oswestry and Clun

* John Fitzalan, Lord of Oswestry

* John FitzAlan, 6th Earl of Arundel

* _House of FitzAlan _

* Jordan fitz Alan, Seneschal of Dol

* Walter fitz Alan , 1st High Steward of Scotland

* Alan fitz Walter, 2nd High Steward of Scotland

* Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland

* Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland

* James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland

* Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland

* ROBERT II OF SCOTLAND * John Stewart of Ralston

* John Stewart of Bonkyll

* Alexander Stewart of Bonkyll

* _Earls of Angus _ (extinct 1361)

* Alan Stewart of Dreghorn

* _STEWART OF DARNLEY _

* _EARLS OF LENNOX _

* _Stewart of Garlies_

* _Earls of Galloway _ * _Stewart of Burray_ * _Stewart of Physgill (Phisgal)_

* _Stewart of Minto_

* _Lords Blantyre_

* _Stewart of Tongrie_ * _Stewart of Barclye_

* Walter Stewart of Garlies and Dalswinton

* John Stewart of Dalswinton

* Walter Stewart of Garlies and Dalswinton

* James Stewart of Pearston

* _Stewart of Pearston_

* _Stewart of Lorn_

* _ Clan Stewart of Appin _

* _Earls of Atholl _ * _Earls of Buchan _

* John Stewart of Daldon * Robert Stewart of Daldowie

* Walter Bailloch

* _Earls of Menteith _

* Robert Stewart, Lord of Darnley

* Simon fitz Alan

* _ Clan Boyd _

HOUSE OF STEWART

* Robert II of Scotland

* Robert III of Scotland

* David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay

* James I of Scotland

* Alexander Stewart, Duke of Rothesay

* James II of Scotland

* James III of Scotland

* James IV of Scotland

* James, Duke of Rothesay * Arthur Stewart, Duke of Rothesay

* James V of Scotland

* James, Duke of Rothesay * Arthur, Duke of Albany * MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS

* Alexander Stewart, Duke of Ross

* James Stewart, Duke of Ross * John Stewart, Earl of Mar

* Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany

* Alexander Stewart, Bishop of Moray * John Stewart, Duke of Albany

* David Stewart, Earl of Moray * John Stewart, Earl of Mar

* Sir John Stewart (illegitimate)

* _Stewart of Ballechin_

* Walter, Lord of Fife

* Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany

* Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany

* Robert Stewart

* Walter Stewart

* _Lords Avandale_

* _Lords Stuart of Ochiltree_

* _Barons Castle Stewart_

* _Earls Castle Stewart _

* Alasdair Stewart

* James Mor Stewart

* James "Beg" Stewart (illegitimate)

* _ Stewart of Balquhidder _

* _Stewart of Ardvorlich_ * _Stewart of Glen Buckie_ * _Stewart of Gartnafuaran_ * _Stewart of Annat_

* John Stewart, Earl of Buchan * Robert Stewart, Earl of Ross

* Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan , the Wolf of Badenoch

* _Illegitimate sons_

* _Stewart of Atholl_

* David Stewart, Earl of Strathearn

* Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl

* Alan Stewart, 4th Earl of Caithness * David Stewart, Master of Atholl

* John Stewart, Sheriff of Bute (illegitimate)

* _ Clan Stuart of Bute _

HOUSE OF STUART

Descended from the Stewarts of Darnley (Stewarts of Lennox)

* Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley , husband of Mary, Queen of Scots

* James VI and I

* Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales

* Charles I of England

* Charles II of England

* James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth (illegitimate)

* _Dukes of Buccleuch _

* Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth (illegitimate)

* Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland (illegitimate)

* _Dukes of Cleveland _ (extinct 1774)

* Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton (illegitimate)

* _Dukes of Grafton _

* George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland (illegitimate)

* Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans (illegitimate)

* _Dukes of St Albans _

* Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond (illegitimate)

* _Dukes of Richmond , Lennox and Gordon _

* James II of England

* Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge * James Stuart, Duke of Cambridge * Charles Stuart, Duke of Kendal * Edgar, Duke of Cambridge * Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge

* James Francis Edward Stuart

* Charles Edward Stuart * Henry Benedict Stuart

* James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick (illegitimate)

* _ House of FitzJames _

* _Dukes of Berwick _ * _Dukes of Fitz-James (extinct 1967)_

* Henry FitzJames (illegitimate)

* Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester

* Robert Stuart, Duke of Kintyre and Lorne

SEE ALSO

* Jacobitism , for more on the legitimist House of Stuart, following the so-called 'Glorious Revolution'. * John Barbour , the first Stewart court poet and genealogist * List of Scottish monarchs * List of British monarchs * Clan Stewart * Barony and Castle of Corsehill Stewarton in Ayrshire and the Stuart connection. * List of coats of arms of the House of Stuart

NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ titular claim rather than _de facto_ * ^ The progenitor of the Stuarts was Walter fitz Alan , a Normanised Breton. * ^ While the Earls of Galloway are the senior surviving line of the Stuarts, they descend from a line which originated from the second son of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland . Thus, they are not members of the Stewart/Stuart royal line, but they are part of the peerage .

REFERENCES

* ^ Mackenzie, A. M., MA., D.Litt., _The Rise of the Stewarts_, London, 1935, pps.8–9. * ^ "J.H. Round: The Origin of the Stewarts: Part 1". MedievalGenealogy.org.uk. Retrieved on 13 November 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Bartlett, _ England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings, 1075–1225_, 544. * ^ Lieber, _Encyclopædia Americana_, 30. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ King, _ The Anarchy of King Stephen's Reign_, 249. * ^ Alleyne, Richard; de Quetteville, Harry (7 April 2008). "Act repeal could make Franz Herzog von Bayern new King of England and Scotland". _ Daily Telegraph _. Retrieved 22 June 2008. * ^ _The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography_ * ^ "Studies in peerage and family history".

SOURCES

* King, Edmund (1994). _ The Anarchy of King Stephen\'s Reign_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820364-0 . * Barrow, G. W. S. (2003). _The Kingdom of the Scots_. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1802-3 . * Barrow, G. W. S. (2004). _Stewart family (per. c.1110–c.1350)_. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/49411 . Retrieved 11 October 2010. * Round, J. Horace (1901). _Studies in Peerage and Family History_. Westminster, London: Archibald Constable & Co Ltd.

FURTHER READING

* Addington, Arthur C. _The Royal House of Stuart: The Descendants of King James VI of Scotland (James I of England)_. 3v. Charles Skilton, 1969–76. * Cassavetti, Eileen. _The Lion & the Lilies: The Stuarts and France_. Macdonald " rowspan="1">Preceded by House of Bruce RULING HOUSE OF THE KINGDOM OF SCOTLAND 1371–1649 VACANT The Covenanters

Preceded by House of Tudor RULING HOUSE OF THE KINGDOM OF ENGLAND 1603–1649 VACANT Commonwealth of England

VACANT The Covenanters RULING HOUSE OF THE KINGDOM OF SCOTLAND 1660–1694 VACANT House of Orange-Nassau

VACANT Commonwealth of England RULING HOUSE OF THE KINGDOM OF ENGLAND 1660–1694 VACANT House of Orange-Nassau

VACANT House of Orange-Nassau RULING HOUSE OF THE KINGDOM OF SCOTLAND 1702–1707 Titles merged by the Acts of Union 1707

VACANT House of Orange-Nassau RULING HOUSE OF THE KINGDOM OF ENGLAND 1702–1707

NEW TITLE England and Scotland united RULING HOUSE OF THE KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN 1707–1714 Succeeded by House of Hanover

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NORDIC COUNTRIES

DENMARK

* Knýtlinga * Fairhair * Estridsen * Griffins * Palatinate-Neumarkt * Oldenburg * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

FINLAND

* Bjelbo * Mecklenburg * Griffins * Palatinate-Neumarkt * Bonde * Oldenburg * Vasa * Palatinate-Zweibrücken * Hesse * Holstein-Gottorp * Romanov

NORWAY

* Fairhair * Knýtlinga * Hardrada * Gille * Sverre * Bjelbo * Estridsen * Griffins * Palatinate-Neumarkt * Bonde * Oldenburg * Holstein-Gottorp * Bernadotte * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

SWEDEN

* Munsö * Stenkil * Sverker * Eric * Bjelbo * Estridsen * Mecklenburg * Griffins * Palatinate-Neumarkt * Bonde * Oldenburg * Vasa * Palatinate-Zweibrücken * Hesse-Kassel * Holstein-Gottorp * Bernadotte

ICELAND

* Fairhair * Bjelbo * Estridsen * Griffins * Palatinate-Neumarkt * Bonde * Oldenburg * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

BRITAIN AND IRELAND

ENGLAND

* Mercia * Wuffing * Kent * Sussex * Essex * Bernicia * Deira * Northumbria * Uí Ímair * Wessex * Knýtlinga * Normandy * Angevin * Plantagenet * Lancaster * York * Tudor

SCOTLAND

* Fergus * Óengus * Strathclyde * Mann and the Isles * Alpin * Northumbria * Bernicia * Uí Ímair * Galloway * Dunkeld * Sverre * Balliol * Bruce * Stuart

WALES

* Dinefwr * Aberffraw * Gwynedd * Mathrafal * Cunedda

IRELAND

* Ulaid * Dál Riata * Érainn * Corcu Loígde * Laigin * Connachta * Uí Néill * Ó Gallchobhair * Ó Domhnail * Ó Néill * Ó Máel Sechlainn * Mac Murchada * Ó Briain * Mac Lochlainn * Ó Conchobhair

GAELIC IRELAND

* Laigin * Síl Conairi * Ulaid * Dáirine * Osraige * Cruthin * Dál nAraidi * Connachta * Uí Fiachrach * Uí Briúin * Uí Néill * Síl nÁedo Sláine * Clann Cholmáin * Eóganachta * Chaisil * Glendamnach * Raithlind * Uí Dúnlainge * Uí Ímair (Norse) * Uí Ceinnselaig * Dál gCais * Ó Briain * Mac Carthaig * Ó Conchobhair * Ó Ruairc * De Burgh (Norman) * FitzGerald (Norman) * Ó Domhnaill * Ó Néill

GREAT BRITAIN

* Stuart * Orange-Nassau * Hanover * Saxe-Coburg and Gotha * Windsor

EASTERN EUROPE

ALBANIA

* Angevin * Progon * Arianiti * Thopia * Kastrioti * Dukagjini * Wied * Zogu * Ottoman * _Savoy _

ARMENIA 2

* Orontid * Artaxiad * Arsacid * Bagratid * Artsruni * Rubenids * Hethumids * Lusignan * Savoy

BOSNIA

* Boričević * Kulinić * Kotromanić * Kosača * Ottoman * Habsburg-Lorraine

BULGARIA

* Dulo * Krum * Cometopuli * Asen * Smilets * Terter * Shishman * Sratsimir * Battenberg * Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

CROATIA

* Trpimirović * Domagojević * Svačić * Ottoman * Luxembourg * Habsburg * Habsburg-Lorraine * Bonaparte * _Savoy (disputed)_

CYPRUS 2

* Plantagenet * Lusignan * Ottoman * Savoy

GEORGIA 1

* Pharnavazid * Artaxiad * Arsacid * Chosroid * Bagrationi

GREECE

* Argead * Macedonian * Doukas * Komnenos * Angelos * Laskaris * Palaiologos * Ottoman * Wittelsbach * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

LITHUANIA

* Mindaugas * Gediminids * Jagiellon * Valois * Báthory * Vasa * Wiśniowiecki * Sobieski * Wettin * Leszczyński * Poniatowski * Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

MOLDAVIA

* Dragoș (Drăgoșești) * Rossetti * Bogdan-Muşat * Movilești * Drăculeşti * Ghica * Cantacuzene * Cantemirești * Racoviță * Mavrocordato * Ypsilantis * Soutzos * Mourousi * Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen * Basarab

MONTENEGRO

* Vojislavljević * Balšić * Crnojević * Petrović-Njegoš

ROMANIA

* House of Basarab * Rossetti * Bogdan-Mușat * Movilești * Drăculești * Ghica * Cantacuzene * Cantemirești * Romanov * Racoviță * Mavrocordato * Ypsilantis * Soutzos * Mourousi * Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen * Romania /Royal family

RUSSIA 1

* Rurik * Borjigin * Godunov * Shuysky * Vasa * Romanov

SERBIA

* Vlastimirović * Vukanović * Nemanjić * Lazarević * Mrnjavčević * Dejanović * Branković * Ottoman * Obrenović * Karađorđević

TURKEY 1

* Ottoman

UKRAINE

* Rurikids * Piast * Gediminids * Olshanski * Olelkovich * Giray * Romanov * Habsburg-Lorraine

1 Transcontinental country . 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe.

WESTERN EUROPE

BELGIUM

* Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

FRANCE

* Merovingian * Carolingian * Capet * Valois * Bourbon * Bonaparte * Orléans

ITALY

* Bonaparte * Bourbon-Parma * Bourbon-Two Sicilies * Carolingian * Colonna * Della Rovere * Este * Farnese * Flavian * Gonzaga * Grimaldi * Habsburg * Julio-Claudian * Malatesta * Medici * Montefeltro * Nerva–Antonine * Ordelaffi * Orsini * Palaiologos * Pallavicini * Savoy * Severan * Sforza * Visconti

LUXEMBOURG

* Orange-Nassau * Nassau-Weilburg * Bourbon-Parma

MONACO

* Grimaldi

NETHERLANDS

* Bonaparte * Orange-Nassau * (Mecklenburg ) * (Lippe )

PORTUGAL

* Vímara Peres * Borgonha * Aviz * Habsburgo

* Braganza

* Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

SPAIN

* Asturias * Barcelona * Jiménez * Burgundy * Champagne * Capet * Évreux * Trastámara * Habsburg

* Bourbon

* Bonaparte * Savoy

CENTRAL EUROPE

AUSTRIA

* Babenberg * Habsburg * Habsburg-Lorraine

BOHEMIA

* Přemyslid * Piast * Luxembourg * Jagiellon * Habsburg * Habsburg-Lorraine

GERMANY

* Ascania * Carolingian * Conradines * Ottonian * Luitpolding * Salian * Süpplingenburg * Hohenstaufen * Welf * Habsburg * Hanover * Saxe-Coburg and Gotha * Nassau * Luxembourg * Wittelsbach * Schwarzburg * Brunswick-Lüneburg * House of Pomerania * Hohenzollern * Württemberg * Oldenburg * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg * Orange-Nassau * Nassau-Weilburg * Mecklenburg * Vasa * Palatine Zweibrücken * Hesse * Holstein-Gottorp * Romanov * Bonaparte * Wettin * Lippe * Zähringen

HUNGARY

* Árpád * Přemyslid * Wittelsbach * Angevin * Luxembourg * Hunyadi * Jagiellon * Szapolyai * Habsburg * Habsburg-Lorraine

LIECHTENSTEIN

* Liechtenstein

POLAND

* Piast * Přemyslid * Samborides * Griffins * Jagiellon * Valois * Báthory * Vasa * Wiśniowiecki * Sobieski * Wettin * Leszczyński

* Poniatowski

After partitions:

* Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov Kingdom of Poland * Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria * Wettin Duchy of Warsaw * Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk * Hohenzollern Duchy of Poznań

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