DEPOSITION 12 June 1946: Umberto II left Italy as a result of the constitutional referendum
ETHNICITY Italian , French
* Savoy-Carignano * Savoy- Aosta * Savoy-Villafranca- Soissons * Savoy-Genoa (extinct 1996) * Savoy-Villafranca (extinct 1888) * Savoy- Soissons (extinct 1734) * Savoy-Nemours (extinct 1659 * Savoy- Racconigi (extinct 1605) * Savoy- Tende (extinct 1580) * Savoy-Acaia (extinct 1418) * Savoy- Vaud (extinct 1359) * Savoy-Achaea (extinct 1209)
HOUSE OF SAVOY
VICTOR EMMANUEL II
Children_ Marie Clothilde, Princess Napoléon Umberto I Amadeo I of Spain Prince Oddone, Duke of Montferrat Maria Pia, Queen of Portugal and the Algarves Prince Carlo Alberto, Duke of Chablais Prince Vittorio Emanuele Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Geneva _Grandchildren_ Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi Prince Umberto, Count of Salemi _Great Grandchildren_ Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta _Great Great Grandchildren_ Princess Margherita, Dowager Archduchess of Austria-Este Princess Maria Cristina Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta _Great Great Great Grandchildren_ Princess Bianca Prince Aimone, Duke of Apulia Princess Mafalda _Great Great Great Grandchildren_ Prince Umberto Prince Amedeo Princess Isabella
_Children_ Victor Emmanuel III
VICTOR EMMANUEL III
_Children_ Princess Yolanda, Countess of Bergolo Princess Mafalda, Landgravine of Hesse Umberto II Giovanna, Tsaritsa of Bulgaria Maria Francesca, Princess Luigi of Bourbon-Parma
_Children_ Maria Pia, Princess Michel of Bourbon-Parma Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples Princess Maria Gabriella Princess Maria Beatrice _Grandchildren_ Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice _Great Grandchildren_ Princess Vittoria Princess Luisa
* v * t * e
The HOUSE OF SAVOY (Italian : _Casa Savoia_) is one of the oldest royal families in the world, being founded in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, it grew from ruling a small county in that region to the attainment of the rank of king (of Sicily ) in 1713. Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano , it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II , Umberto I , Victor Emmanuel III , and Umberto II . The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946 , after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.
* 1 History
* 2 Orders of knighthood
* 3 List of rulers
* 3.1 Counts of Savoy * 3.2 Dukes of Savoy * 3.3 Kings of Sicily * 3.4 Kings of Sardinia * 3.5 Kings of Italy * 3.6 Emperors of Ethiopia * 3.7 Kings of Albania * 3.8 World War II Croatia * 3.9 Cyprus, Jerusalem and Armenia
* 4 Titles of the Crown of Sardinia * 5 Titles of the Crown of Italy * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links
The name derives from the historical region of Savoy in the Alpine region between what is now France and Italy. Over time, the House of Savoy expanded its territory and influence through judicious marriages and international diplomacy. From rule of a small region on the French/Italian border, the dynasty's realm included nearly all of the Italian Peninsula by the time of its deposition .
The house descended from Humbert I , Count of Sabaudia (Umberto I "Biancamano"), (1003–1047 or 1048). Humbert's family are thought to have originated from near Magdeburg in Saxony , with the earliest recording of the family being two 10th century brothers, Amadeus and Humbert. Though Sabaudia was originally a poor county, later counts were diplomatically skilled, and gained control over strategic mountain passes in the Alps . Two of Humbert's sons were commendatory abbots at the Abbey of St. Maurice, Agaunum , on the River Rhone east of Lake Geneva , and Saint Maurice is still the patron of the House of Savoy.
Humbert's son, Otto of Savoy succeeded to the title in 1051 after the death of his elder brother Amedeo and married the Marchioness Adelaide of Turin, passing the Marquessate of Susa , with the towns of Turin and Pinerolo, into the House of Savoy's possession. This diplomatic skill caused the great powers such as France , England , and Spain to take the counts' opinions into account.
They once had claims on the modern canton of Vaud , where they occupied the Château of Chillon in Switzerland , but their access to it was cut by Geneva during the Protestant Reformation , after which it was conquered by Bern . Piedmont was later joined with Sabaudia, and the name evolved into "Savoy" (Italian "Savoia"). The people of Savoy were descended from the Celts and Romans . Hautecombe Abbey , where many of the dukes are buried.
EXPANSION, RETREAT AND PROSPERITY
By the time Amadeus VIII came to power in the late 14th century, the House of Savoy had gone through a series of gradual territorial expansions and he was elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund to the Duke of Savoy in 1416. Map of Italy in 1494.
In 1494, Charles VIII of France passed through Savoy on his way to Italy and Naples, which initiated the Italian War of 1494–98 . During the outbreak of the Italian war of 1521-1526 , Emperor Charles V stationed imperial troops in Savoy. In 1536, Francis I of France invaded Savoy and Piedmont taking Turin by April of that year. Charles III , Duke of Savoy, fled to Vercelli.
When Emmanuel Philibert came to power in 1553 most of his family's territories were in French hands, so he offered to serve France's leading enemy the House of Habsburg , in the hope of recovering his lands. He served Philip II as Governor of the Netherlands from 1555 to 1559. In this capacity he led the Spanish invasion of northern France and won a victory at St. Quentin in 1557. He took advantage of various squabbles in Europe to slowly regain territory from both the French and the Spanish, including the city of Turin. He moved the capital of the duchy from Chambéry to Turin.
The 17th century brought about economic development to the Turin area and the House of Savoy took part in and benefitted from that. Charles Emmanuel II developed the port of Nice and built a road through the Alps towards France. And through skillful political manoeuvres territorial expansion continued. In early 18th century in the War of the Spanish Succession Victor Amadeus switched sides to assist the Habsburgs and via the Treaty of Utrecht they rewarded him with large pieces of land in northeastern Italy, and a Crown in Sicily. Savoy rule over Sicily lasted only seven years (1713–20).
THE KINGDOM OF ITALY
Map of Italy in 1796.
The crown of Sicily, the prestige of being kings at last, and the wealth of Palermo helped strengthen the House of Savoy further. In 1720 they were forced to exchange Sicily for Sardinia as a result of the War of the Quadruple Alliance . On the mainland, the dynasty continued its expansionist policies as well. Through advantageous alliances during the War of the Polish Succession and War of the Austrian Succession , Charles Emmanuel III gained new lands at the expense of the Austrian-controlled Duchy of Milan . In 1792 Piedmont-Sardinia joined the First Coalition against the French First Republic , but was beaten in 1796 by Napoleon and forced to conclude the disadvantageous Treaty of Paris (1796) , giving the French army free passage through Piedmont. In 1798, Joubert occupied Turin and forced Charles Emmanuel IV to abdicate and leave for the island of Sardinia. Eventually, in 1814 the kingdom was restored and enlarged with the addition of the former Republic of Genoa by the Congress of Vienna .
In the meantime, nationalist figures such as Giuseppe Mazzini were influencing popular opinion. Mazzini believed that Italian unification could only be achieved through a popular uprising, but after the failure of the 1848 revolutions , the Italian nationalists began to look to the Kingdom of Sardinia and its prime minister Count Cavour as leaders of the unification movement. In 1848, Charles Albert conceded a constitution known as the _ Statuto Albertino _ to Piedmont-Sardinia , which remained the basis of the Kingdom's legal system even after Italian unification was achieved and the Kingdom of Sardinia became the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.
The Kingdom of Italy was the first Italian state to include the Italian Peninsula since the fall of the Roman Empire . But when Victor Emmanuel was crowned King of Italy in 1861, his realm did not include the Venetia region (subject to Habsburg governance), Lazio (with Rome), Umbria , Marche and Romagna (with the Papal town of Bologna ). Yet the House of Savoy continued to rule Italy for several decades, through the Italian Independence wars as Italian unification proceeded and even as the First World War raged on in the early 20th century.
Map of Italy in 1843.
In April 1655, based on (perhaps false) reports of resistance by the Waldensians , a Protestant religious minority, to a plan to resettle them in remote mountain valleys, Charles Emmanuel II ordered their general massacre. The massacre was so brutal it aroused indignation throughout Europe. Oliver Cromwell , then ruler in England, began petitioning on behalf of the Waldensians, writing letters, raising contributions, calling a general fast in England and threatening to send military forces to the rescue. The massacre prompted John Milton 's famous sonnet , "On the Late Massacre in Piedmont ".
In 1898 the Bava-Beccaris massacre in Milan involved the use of cannons against unarmed protesters (including women and old people) during riots over the rising price of bread. King Umberto I of the House of Savoy congratulated General Fiorenzo Bava-Beccaris for the massacre and decorated him with the medal of Great Official of Savoy Military Order, greatly outraging a large part of the public opinion. As a result, Umberto I was assassinated in July 1900 in Monza by Gaetano Bresci , the brother of one of the women massacred in the crowd, who traveled back to Italy from the United States for the assassination. The king had previously been the target of failed assassination attempts by anarchists Giovanni Passannante and Pietro Acciarito .
FASCISM AND END OF MONARCHY
When the First World War ended, the Treaty of Versailles fell short of what had been promised in the London Pact to Italy. As the economic conditions in Italy worsened after the war, popular resentment and along with it the seeds of Italian fascism began to grow and resulted in the March on Rome by Benito Mussolini .
General Pietro Badoglio advised King Victor Emmanuel III that he could easily sweep Mussolini and his rag-tag Blackshirt army to one side, but Victor Emmanuel decided to tolerate Mussolini and appointed him as prime minister on October 28, 1922. The king remained silent as Mussolini engaged in one abuse of power after another from 1924 onward, and did not intervene in 1925-26 when Mussolini dropped all pretense of democracy. By the end of 1928, the king's right to remove Mussolini from office was, at least theoretically, the only check on his power. Later, the King's failure, in the face of mounting evidence, to move against the Mussolini regime's abuses of power led to much criticism and had dire future consequences for Italy and for the monarchy itself.
Italy conquered Ethiopia in 1936, and Victor Emmanuel was crowned as Emperor of Ethiopia. He added the Albanian crown as well in 1939. However, as Mussolini and the Axis powers failed in the Second World War in 1943, several members of the Italian court began putting out feelers to the Allies, who in turn let it be known that Mussolini had to go. After Mussolini received a vote of no confidence from the Fascist Grand Council on 24 July, Victor Emmanuel dismissed him from office, relinquished the Ethiopian and Albanian crowns, and appointed Pietro Badoglio as prime minister. On 8 September, the new government announced it had signed an armistice with the Allies five days earlier. However, Victor Emmanuel made another blunder when he and his government fled south to Brindisi , leaving his army without orders.
As the Allies and the Resistance gradually chased the Nazis and Fascists off the peninsula, it became apparent that Victor Emmanuel was too tainted by his earlier support of Mussolini to have any postwar role. Accordingly, Victor Emmanuel transferred most of his powers to his son, Crown Prince Umberto, in April 1944. Rome was liberated two months later, and Victor Emmanuel transferred his remaining powers to Umberto and named him Lieutenant General of the Realm . Within a year, public opinion pushed for a referendum to decide between retaining the monarchy or becoming a republic. On May 9, 1946, in a last-ditch attempt to save the monarchy, Victor Emmanuel formally abdicated in favour of his son, who became Umberto II . It did not work; the Italian constitutional referendum, 1946 was won by republicans with 54% of the vote. Victor Emmanuel went into exile in Egypt , dying there a year later.
On 12 June 1946, the Kingdom of Italy formally came to an end as Umberto transferred his powers to Prime Minister Alcide de Gasperi and called for the Italian people to support the new republic. He then went into exile in Portugal , never to return; he died in 1983.
Under the Constitution of the Italian Republic , the republican form of government cannot be changed by constitutional amendment, thus forbidding any attempt to restore the monarchy short of adoption of an entirely new constitution. The constitution also forbade male descendants of the House of Savoy from entering Italy. This provision was removed in 2002 but as part of the deal to be allowed back into Italy, Vittorio Emanuele , the last claimant to the House of Savoy, renounced all claims to the throne.
HOUSE OF SAVOY TODAY
The Residences of the Royal House of Savoy in Turin and the neighbourhood are protected as a World Heritage Site . Although the titles and distinctions of the Italian royal family are not legally recognised by the Italian Republic, the remaining members of the House of Savoy, like dynasties of other abolished monarchies , still use some of the various titles they acquired over the millennium of their reign prior to the republic's establishment, including Duke of Savoy, Prince of Naples, Prince of Piedmont and Duke of Aosta .
Currently the leadership of the House of Savoy is contested by two cousins: Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples , who used to claim the title of King of Italy, and Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta , who still claims the title of Duke of Savoy. Their rivalry has not always been peaceful — on May 21, 2004, following a dinner held by King Juan Carlos I of Spain on the eve of the wedding of his son Felipe, Prince of Asturias , Vittorio Emanuele punched Amedeo twice in the face.
Some of the activities of members of the House of Savoy have evoked media coverage disappointing to Italian royalists. In November 1991, after thirteen years of legal proceedings, the Paris Assize Court acquitted Vittorio Emanuele of the fatal wounding and unintentional homicide in August 1978 of Dirk Hamer , finding him guilty only of unauthorised possession of a firearm during the incident. On June 16, 2006, Vittorio Emanuele was arrested in Varenna and imprisoned in Potenza on charges of corruption and recruitment of prostitutes for clients of the Casinò di Campione of Campione d\'Italia . After several days, Vittorio Emanuele was released and placed under house arrest instead. He was released from house arrest on July 20 but was required to remain within the territory of the Republic.
When incarcerated in June 2006, Vittorio Emanuele was recorded admitting with regard to the killing of Dirk Hamer that "I was in the wrong, but I must say I fooled them ", leading to a call from Hamer's sister Birgit for Vittorio Emanuele to be retried in Italy for the killing. After a long legal fight, Birgit Hamer obtained the full video. The story was broken in the press by aristocratic journalist Beatrice Borromeo , who also wrote the preface for a book on the murder _Delitto senza castigo_ by Birgit Hamer. Vittorio Emanuele sued the newspaper for defamation, claiming the video had been manipulated. In 2015, a court judgement ruled in favor of the newspaper.
In 2007, lawyers representing Vittorio Emanuele and his son Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy wrote to Italian President Giorgio Napolitano seeking damages for their years in exile. During a television interview, Emanuele Filiberto also requested that Roman landmarks such as the Quirinale palace and Villa Ada should be returned to the Savoy family. The Italian prime minister’s office has released a statement stating that the Savoys are not owed any damages and suggesting that Italy may demand damages from the Savoys for their collusion with Benito Mussolini . The Italian constitution contains a clause stripping the Savoys of their wealth on exile. Emanuele Filiberto acknowledged that his fiancée, whose pregnancy was revealed at the time of the couple's engagement, belonged to a more leftist milieu than his own, a fact which initially displeased his father.
Judicially separated since 1976, civilly divorced in 1982 and their marriage religiously annulled in 1987, Amedeo of Aosta's first wife, Princess Claude d'Orléans, revealed that she was aware that her husband fathered a child by another woman during their marriage. Aosta acknowledged paternity of another child, born out-of-wedlock in 2006 during his second marriage, but agreed to contribute financially to the child's care only after being directed to do so by court order.
The patrilineal lineage of the House of Savoy was reduced to four males between 1996 and 2009. In 2008 Aimone of Savoy- Aosta married Princess Olga of Greece , his second cousin, and they became the parents of sons Umberto and Amedeo born, respectively, in 2009 and 2011.
ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD
The House of Savoy has held two dynastic orders since 1362 which were brought into the Kingdom of Italy as national orders. Although the Kingdom ceased to exist in 1946, King Umberto II did not abdicate his role as _fons honorum _ over the two dynastic orders over which the family has long held sovereignty and grand mastership. Today, Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples is hereditary Sovereign and Grand Master of the following orders of the House of Savoy:
In addition to these, Vittorio Emanuele claims sovereignty over two more orders:
Recently, all three of Vittorio Emanuele 's sisters (Princess Maria Pia , Princess Maria Gabriella , and Princess Maria Beatrice ) resigned from the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation and the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus , alleging that memberships in the orders had been sold to unworthy candidates, a newfound practice they could not abide.
LIST OF RULERS
Main article: List of rulers of Savoy
COUNTS OF SAVOY
Main article: County of Savoy
* HUMBERT I "Biancamano" ("White hand"), Count 1003–1047/1048 (ca 972/975-1047/48)
* AMADEUS I , Count 1048–1051 (d ca 1052)
* OTTO , Count 1051–1060 (ca 1020-1060)
* PETER I , Count 1060–1078 (1048/49-1078)
* AMADEUS II , Count 1060–1080 (ca 1046-1080)
* HUMBERT II , Count 1080–1103 (ca 1072-1103)
* AMADEUS III , Count 1103–1148 (ca 1095-1148)
* HUMBERT III , Count 1148–1189 (1136-1189)
* THOMAS I , Count 1189–1233 (1178-1233)
* AMADEUS IV , Count 1233–1253 (1197-1253)
* BONIFACE , Count 1253–1263 (1244-1263)
* PETER II , Count 1263–1268 (1203-1268) * PHILIP I , Count 1268–1285 (1207-1285)
* _Thomas II , regent 1253-59 (1199-1259)_
* AMADEUS V , Count 1285–1323 (1249-1323)
* EDWARD I , Count 1323–1329 (1284-1329)
* AIMONE , Count 1329–1343 (1291-1343)
* AMADEUS VI , Count 1343–1383 (1334-1383)
* AMADEUS VII , Count 1383–1391 (1360-1391)
* AMADEUS VIII , Count 1391–1416 (1383-1451)
DUKES OF SAVOY
Main article: Duchy of Savoy
* AMADEUS VIII , Duke of Savoy 1416–1434, Antipope Felix V 1439-1449 (1383-1451), abdicated (from both)
* LOUIS I , Duke of Savoy 1434–1465 (1413-1465)
* AMADEUS IX , Duke of Savoy 1465–1472 (1435-1472)
* PHILIBERT I , Duke of Savoy 1472–1482 (1465-1482)
* CHARLES I , Duke of Savoy 1482–1490 (1468-1490)
* CHARLES (II) JOHN AMADEUS , Duke of Savoy 1490–1496 (1490-1496)
* PHILIP II , Duke of Savoy 1496–1497 (1438-1497)
* PHILIBERT II , Duke of Savoy 1497–1504 (1480-1504)
* CHARLES III , Duke of Savoy 1504–1553 (1486-1553)
* EMMANUEL PHILIBERT , Duke of Savoy 1553–1580 (1528-1580)
* CHARLES EMMANUEL I , Duke of Savoy 1580–1630 (1562-1630)
* VICTOR AMADEUS I , Duke of Savoy 1630–1637 (1587-1637)
* FRANCIS HYACINTH , Duke of Savoy 1637–1638 (1632-1638)
* CHARLES EMMANUEL II , Duke of Savoy 1638–1675 (1634-1675)
* VICTOR AMADEUS II , Duke of Savoy 1675–1730, _later King of Sicily then Sardinia (see below)_ (1666-1732), abdicated
KINGS OF SICILY
* VICTOR AMADEUS II , King of Sicily 1713–1720 (1666-1732)
KINGS OF SARDINIA
Main article: Kingdom of Sardinia
* _Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy 1580–1630 (1562-1630)_
* _Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy 1630–1637 (1587-1637)_
* VICTOR AMADEUS II , King of Sardinia 1720–1730 (1666-1732), abdicated
* CHARLES EMMANUEL III , King of Sardinia 1730–1773 (1701-1773)
* VICTOR AMADEUS III , King of Sardinia 1773–1796 (1726-1796)
* CHARLES EMMANUEL IV , King of Sardinia 1796–1802 (1751-1819), abdicated * VICTOR EMMANUEL I , King of Sardinia 1802–1821 (1759-1824), abdicated * CHARLES FELIX , King of Sardinia 1821–1831 (1765-1831)
* VICTOR EMMANUEL II , King of Sardinia 1849–1861 (1820-1878)
KINGS OF ITALY
Main article: Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)
* VICTOR EMMANUEL II , King of Italy 1861–1878 (1820-1878)
* UMBERTO I , King of Italy 1878–1900 (1844-1900)
* VICTOR EMMANUEL III , King of Italy 1900–1946 (1869-1947), abdicated
* UMBERTO II , King of Italy 1946 (1904-1983), deposed
EMPERORS OF ETHIOPIA
* VICTOR EMMANUEL III , Emperor of Ethiopia 1936–1941 (1869-1947)
KINGS OF ALBANIA
Main article: Albanian Kingdom (1939–1943)
* VICTOR EMMANUEL III , King of Albania 1939–1943 (1869-1947)
WORLD WAR II CROATIA
In 1941, in the fascist puppet state Independent State of Croatia , Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta , grandson of Amadeo I of Spain , was formally named as the king-designate under the name "Tomislav II", but refused to assume the kingship, was never crowned, never ruled, and formally abdicated in 1943.
CYPRUS, JERUSALEM AND ARMENIA
In 1396, the title and privileges of the final king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia , Levon V , were transferred to James I , his cousin and king of Cyprus. The title of King of Armenia was thus united with the titles of King of Cyprus and King of Jerusalem. The title was held to the modern day by the House of Savoy.
TITLES OF THE CROWN OF SARDINIA
Map of Kingdom of Sardinia.
_VITTORIO AMEDEO III, per la grazia di Dio Re di Sardegna, Cipro, Gerusalemme e Armenia; Duca di Savoia, Monferrato, Chablais, Aosta e Genevese; Principe di Piemonte ed Oneglia; Marchese in Italia, di Saluzzo, Susa, Ivrea, Ceva, Maro, Oristano, Sezana; Conte di Moriana, Nizza, Tenda, Asti, Alessandria, Goceano; Barone di Vaud e di Faucigny; Signore di Vercelli, Pinerolo, Tarantasia, Lumellino, Val di Sesia; Principe e Vicario perpetuo del Sacro Romano Impero in Italia._
The English translation is: Victor Amadeus III , by the Grace of God , King of Sardinia , Cyprus , Jerusalem , Armenia , Duke of Savoy, Montferrat , Chablais , Aosta and Genevois , Prince of Piedmont and Oneglia , Marquis (of the Holy Roman Empire ) in Italy, of Saluzzo , Susa , Ivrea , Ceva , Maro, Oristano , Sezana , Count of Maurienne , Nice , Tende , Asti , Alessandria , Goceano , Baron of Vaud and Faucigny , Lord of Vercelli , Pinerolo , Tarentaise , Lumellino , Val di Sesia , Prince and perpetual Vicar of the Holy Roman Empire in Italy.
TITLES OF THE CROWN OF ITALY
Victor Emmanuel II , by the Grace of God and the Will of the Nation, King of Italy , King of Sardinia , Cyprus , Jerusalem , Armenia , Duke of Savoy , Count of Maurienne , Marquis (of the Holy Roman Empire ) in Italy; Prince of Piedmont , Carignano , Oneglia , Poirino , Trino ; Prince and Perpetual vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; Prince of Carmagnola , Montmellian with Arbin and Francin, Prince bailliff of the Duchy of Aosta , Prince of Chieri , Dronero , Crescentino , Riva di Chieri e Banna, Busca , Bene , Brà , Duke of Genoa , Monferrat , Aosta , Duke of Chablais , Genevois , Duke of Piacenza , Marquis of Saluzzo (Saluces), Ivrea , Susa , del Maro, Oristano , Cesana , Savona , Tarantasia , Borgomanero e Cureggio , Caselle , Rivoli , Pianezza , Govone , Salussola , Racconigi con Tegerone, Migliabruna e Motturone, Cavallermaggiore , Marene , Modane e Lanslebourg , Livorno Ferraris , Santhià Agliè , Centallo e Demonte , Desana , Ghemme , Vigone , Count of Barge , Villafranca , Ginevra , Nizza , Tenda , Romont , Asti , Alessandria , del Goceano , Novara , Tortona , Bobbio , Soissons , Sant\'Antioco , Pollenzo , Roccabruna , Tricerro , Bairo , Ozegna , delle Apertole, Baron of Vaud e del Faucigni , Lord of Vercelli , Pinerolo , della Lomellina , della Valle Sesia , del marchesato di Ceva , Overlord of Monaco , Roccabruna and 11/12th of Menton , Noble patrician of Venice , patrician of Ferrara .
These titles were used during the unified Kingdom of Italy which lasted from 1860–1946.
* Duke of Aosta * List of nicknames of European Royalty and Nobility * Counts of Villafranca * List of rulers of Savoy * List of consorts of Savoy * County of Savoy * Duchy of Savoy * Kingdom of Sardinia * List of monarchs of Sardinia * List of Sardinian consorts * Kingdom of Italy * King of Italy * List of Italian queens
* ^ Ginsborg, Paul -A History of Contemporary Italy: Society and Politics, 1943-1988, pg 98. Online: A History of Contemporary Italy (Google books) * ^ _The kingdom of Burgundy, the land of the house of Savoy and adjacent territories_, Eugene Cox, THE NEW CAMBRIDGE MEDIEVAL HISTORY: VOLUME 5, C.1198-C.1300, ed. Rosamond McKitterick, David Abulafia, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 365-366. * ^ _ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Savoy". Catholic Encyclopedia _. New York: Robert Appleton Company. * ^ _ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Piedmont". Catholic Encyclopedia _. New York: Robert Appleton Company. * ^ _Introduction:The Sabaudian Lands and Sabaudian Studies_, Matthew Vester, SABAUDIAN STUDIES: POLITICAL CULTURE, DYNASTY, AND TERRITORY (1400–1700), ed. Matthew Vester, (Truman State University Press, 2013), 1. * ^ _Sabaudian Studies_, Matthew Vester, SABAUDIAN STUDIES: POLITICAL CULTURE, DYNASTY, AND TERRITORY (1400–1700), (Truman State University Press, 2013), 6. * ^ Michael Mallett and Christine Shaw, _The Italian Wars, 1494-1559_, (Pearson Educational Limited, 2012), 154. * ^ _A_ _B_ Michael Mallett and Christine Shaw, _The Italian Wars, 1494-1559_, 230-231. * ^ Henry Kamen, _Philip of Spain_, (Yale University Press, 1997), 64. * ^ Henry Kamen, _Philip of Spain_, 67. * ^ “In order to prevail the thirteenth final provision of the Italian Constitution ( ... ) international law provides for the special instrument of " reserves " duly stamped by the Italian State at the time of its instrument of ratification deposit of the fourth Protocol” ECHR: Buonomo, Giampiero (2000). "Né l\'Unione europea, né i diritti dell\'uomo possono aprire le frontiere a Casa Savoia". _Diritto&Giustizia edizione online_. – via Questia (subscription required) * ^ By Constitutional Amendment, after some attempts to do so in another way: see (in Italian) _Né l\'Unione europea, né i diritti dell\'uomo possono aprire le frontiere a Casa Savoia_, in Diritto&Giustizia edizione online, 2001, anno II, n. 36. * ^ Guardian Newspaper https://www.theguardian.com/spain/article/0,2763,1227375,00.html * ^ Hooper, John (28 May 2004). "Right royal punch-up at Spanish prince\'s wedding" – via The Guardian. * ^ McIntosh, David (December 2005). "The Sad Demise of the House of Savoy". _European Royal History Journal_. Eurohistory. 8.6 (XLVIII): 3–6. * ^ Summary of trial proceedings concerned the killing of Dirk Hamer. sim.law.uu.nl * ^ "Arrestato Vittorio Emanuele di Savoia - Corriere della Sera". * ^ "Arrested Italy prince goes from palace to jail". 17 June 2006.
* ^ The Prince and the prostitutes * ^ House arrest * ^ (in Italian) Vittorio Emanuele, cimici in cella "Ho fregato i giudici francesi" * ^ Prince\'s braggadocio spurs call for justice. galleonpoint.com. 12 September 2006 * ^ Prince Victor Emmanuel of Savoy "admits killing of German teenager on secret video recording five years ago", Daily Mail, 28 February 2011; http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1361167/Prince-Victor-Emmanuel-Savoy-admits-killing-German-teenager-secret-video-recording-years-ago.html * ^ Follain, John _ Prince admits killing on video_, The Sunday Times, 27 February 2011; http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/world_news/Europe/article563655.ece * ^ Borromeo, Beatrice _Il video che incastra Savoia_, Il Fatto Quotidiano, 24 February 2011; http://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2011/02/24/il-video-che-incastra-savoia/93668/ * ^ _Beatrice Borromeo, el azote de los Saboya_, Hola, 10 March 2015; http://www.hola.com/realeza/casa_monaco/2015031077373/beatrice-borromeo-saboya/ * ^ Savoy claim http://rome.wantedineurope.com/news/news.php?id_n=3846 * ^ "BBC NEWS - Europe - Italian \'prince\' weds actress". * ^ _Anales De La Real Academia Matritense De Heráldica y Genealogía VI_ (2000–2001), Vol. VI, p. 230, footnote 116. * ^ Amedeo padre di Ginevra. Lo dice il Dna. Corriere.it (18 February 2015). Retrieved 2015-08-17. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Ordine Supremo della Santissima Annunciata". _Ordini Dinastici della Real Casa Savoia_. * ^ "Ordine Militare e Religioso dei SS. Maurizio e Lazzaro". _Ordini Dinastici della Real Casa Savoia_. * ^ "Ordine Civile di Savoia". _Ordini Dinastici della Real Casa Savoia_. * ^ "Ordine della Corona d\'Italia". _Ordini Dinastici della Real Casa Savoia_. * ^ Hooper, John (23 June 2006). "The fall of the house of Savoy" – via The Guardian. * ^ " Savoy 3". * ^ " Savoy 4". * ^ " Savoy 5". * ^ " Savoy 6". * ^ Hadjilyra, Alexander-Michael (2009). _The Armenians of Cyprus_. New York: Kalaydjian Foundation. p. 12. * ^ Velde, Francois R. "Royal Styles".
* Francesco Cognasso: _I Savoia nella politica europea_. Milano, 1941 (Storia e politica). * Robert Katz: _The Fall of the House of Savoy. A Study in the Relevance of the Commonplace or the Vulgarity of History_, London 1972. * Eugene L. Cox: _The Eagles of Savoy. The House of Savoy in thirteenth-century Europe_. Princeton, N.J., 1974. * Denis Mack Smith: _Italy and its Monarchy,_ New Haven, 1992. * Toby Osborne: _ Dynasty and Diplomacy in the Court of Savoy. Political Culture and the Thirty Years' War_ (Cambridge Studies in Italian History and Culture), Cambridge 2002. * Paolo Cozzo: _La geografia celeste dei duchi di Savoia. Religione, devozioni e sacralità in uno Stato di età moderna (secoli XVI-XVII)_, Bologna, il Mulino, 2006, 370 pp. * Enrico Castelnuovo (a cura di): _La Reggia di Venaria e i Savoia. Arte, magnificenza e storia di una corte europea_. Vol. 1-2. Turin, Umberto Allemandi ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v
* t * e
Princes of Savoy
* Amadeus, Duke of Savoy * Louis, Count of Geneva * Prince Giovanni * Philip, Duke of Savoy * Giano, Count of Faucigny and Geneva * Pietro, Bishop of Geneva * Prince Aimone * Prince Giacomo * Giovanni Ludovico, Bishop of Geneva * Jacques, Count of Romont
* Prince Luigi * Carlo, Prince of Piedmont * Philibert, Duke of Savoy * Prince Bernardo * Charles, Duke of Savoy * James Louis, Count of Genevois * Prince Gian Claudio Galeazzo * Prince Girolamo * Philibert, Duke of Savoy * Charles, Duke of Savoy * Prince Louis * Philippe, Duke of Nemours * Prince Assolone * Prince Giovanni Amedeo * Prince Emanuele Filiberto Adriano * Prince Louis * Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy
* Filippo Emanuele, Prince of Piedmont * Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy * Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Nemours * Henri, Prince de Genevois * Prince Louis * Prince François Paul * Henri, Duke of Nemours * Thomas Francis, Prince of Carignano * Maurice, Cardinal of Savoy * Prince Emmanuel Filibert
* Prince Louis Amadeus * Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy * Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy * Emmanuel Philibert, Prince of Carignano * Joseph Emmanuel, Count of Soissons * Eugene Maurice, Count of Soissons
* Victor Amadeus II, King of Sardinia * Victor Amadeus, Prince of Carignano * Louis Thomas, Count of Soissons * Emanuel Philibert, Count of Dreux * Prince Philippe * Prince Eugene * Prince Louis Jules
* Victor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont * Charles Emmanuel III, King of Sardinia * Emanuele Philibert, Duke of Chablais * Louis Victor, Prince of Carignano * Eugenio, Count of Villafranca * Prince Tommaso * Emmanuel Thomas, Count of Soissons
* Victor Amadeus, Duke of Aosta * Victor Amadeus III, King of Sardinia * Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta * Carlo, Duke of Chablais * Carlo, Duke of Aosta * Benedetto, Duke of Chablais * Victor Amadeus II, Prince of Carignano * Prince Tommaso * Eugene Jean, Count of Soissons * Giuseppe Maria, Count of Villafranca
* Charles Emmanuel IV, King of Sardinia * Amedeus Alexander, Duke of Montferrat * Victor Emmanuel I, King of Sardinia * Maurizio, Duke of Montferrat * Charles Felix, King of Sardinia * Giuseppe, Count of Asti * Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignano * Eugenio, Duke of Carignano
* Charles Albert, King of Sardinia
* King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy * Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta *** * Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin *** * Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi *** * Umberto, Count of Salemi *** * Ferdinando, Duke of Genoa ** * Filiberto, Duke of Genoa ** * Adalberto, Duke of Bergamo ** * Eugenio, Duke of Genoa **
* v * t * e
Princesses of Savoy
* Princess Margherita * Margherita, Duchess of Anjou * Maria, Duchess of Milan * Princess Bonne
* Princess Maria * Margherita, Countess of Saint-Pol * Charlotte, Queen of France * Agnes, Countess of Dunois * Maria, Countess of Saint-Pol * Bona, Duchess of Milan * Princess Anna
* Louise, Duchess of Nemours * Philiberta, Duchess of Nemours * Antonia, Lady of Monaco * Claudina, Countess of Hornes * Princess Philippina * Princess Margherita * Princess Giovanna
* Yolande, Duchess of Savoy * Princess Catherine * Princess Maria * Princess Isabella
* Margherita, Vicereine of Portugal * Isabella, Hereditary Princess of Modena * Princess Maria Apollonia * Princess Francesca Catherina * Princess Giovanna
* Luisa Cristina, Princess Maurice of Savoy * Margherita Violante, Duchess of Parma * Henriette Adelaide, Electress of Bavaria * Princess Catherine Beatrice * Princess Christine Charlotte * Louise, Hereditary Princess of Baden-Baden * Marie Jeanne, Duchess of Savoy * Marie Françoise, Queen of Portugal
* Maria Vittoria, Countess of Cercenasco* * Isabella Luisa, Countess of Lagnasco*
* Maria Adelaide, Dauphine of France * Princess Maria Anna * Maria Luisa, Queen of Spain * Anne Thérèse, Princess of Soubise * Marie Jeanne, Mademoiselle de Soissons * Louise Philiberte, Mademoiselle de Carignan * Françoise, Mademoiselle de Dreux
* Princess Eleonora * Princess Maria Luisa * Princess Maria Felicita * Princess Vittoria Margharita * Princess Charlotte * Leopoldina, Princess of Melfi * Princess Polyxena * Gabrielle, Princess of Lobkowicz * Maria Luisa, Princess of Lamballe * * Caterina, Princess of Paliano * Maria Anna Victoria, Duchess in Saxony
* Princess Maria Elisabetta * Marie Joséphine, Countess of Provence * Maria Teresa, Countess of Artois * Maria Anna, Duchess of Chablais * Princess Maria Cristina Giuseppina * Maria Carolina, Electoral Princess of Saxony
* Maria Beatrice, Duchess of Modena * Princess Maria Adelaide * Maria Anna, Empress of Austria * Maria Teresa, Duchess of Parma * Maria Cristina, Queen of the Two Sicilies * Elisabeth, Archduchess of Austria
* Princess Maria Cristina
* Maria Clotilde, Princess Napoléon * Maria Pia, Queen of Portugal
* Margherita, Queen of Italy *
* Yolanda, Countess of Bergolo * Mafalda, Landgravine of Hesse * Giovanna, Tsaritsa of Bulgaria * Maria Francesca, Princess Luis of Parma * Bona Margherita, Princess Konrad of Bavaria * * Princess Adelaide*
* Maria Pia, Princess Michael of Parma * Maria Gabriella, Mrs Zellinger de Balkany * Maria Beatrice, Mrs Reyna-Corvalán y Dillon * Margherita, Archduchess of Austria-Este ** * Maria Cristina, Princess Casimir of the Two Sicilies ** * Princess Isabella*
* Bianca, Countess Arrivabene-Valenti-Gonzaga** * Mafalda, Baroness Lombardo di San Chirico**
* Princess Vittoria * Princess Luisa * Princess Isabella**
* _Princess of Savoy-Genoa_ ** _Princess of Savoy-Aosta_
* v * t * e
Royal houses of Europe
* Knýtlinga * Fairhair * Estridsen * Griffins * Palatinate-Neumarkt * Oldenburg * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
* Bjelbo * Mecklenburg * Griffins * Palatinate-Neumarkt * Bonde * Oldenburg * Vasa * Palatinate-Zweibrücken * Hesse * Holstein-Gottorp * Romanov
* Fairhair * Knýtlinga * Hardrada * Gille * Sverre * Bjelbo * Estridsen * Griffins * Palatinate-Neumarkt * Bonde * Oldenburg * Holstein-Gottorp * Bernadotte * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
* Munsö * Stenkil * Sverker * Eric * Bjelbo * Estridsen * Mecklenburg * Griffins * Palatinate-Neumarkt * Bonde * Oldenburg * Vasa * Palatinate-Zweibrücken * Hesse-Kassel * Holstein-Gottorp * Bernadotte
* Fairhair * Bjelbo * Estridsen * Griffins * Palatinate-Neumarkt * Bonde * Oldenburg * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
BRITAIN AND IRELAND
* Dinefwr * Aberffraw * Gwynedd * Mathrafal * Cunedda
* Laigin * Síl Conairi * Ulaid * Dáirine * Osraige * Cruthin * Dál nAraidi * Connachta * Uí Fiachrach * Uí Briúin * Uí Néill * Síl nÁedo Sláine * Clann Cholmáin * Eóganachta * Chaisil * Glendamnach * Raithlind * Uí Dúnlainge * Uí Ímair (Norse) * Uí Ceinnselaig * Dál gCais * Ó Briain * Mac Carthaig * Ó Conchobhair * Ó Ruairc * De Burgh (Norman) * FitzGerald (Norman) * Ó Domhnaill * Ó Néill
* Stuart * Orange-Nassau * Hanover * Saxe-Coburg and Gotha * Windsor
* Angevin * Progon * Arianiti * Thopia * Kastrioti * Dukagjini * Wied * Zogu * Ottoman * _Savoy_
* Boričević * Kulinić * Kotromanić * Kosača * Ottoman * Habsburg-Lorraine
* Dulo * Krum * Cometopuli * Asen * Smilets * Terter * Shishman * Sratsimir * Battenberg * Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
* Trpimirović * Domagojević * Svačić * Ottoman * Luxembourg * Habsburg * Habsburg-Lorraine * Bonaparte * _ Savoy (disputed)_
* Plantagenet * Lusignan * Ottoman * Savoy
* Pharnavazid * Artaxiad * Arsacid * Chosroid * Bagrationi
* Dragoș (Drăgoșești) * Rossetti * Bogdan-Muşat * Movilești * Drăculeşti * Ghica * Cantacuzene * Cantemirești * Racoviță * Mavrocordato * Ypsilantis * Soutzos * Mourousi * Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen * Basarab
* Vojislavljević * Balšić * Crnojević * Petrović-Njegoš
* House of Basarab * Rossetti * Bogdan-Mușat * Movilești * Drăculești * Ghica * Cantacuzene * Cantemirești * Romanov * Racoviță * Mavrocordato * Ypsilantis * Soutzos * Mourousi * Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen * Romania /Royal family
* Vlastimirović * Vukanović * Nemanjić * Lazarević * Mrnjavčević * Dejanović * Branković * Ottoman * Obrenović * Karađorđević
1 Transcontinental country . 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe.
* Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
* Merovingian * Carolingian * Capet * Valois * Bourbon * Bonaparte * Orléans
* Bonaparte * Bourbon-Parma * Bourbon-Two Sicilies * Carolingian * Colonna * Della Rovere * Este * Farnese * Flavian * Gonzaga * Grimaldi * Habsburg * Julio-Claudian * Malatesta * Medici * Montefeltro * Nerva–Antonine * Ordelaffi * Orsini * Palaiologos * Pallavicini * Savoy * Severan * Sforza * Visconti
* Orange-Nassau * Nassau-Weilburg * Bourbon-Parma
* Bonaparte * Orange-Nassau * (Mecklenburg ) * (Lippe )
* Vímara Peres * Borgonha * Aviz * Habsburgo
* Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
* Asturias * Barcelona * Jiménez * Burgundy * Champagne * Capet * Évreux * Trastámara * Habsburg
* Bonaparte * Savoy
* Babenberg * Habsburg * Habsburg-Lorraine
* Přemyslid * Piast * Luxembourg * Jagiellon * Habsburg * Habsburg-Lorraine
* Ascania * Carolingian * Conradines * Ottonian * Luitpolding * Salian * Süpplingenburg * Hohenstaufen * Welf * Habsburg * Hanover * Saxe-Coburg and Gotha * Nassau * Luxembourg * Wittelsbach * Schwarzburg * Brunswick-Lüneburg * House of Pomerania * Hohenzollern * Württemberg * Oldenburg * Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg * Orange-Nassau * Nassau-Weilburg * Mecklenburg * Vasa * Palatine Zweibrücken * Hesse * Holstein-Gottorp * Romanov * Bonaparte * Wettin * Lippe * Zähringen
* Árpád * Přemyslid * Wittelsbach * Angevin * Luxembourg * Hunyadi * Jagiellon * Szapolyai * Habsburg * Habsburg-Lorraine
* Piast * Přemyslid * Samborides * Griffins * Jagiellon * Valois * Báthory * Vasa * Wiśniowiecki * Sobieski * Wettin * Leszczyński
* Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov Kingdom of Poland * Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria * Wettin Duchy of Warsaw * Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk * Hohenzollern Duchy of Poznań
* v * t * e
European royal families
* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 189456527 * SUDOC : 056929986 * BNF : cb16756130w (data) * HDS : 19505