HOME
The Info List - House Of Representatives Of The Philippines


--- Advertisement ---



Since July 25, 2016

Linabelle Ruth Villarica (Nacionalista) Pia Cayetano
Pia Cayetano
(Nacionalista) Gwendolyn Garcia
Gwendolyn Garcia
(PDP-Laban) Mylene Garcia-Albano (PDP-Laban) Sharon Garin (AAMBIS-OWA Partylist)

Since August 15, 2016

Majority Floor Leader

Rodolfo Fariñas (Nacionalista) Since July 25, 2016

Minority Floor Leader

Danilo E. Suarez (Lakas) Since July 27, 2016

Structure

Seats 297 representatives 238 from geographical districts 59 party-list representatives

Political groups

Majority bloc (Coalition for Change; 258):

     PDP-Laban
PDP-Laban
(115)      Liberal (40)      NPC (29)      NUP (17)      Nacionalista (16)      Lakas (2)      LDP (1)      UNA (1)      Local parties (3)      Sectoral (37)

Minority bloc (18):

     Lakas (1)      Liberal (1)      Nacionalista (1)      PDP-Laban
PDP-Laban
(1)      UNA (1)      Sectoral (13)

Independent minority bloc (14):

     Liberal (5)      Sectoral (9)

Independent bloc (1):

     Independent (1)

Vacant

     Vacant (5)

Committees 58 standing committees and 14 special committees

Length of term

3 years

Authority Article VI, Constitution of the Philippines

Elections

Voting system

Parallel voting

Last election

May 9, 2016

Next election

May 13, 2019

Redistricting Districts are redistricted by Congress after each census (has never been done since 1987) By statute (most frequent method).

Meeting place

Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
Complex Batasan Hills, Quezon
Quezon
City, Philippines

Website

House of Representatives of the Philippines

Philippines

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of the Philippines

Constitution

Charter Change Laws and legal codes

Legislature

Congress

Senate

Senate President Aquilino Pimentel III

House of Representatives

Speaker Pantaleon Alvarez

Districts Party-list representation

Local legislatures

ARMM Regional Legislative Assembly Provinces Cities Municipalities Barangays

Executive

President of the Philippines

Rodrigo Duterte

Vice President of the Philippines

Leni Robredo

Cabinet Executive departments Local government

Judiciary

Supreme Court

Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno

Court of Appeals Court of Tax Appeals Sandiganbayan Ombudsman Regional Trial Courts Barangay
Barangay
justice

Constitutional commissions

Civil Service Commission Commission on Elections Commission on Audit Commission on Human Rights

Elections

Recent elections

General: 2007 2010 2013 2016

Political parties

Lakas Liberal Nacionalista NPC NUP PDP–Laban UNA

Administrative divisions

Capital Regions Provinces Cities Municipalities Barangays Poblacions Sitios Puroks

Related topics

Foreign relations Human rights Taxation

Other countries Atlas

v t e

The House of Representatives of the Philippines
Philippines
(Filipino: Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan ng Pilipinas), is the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines. (The Senate of the Philippines
Philippines
is the upper house). It is often informally called Congress. Members of the House are officially styled as Representative (Kinatawan) and sometimes informally called Congressmen/Congresswomen (mga kongresista) and are elected to a three-year term. They can be re-elected, but cannot serve more than three consecutive terms. Around eighty percent of congressmen are district representatives, representing a particular geographical area. There are 234 legislative districts in the country, each composed of about 250,000 people. There are also party-list representatives elected through the party-list system who constitute not more than twenty percent of the total number of representatives. Aside from having its concurrence on every bill in order to be passed for the President's signature to become a law, the House of Representatives has the power to impeach certain officials, and all money bills must originate from the lower house. The House of Representatives is headed by the Speaker, currently Pantaleon Alvarez
Pantaleon Alvarez
of Davao del Norte. The official headquarters of the House of Representatives is at the Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
(literally, national legislature) located in the Batasan Hills in Quezon City
Quezon City
in Metro Manila. The building is often simply called Batasan and the word has also become a metonym to refer to the House of Representatives.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Philippine Assembly 1.2 Jones Act of 1916 1.3 Commonwealth and the Third Republic 1.4 Martial Law 1.5 1987 Constitution

2 Officers

2.1 Speaker 2.2 Deputy Speakers 2.3 Majority Floor Leader 2.4 Minority Floor Leader 2.5 Secretary General 2.6 Sergeant-at-Arms

3 District representation

3.1 Legislative districts in provinces 3.2 Legislative districts in cities

4 Party-list representation 5 Redistricting

5.1 Most populous legislative districts 5.2 Underrepresentation

6 Powers 7 Seat

7.1 Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
Complex

8 Current composition 9 Latest election 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

History[edit]

Joint session of the Philippine Legislature, Manila. November 15, 1916

Philippine legislature before 1924

Party control of the lower house. Notice the one-party dominance of the Nacionalistas from 1907 to 1941, the two-party system with the emergence of the Liberal Party in 1946, the return of one-party dominance by the KBL from 1978 to 1984, and the multiparty system from 1987 to the present.

Same as above, but in cumulative seat totals, instead of percentages.

Philippine Assembly[edit] Main article: Philippine Assembly At the beginning of American colonial rule, from March 16, 1900, the sole national legislative body was the Philippine Commission
Philippine Commission
with all members appointed by the President of the United States. Headed by the Governor-General of the Philippines
Philippines
the body exercised all legislative authority given to it by the President and the United States
United States
Congress until October 1907 when it was joined by the Philippine Assembly. William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
was chosen to be the first American civilian Governor-General and the first leader of this Philippine Commission, which subsequently became known as the Taft Commission. The Philippine Bill of 1902, a basic law, or organic act, of the Insular Government, mandated that once certain conditions were met a bicameral, or two-chamber, Philippine Legislature
Philippine Legislature
would be created with the previously existing, all-appointed Philippine Commission
Philippine Commission
as the upper house and the Philippine Assembly
Philippine Assembly
as the lower house. This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in October 1907. Under the leadership of Speaker Sergio Osmeña
Sergio Osmeña
and Floor Leader Manuel L. Quezon, the Rules of the 59th United States
United States
Congress was substantially adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature. Osmeña and Quezon led the Nacionalista Party, with a platform of independence from the United States, into successive electoral victories against the Progresista Party and later the Democrata Party, which first advocated United States
United States
statehood, then opposed immediate independence. It is this body, founded as the Philippine Assembly, that would continue in one form or another, and with a few different names, up until the present day. Jones Act of 1916[edit] Main article: Jones Law (Philippines) In 1916, the Jones Act, officially the Philippine Autonomy Act, changed the legislative system. The Philippine Commission
Philippine Commission
was abolished and a new fully elected, bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was established. The Nacionalistas continued their electoral dominance at this point, although they were split into two factions led by Osmeña and Quezon; the two reconciled in 1924, and controlled the Assembly via a virtual dominant-party system. Commonwealth and the Third Republic[edit] Main article: National Assembly of the Philippines The legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935 Constitution established a unicameral National Assembly. But in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines
Philippines
consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was adopted. Upon the inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines
Philippines
in 1946, Republic Act
Republic Act
No. 6 was enacted providing that on the date of the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, the existing Congress would be known as the First Congress of the Republic. The "Liberal bloc" of the Nacionalistas permanently split from their ranks, creating the Liberal Party. These two will contest all of the elections in what appeared to be a two-party system. The party of the ruling president wins the elections in the House of Representatives; in cases where the party of the president and the majority of the members of the House of Representatives are different, a sufficient enough number will break away and join the party of the president, thereby ensuring that the president will have control of the House of Representatives. Martial Law[edit] Main article: Batasang Pambansa This set up continued until President Ferdinand Marcos
Ferdinand Marcos
declared martial law and abolished Congress. He would rule by decree even after the 1973 Constitution abolished the bicameral Congress and created a unicameral Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
parliamentary system of government, as parliamentary election would not occur in 1978. Marcos' Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL; New Society Movement) won all of the seats except those from the Central Visayas
Central Visayas
ushering in an era of KBL dominance, which will continue until the People Power Revolution
People Power Revolution
overthrew Marcos in 1986. 1987 Constitution[edit] The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. One deviation from the previous setup was the introduction of the mid-term election; however, the dynamics of the House of Representatives resumed its pre-1972 state, with the party of the president controlling the chamber, although political pluralism ensued that prevented the restoration of the old Nacionalista-Liberal two-party system. Instead, a multi-party system evolved. Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
who nominally had no party, supported the Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (LDP; Struggle of the Democratic Filipinos). With the victory of Fidel V. Ramos
Fidel V. Ramos
in the 1992 presidential election, many representatives defected to his Lakas-NUCD
Lakas-NUCD
party; the same would happen with Joseph Estrada's victory in 1998, but he lost support when he was ousted after the 2001 EDSA Revolution
2001 EDSA Revolution
that brought his vice president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
to power. This also meant the restoration of Lakas-NUCD
Lakas-NUCD
as the top party in the chamber. The same would happen when Benigno Aquino won in 2010, which returned the Liberals into power. The presiding officer is the Speaker. Unlike the Senate President, the Speaker usually serves the entire term of Congress, although there had been instances when the Speaker left office due to conflict with the president: examples include Jose de Venecia, Jr.'s resignation as speaker in 2008 when his son Joey de Venecia exposed alleged corrupt practices by First Gentleman Mike Arroyo, and Manny Villar's ouster occurred after he allowed the impeachment of President Estrada in 2000. Officers[edit] The members of the House of Representatives who are also its officers are also ex officio members of all of the committees and have a vote. Speaker[edit] Main article: Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines The Speaker is the head of the House of Representatives. He presides over the session; decides on all questions of order, subject to appeal by any member; signs all acts, resolutions, memorials, writs, warrants and subpoenas issued by or upon order of the House; appoints, suspends, dismisses or disciplines House personnel; and exercise administrative functions. The speaker is elected by majority of all the members of the house, including vacant seats. The speaker is traditionally elected at the convening of each Congress. Before a speaker is elected, the House's sergeant-at-arms sits as the "Presiding Officer" until a speaker is elected. Compared to the Senate President, the unseating of an incumbent speaker is rarer. As of April 2016,[update] the incumbent speaker is Pantaleon Alvarez (PDP-Laban) of Davao del Norte's First congressional district. Deputy Speakers[edit] Main article: Deputy Speakers of the House of Representatives of the Philippines There was a position of speaker pro tempore for congresses prior the reorganization of the officers of the House of Representatives during the 10th Congress in 1995. The speaker pro tempore was the next highest position in the House after the speaker. The position was replaced by deputy speakers in 1995. Originally, there was one Deputy Speaker for each island group of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Then, in 2001 during the 12th Congress, a Deputy Speaker "at large" was created. In the next Congress, another "at large" deputy speakership was created, along with a Deputy Speaker for women. In the 15th Congress starting in 2010, all six deputy speakers are "at large". The deputy speakers perform the speaker's role when the speaker is absent. Currently in the 16th Congress, the deputy speakers represent the chamber at-large. The Deputy Speakers are:

Eric Singson (Ilocos Sur–2nd, PDP-Laban) Mercedes Alvarez (Negros Occidental–6th, NPC) Fredenil Castro (Capiz–2nd, NUP) Raneo Abu (Batangas–2nd, Nacionalista) Miro Quimbo (Marikina–2nd, Liberal)

Since July 25, 2016

Pia Cayetano
Pia Cayetano
(Taguig–Lone, Nacionalista) Gwendolyn Garcia
Gwendolyn Garcia
(Cebu–3rd, PDP-Laban) Mylene Garcia-Albano (Davao City–2nd, PDP-Laban) Sharon Garin (party-list member of AAMBIS-OWA)

Since August 15, 2016 Majority Floor Leader[edit] Main article: Majority Floor Leader of the House of Representatives of the Philippines The majority leader, aside from being the spokesman of the majority party, is to direct the deliberations on the floor. The Majority Leader is also concurrently the Chairman of the Committee on Rules. The majority leader is elected in a party caucus of the ruling majority party. The incumbent majority floor leader is Rodolfo C. Fariñas (NP) of Ilocos Norte's First district. Minority Floor Leader[edit] Main article: Minority Floor Leader of the House of Representatives of the Philippines The minority leader is the spokesman of the minority party in the House and is an ex-officio member of all standing Committees. The minority leader is elected in party caucus of all Members of the House in the minority party, although by tradition, the losing candidate for speaker is named the minority leader. The incumbent minority floor leader is Danilo E. Suarez (Lakas) of Quezon's 3rd District. Secretary General[edit] The secretary general enforces orders and decisions of the House; keeps the Journal of each session; notes all questions of order, among other things. The secretary general presides over the chamber at the first legislative session after an election, and is elected by a majority of the members. As of May 2017,[update] Cesar S Pareja is the Secretary General of the House of Representatives.[1] Sergeant-at-Arms[edit] The Sergeant-at-Arms is responsible for the maintenance of order in the House of Representatives, among other things. Like the Secretary General, the Sergeant-at-Arms is elected by a majority of the members. As of May 2017,[update] retired Lieutenant General, Roland M. Detabali is the Sergeant-at-Arms of the House of Representatives.[2] District representation[edit] Main article: Legislative districts of the Philippines

Congressional districts

There are two types of representatives in the chamber: representatives from congressional districts and party-list representatives. Eighty percent of representatives shall come from congressional districts, with each district returning one representative. Although each district should have a population of at least 250,000 people, all provinces have at least one legislative district, regardless of population, whose residents vote for their own congressman; several cities have representation of their own, independent of provinces, although they should have at least a population of 250,000. For provinces that have more than one legislative district, the provincial districts are identical to the corresponding legislative district, with the exclusion of cities that do not vote for provincial officials. The representatives from the districts comprise at most 80% of the members of the House; therefore, for a party to have a majority of seats in the House, the party needs to win at least 60% of the district seats. No party since the approval of the 1987 constitution has been able to win a majority of seats, hence coalitions are not uncommon. Legislative districts in provinces[edit]

Abra (1) Agusan del Norte (2) Agusan del Sur (2) Aklan
Aklan
(1) Albay
Albay
(3) Antique (1) Apayao (1) Aurora (1) Basilan (1) Bataan
Bataan
(2) Batanes (1) Batangas
Batangas
(6)a Benguet (1) Biliran (1) Bohol
Bohol
(3) Bukidnon
Bukidnon
(4) Bulacan
Bulacan
(4)b Cagayan
Cagayan
(3) Camarines Norte (2) Camarines Sur
Camarines Sur
(5)c Camiguin (1) Capiz
Capiz
(2) Catanduanes (1) Cavite
Cavite
(6)d Cebu
Cebu
(7)e Compostela Valley (2) Cotabato
Cotabato
(3)

Davao del Norte
Davao del Norte
(2) Davao Occidental
Davao Occidental
(1) Davao Oriental (2) Davao del Sur
Davao del Sur
(1) Dinagat Islands
Dinagat Islands
(1) Eastern Samar (1) Guimaras (1) Ifugao (1) Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
(2) Ilocos Sur (2) Iloilo
Iloilo
(5) Isabela (4)f Kalinga (1) La Union
La Union
(2) Laguna (4)g Lanao del Norte (2) Lanao del Sur
Lanao del Sur
(2) Leyte
Leyte
(5)h Maguindanao
Maguindanao
(2)i Marinduque (1) Masbate (3) Misamis Occidental (2) Misamis Oriental
Misamis Oriental
(2) Mountain Province (1) Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental
(6) Negros Oriental
Negros Oriental
(3) Northern Samar (2)

Nueva Ecija
Nueva Ecija
(4) Nueva Vizcaya (1) Occidental Mindoro (1) Oriental Mindoro
Oriental Mindoro
(2) Palawan (3)j Pampanga
Pampanga
(4)k Pangasinan
Pangasinan
(6)l Quezon
Quezon
(4)m Quirino (1) Rizal
Rizal
(2)n Romblon (1) Samar (2) Sarangani
Sarangani
(1) Siquijor (1) Sorsogon
Sorsogon
(2) South Cotabato
Cotabato
(2)o Southern Leyte
Leyte
(1) Sultan Kudarat
Sultan Kudarat
(2) Sulu (2) Surigao del Norte
Surigao del Norte
(2) Surigao del Sur (2) Tarlac
Tarlac
(3) Tawi-Tawi (1) Zambales
Zambales
(2)p Zamboanga del Norte
Zamboanga del Norte
(3) Zamboanga del Sur
Zamboanga del Sur
(2) Zamboanga Sibugay (2)

Legislative districts in cities[edit]

Antipolo
Antipolo
(2) Bacolod (1) Baguio
Baguio
(1) Biñan
Biñan
(1) Cagayan
Cagayan
de Oro (2) Caloocan (2) Cebu
Cebu
City (2) Dasmariñas
Dasmariñas
(1)d Davao City
Davao City
(3) Iligan (1)

Iloilo
Iloilo
City (1) Lapu-Lapu City (1) Las Piñas (1) Makati (2) Malabon (1) Mandaluyong (1) Manila
Manila
(6) Marikina (2) Muntinlupa (1) Navotas (1)

Parañaque (2) Pasay (1) Pasig (1) Pateros and Taguig
Taguig
(1) Quezon City
Quezon City
(6) San Jose del Monte
San Jose del Monte
(1) San Juan (1) Taguig
Taguig
(1) Valenzuela (2) Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
(2)

^a The component cities of Batangas
Batangas
and Lipa are officially known as the 5th and 6th Districts of Batangas, respectively. ^b The component city of San Jose del Monte
San Jose del Monte
is represented separately from Bulacan, but remains as part of the province's 1st District for the purpose of electing Sangguniang Panlalawigan members. ^c The independent city of Naga remains part of Camarines Sur's congressional representation. ^d The component city of Dasmariñas
Dasmariñas
is represented under its own name, but also constitutes the Cavite's 4th District. The component cities of Bacoor
Bacoor
and Imus are officially only known as Cavite's 2nd and 3rd Districts, respectively. ^e The independent city of Mandaue
Mandaue
remains part of Cebu's congressional representation. ^f The independent city of Santiago remains part of Isabela's congressional representation. ^g The component city of Biñan
Biñan
is represented separately from Laguna, but remains as part of the province's 1st District for the purpose of electing Sangguniang Panlalawigan members. ^h The independent cities of Ormoc
Ormoc
and Tacloban
Tacloban
remain part of Leyte's congressional representation. ^i The independent city of Cotabato
Cotabato
remains part of Maguindanao's congressional representation. ^j The independent city of Puerto Princesa
Puerto Princesa
remains part of Palawan's congressional representation. ^k The independent city of Angeles remains part of Pampanga's congressional representation. ^l The independent city of Dagupan
Dagupan
remains part of Pangasinan's congressional representation. ^m The independent city of Lucena remains part of Quezon's congressional representation. ^n The component city of Antipolo
Antipolo
is represented separately from Rizal. The city returns one member from each of its districts to the province's Sangguniang Panlalawigan. ^o The independent city of General Santos remains part of South Cotabato's congressional representation. ^p The independent city of Olongapo
Olongapo
remains part of Zambales's congressional representation.

Party-list representation[edit] Main article: Party-list representation in the House of Representatives of the Philippines The party-list system is the name designated for party-list representation. Under the 1987 Constitution, the electorate can vote for certain party-list organizations in order to give voice to significant minorities of society that would otherwise not be adequately represented through geographical district. From 1987-1998, party-list representatives were appointed by the President. Since 1998, each voter votes for a single party-list organization. Organizations that garner at least 2% of the total number of votes are awarded one representative for every 2% up to a maximum of three representatives. Thus, there can be at most 50 party-list representatives in Congress, though usually no more than 20 are elected because many organizations do not reach the required 2% minimum number of votes. After the 2007 election, in a controversial decision, the Supreme Court ordered the COMELEC to change how it allocates the party-list seats. Under the new formula only one party will have the maximum 3 seats. It based its decision on a formula contained in the VFP vs. COMELEC decision. In 2009, in the BANAT vs. COMELEC decision, it was changed anew in which parties with less than 2% of the vote were given seats to fulfill the 20% quota as set forth in the constitution. Aside from determining which party won and allocating the number of seats won per party, another point of contention was whether the nominees should be a member of the marginalized group they are supposed to represent; in the Ang Bagong Bayani vs. COMELEC decision, the Supreme Court not only ruled that the nominees should be a member of the marginalized sector, but it also disallowed major political parties from participating in the party-list election. However, on the BANAT decision, the court ruled hat since the law didn't specify who belongs to a marginalized sector, the court allowed anyone to be a nominee as long as the nominee as a member of the party (not necessarily the marginalized group the party is supposed to represent). Redistricting[edit]

Population of each congressional district in the Philippines. Districts shaded with blue hues have less than 250,000 people, those shaded green are just over 250,000, yellow and orange are more than 250,000, and the those shaded red can be split into two or more districts.

Congress is mandated to reapportion the legislative districts within three years following the return of every census.[3] Since its restoration in 1987, Congress has not passed any general apportionment law, despite the publication of five censuses in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2007 and 2010.[4] The increase in the number of representative districts since 1987 were mostly due to the creation of new provinces, cities, and piecemeal redistricting of certain provinces and cities. The apportionment of congressional districts is not dependent upon a specially-mandated independent government body, but rather through Republic Acts which are drafted by members of Congress. Therefore, apportionment often can be influenced by political motivations. Incumbent representatives who are not permitted by law to serve after three consecutive terms sometimes resort to dividing their district, or even creating a new province which will be guaranteed a seat, just so that their allies be able to run, while "switching offices" with them. Likewise, politicians whose political fortunes are likely to be jeopardized by any change in district boundaries may delay or even ignore the need for reapportionment. Since 1987, the creation of some new congressional districts have been met with controversy, especially due to incumbent political clans and their allies benefiting from the new district arrangements. Some of these new congressional districts are tied to the creation of a new province, because such an act necessarily entails the creation of a new congressional district.

Creation of Davao Occidental, 2013: The rival Cagas and Bautista clans dominate politics in the province of Davao del Sur; their members have been elected as congressional representatives for the first and second districts of the province since 1987. However, the province's governorship has been in contest between the two clans in recent years: Claude Bautista, the current governor, was elected in 2013; before that Douglas Cagas served as governor from 2007 to 2013, after succeeding Benjamin Bautista Jr. who served from 2002 to 2007.[5] Supporters of both clans have been subjected to political violence, prompting the police to put the province of Davao del Sur
Davao del Sur
in the election watchlist.[6] The law which created Davao Occidental, Republic Act
Republic Act
No. 10360, was co-authored by House Representatives Marc Douglas Cagas IV and Franklin Bautista as House Bill 4451; the creation of the new province is seen as a way to halt the "often violent" political rivalry between the clans by ensuring that the Cagas and Bautista clans have separate domains.[6] Reapportionment of Camarines Sur, 2009: A new congressional district was created within Camarines Sur
Camarines Sur
under Republic Act
Republic Act
No. 9716, which resulted in the reduction of the population of the province's first district to below the Constitutional ideal of 250,000 inhabitants. The move was seen as a form of political accommodation that would (and ultimately did) prevent two allies of then-President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo from running in the same district. Rolando Andaya, who was on his third term as congressman for the first district, was appointed Budget Secretary in 2006; his plans to run as representative of the same district in 2010 put him in direct competition with Diosdado Macapagal-Arroyo, the president's youngest son, who was also seeking re-election. Then-Senator Noynoy Aquino
Noynoy Aquino
challenged the constitutionality of the law but the Supreme Court of the Philippines ultimately ruled that the creation of the new district was constitutional.[7] Creation of Dinagat Islands, 2007: The separation of Dinagat Islands from Surigao del Norte
Surigao del Norte
has further solidified the hold of the Ecleo clan over the impoverished and typhoon-prone area, which remains among the poorest provinces in the country.[8]

Most populous legislative districts[edit] Currently the district with the lowest population is the lone district of Batanes, with only 17,246 inhabitants in 2015. The most populous congressional district, the 1st District of Caloocan City, has around 69 times more inhabitants. Data below reflect the district boundaries for the 2016 elections, and the population counts from the 2015 census.[9]

Rank Legislative district Population (2015)

1 1st District of Caloocan City 1,193,419

2 2nd District of Rizal 1,070,852

3 1st District of Rizal 1,036,989

4 2nd District of Laguna 937,382

5 1st District of South Cotabato 856,536

6 1st District of Maguindanao 821,475

7 1st District of Pampanga 775,580

8 Lone district of Pasig City 755,300

9 4th District of Bulacan 746,699

10 6th District of Cavite 733,853

Underrepresentation[edit]

Persons per representative per province or city in the House of Representatives: Provinces (blue) and cities (red) are arranged in descending order of population from Cavite
Cavite
to Batanes (provinces) and from Quezon City
Quezon City
to San Juan (cities).

Persons per representative from 1903 to 2007. The last nationwide apportionment act was the ordinance to the 1987 constitution, which was based on the 1980 census.

Because of the lack of a nationwide reapportionment after the publication of every census since the Constitution was promulgated in 1987, faster-growing provinces and cities have become severely underrepresented. Each legislative district is ideally supposed to encompass a population of 250,000.[10] The following jurisdictions currently have a deficit in their congressional representations if the constitutional ideal of 250,000 population count per district is considered:

Province / Independent City Population (2015 census) Number of legislative districts

Current number of representatives Maximum possible representation using the 250,000 population count threshold Deficit in number of representatives

Cavite
Cavite
(including the cities of Bacoor, Dasmariñas
Dasmariñas
and Imus) 3,678,301 7 14 7

Bulacan
Bulacan
(including the city of San Jose del Monte) 3,292,071 4 + 1 13 8

Laguna (including the city of Biñan) 3,035,081 4 + 1 12 7

Cebu 2,938,982a 7b 11 4

Pangasinan
Pangasinan
(including the independent city of Dagupan) 2,956,726c 6 11 5

Quezon
Quezon
City 2,936,116 6 11 5

Rizal
Rizal
(including the city of Antipolo) 2,884,227 2 + 2 11 7

Batangas
Batangas
(including the cities of Batangas
Batangas
and Lipa) 2,694,335 6 10 4

Negros Occidental 2,497,261 6 9 3

Pampanga 2,198,110d 4e 8 4

Nueva Ecija 2,151,461 4 8 4

Leyte
Leyte
(including the independent cities of Ormoc
Ormoc
and Tacloban) 1,966,768f 5 7 2

Camarines Sur
Camarines Sur
(including the independent city of Naga) 1,952,544g 5 7 2

Iloilo 1,936,423 5 7 2

Quezon 1,856,582h 4i 7 3

Manila 1,780,148 6 7 1

Isabela (including the independent city of Santiago) 1,593,566j 4 6 2

Davao City 1,632,991 3 6 3

Caloocan City 1,583,978 2 6 4

Bukidnon 1,415,226 4 5 1

Cotabato 1,379,747 3 5 2

Tarlac 1,366,027 3 5 2

Negros Oriental 1,354,995 3 5 2

Albay 1,314,826 3 5 2

Bohol 1,313,560 3 5 2

Cagayan 1,199,320 3 4 1

Maguindanao 1,173,933k 2l 4 2

Lanao del Sur 1,045,429 2 4 2

Davao del Norte 1,016,332 2 4 2

Zamboanga del Norte 1,011,393 3 4 1

Zamboanga del Sur 1,010,674 2 4 2

Cebu
Cebu
City 922,611 2 3 1

South Cotabato 915,289m 2n 3 1

Misamis Oriental 888,509 2 3 1

Zamboanga City 861,799 2 3 1

Oriental Mindoro 844,059 2 3 1

Sulu 824,031 2 3 1

Zambales 823,888o 2 3 1

Sultan Kudarat 812,095 2 3 1

Taguig City
Taguig City
+ Pateros 868,755p 1 + 1 3 1

Sorsogon 792,949 2 3 1

La Union 786,653 2 3 1

Samar 780,481 2 3 1

Capiz 761,384 2 3 1

Bataan 760,650 2 3 1

Pasig City 755,300 1 3 2

Davao del Sur 632,588 1 2 1

General Santos City 594,446 0n 2 2

Las Piñas City 588,894 1 2 1

Antique 582,012 1 2 1

Aklan 574,823 1 2 1

Bacolod City 561,875 1 2 1

Sarangani 544,261 1 2 1

Muntinlupa City 504,409 1 2 1

Angeles City 411,634 0e 1 1

Mandaue
Mandaue
City 362,654 0b 1 1

Cotabato
Cotabato
City 299,438 0l 1 1

Lucena City 266,248 0i 1 1

Puerto Princesa
Puerto Princesa
City 255,116 0q 1 1

^a Population count for Cebu
Cebu
excludes the independent city of Mandaue. ^b The independent city of Mandaue
Mandaue
(pop. 362,654) currently remains part of Cebu's congressional representation despite having already reached the 250,000 population threshold. ^c The independent city of Dagupan
Dagupan
(pop. 171,271) does not meet the population threshold and therefore remains part of Pangasinan's congressional representation in this table. ^d Population count for Pampanga
Pampanga
excludes the independent city of Angeles. ^e The independent city of Angeles (pop. 411,634) currently remains part of Pampanga's congressional representation despite having already reached the 250,000 population threshold. ^f Population count for Leyte
Leyte
includes the independent cities of Ormoc (pop. 215,031) and Tacloban
Tacloban
(pop. 242,089), which do not meet the population threshold and therefore remain part of Leyte's congressional representation in this table. ^g Population count includes the independent city of Naga (pop. 196,003), which does not meet the population threshold and therefore remains part of Camarines Sur's congressional representation in this table. ^h Population count for Quezon
Quezon
excludes the independent city of Lucena. ^i The independent city of Lucena (pop. 266,248) currently remains part of Quezon's congressional representation despite having already reached the 250,000 population threshold. ^j Population count for Isabela includes the independent city of Santiago (pop. 134,830), which does not meet the population threshold and therefore remains part of Isabela's congressional representation in this table. ^k Population count for Maguindanao
Maguindanao
excludes the independent city of Cotabato. ^l The independent city of Cotabato
Cotabato
(pop. 299,438) currently remains part of Maguindanao's congressional representation despite having already reached the 250,000 population threshold. ^m Population count for South Cotabato
Cotabato
excludes the independent city of General Santos. ^n The independent city of General Santos (pop. 594,446) currently remains part of South Cotabato's congressional representation despite having already reached the 250,000 population threshold. ^o Population count includes the independent city of Olongapo
Olongapo
(pop. 233,040), which does not meet the population threshold and therefore remains part of Zambales's congressional representation in this table. ^p Figure combines the population counts of the independent city of Taguig
Taguig
(pop. 804,915) with the independent municipality of Pateros (pop. 63,840), which on its own does not meet the population threshold; the current representational arrangement is thereby retained in this table. ^q Puerto Princesa
Puerto Princesa
(pop. 255,116) currently remains part of Palawan's congressional representation despite having already reached the 250,000 population threshold.

Powers[edit] The House of Representatives is modeled after the United States
United States
House of Representatives; the two chambers of Congress have roughly equal powers, and every bill or resolution that has to go through both houses needs the consent of both chambers before being passed for the president's signature. Once a bill is defeated in the House of Representatives, it is lost. Once a bill is approved by the House of Representatives on third reading, the bill is passed to the Senate, unless an identical bill has also been passed by the lower house. When a counterpart bill in the Senate is different from the one passed by the House of Representatives, either a bicameral conference committee is created consisting of members from both chambers of Congress to reconcile the differences, or either chamber may instead approve the other chamber's version. Just like most lower houses, money bills, originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may still propose or concur with amendments, same with bills of local application and private bills. The House of Representatives has the sole power to initiate impeachment proceedings, and may impeach an official by a vote of one-third of its members. Once an official is impeached, the Senate tries that official. Seat[edit]

William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
address the 1st Philippine Legislature
Philippine Legislature
at the Manila
Manila
Grand Opera House in 1907.

The 2nd Philippine Legislature
Philippine Legislature
convened at The Mansion in Baguio
Baguio
in 1921.

The Batasang Pambansa Complex
Batasang Pambansa Complex
(National Legislature) at Quezon City
Quezon City
is the seat of the House of Representatives since its restoration in 1987; it took its name from the Batasang Pambansa, the national parliament which convened there from 1978 to 1986. The Philippine Legislature
Philippine Legislature
was inaugurated at the Manila
Manila
Grand Opera House at 1907, then it conducted business at the Ayuntamiento in Intramuros. Governor-General Leonard Wood
Leonard Wood
summoned the 2nd Philippine Legislature
Legislature
at Baguio
Baguio
and convened at The Mansion in Baguio
Baguio
for three weeks. The legislature returned to the Ayutamiento, as the Legislative Building was being constructed; it first convened there on July 26, 1926. The House of Representatives continued to occupy the second floor until 1945 when the area was shelled during the Battle of Manila. The building was damaged beyond repair and Congress convened at the Old Japanese Schoolhouse at Lepanto[11] (modern-day S. H. Loyola) Street, Manila
Manila
until the Legislative Building can be occupied again in 1949. Congress stayed at the Legislative Building, by now called the Congress Building, until President Marcos shut Congress and ruled by decree starting in 1972.[12] Marcos then oversaw the construction of the new home of parliament at Quezon
Quezon
City, which convened in 1978. The parliament, called the Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
continued to sit there until the passage of the 1986 Freedom Constitution. The House of Representatives inherited the Batasang Pambansa Complex
Batasang Pambansa Complex
in 1987. Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
Complex[edit] The Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
Complex, now officially called the House of Representatives Building Complex, is at the National Government Center, Constitution Hills, Quezon
Quezon
City. Accessible via Commonwealth Avenue, the complex consists of four buildings. The Main Building hosts the session hall; the North and South wings, inaugurated in December 1977, are attached to it. The newest building, the Ramon Mitra, Jr. Building, was completed in 2001. It houses the Legislative Library, the Committee offices, the Reference and Research Bureau, and the Conference Rooms.[13] Current composition[edit] Main article: 17th Congress of the Philippines The members of the House of Representatives, aside from being grouped into political parties, are also grouped into the "majority bloc," "minority bloc" and "independents" (different from the independent in the sense that they are not affiliated into a political party). Originally, members who voted for the winning Speaker belong to the majority and members who voted for the opponent are the minority. The majority and minority bloc are to elect amongst themselves a floor leader. While members are allowed to switch blocs, they must do so in writing. Also, the bloc where they intend to transfer shall accept their application through writing. When the bloc the member ought to transfer refuses to accept the transferring member, or a member does not want to be a member of either bloc, that member becomes an independent member. A member that transfers to a new bloc forfeits one's committee chairmanships and memberships, until the bloc the member transfers to elects the member to committees. The membership in each committee should be in proportion to the size of each bloc, with each bloc deciding who amongst them who will go to each committee, upon a motion by the floor leader concerned to the House of Representatives in plenary. The Speaker, Deputy Speakers, floor leaders, deputy floor leaders and the chairperson of the Committee on Accounts can vote in committees; the committee chairperson can only vote to break a tie. To ensure that the representatives each get their pork barrel, most of them will join the majority bloc, or even to the president's party, as basis of patronage politics (known as the Padrino System locally); thus, the House of Representatives always aligns itself with the party of the sitting president. The majority bloc sits to the right side of the speaker, facing the House of Representatives.

Party standings

Current party standing.

Per party

Party Total %

PDP-Laban 114 38.4%

Liberal 46 15.5%

NPC 29 9.8%

NUP 17 5.7%

Nacionalista 17 5.7%

Lakas 3 1.0%

UNA 2 0.7%

Arangkada San Joseño 1 0.3%

Asenso Manileño 1 0.3%

LDP 1 0.3%

Partido Tinig ng Masa 1 0.3%

Independents 1 0.3%

Party-list 59 19.9%

Total 292 98.3%

Per bloc

Bloc Total %

Majority bloc 259 87.2%

Minority bloc 18 5.4%

Independent minority bloc 14 4.7%

Independent bloc 1 0.3%

Total 292 98.3%

Latest election[edit] Main article: Philippine House of Representatives elections, 2016

For the party-list result, see Philippine House of Representatives election, 2016 (party-list).

e • d Summary of the May 9, 2016 Philippine House of Representatives election results for representatives from congressional districts

Party/coalition Popular vote Breakdown Seats

Total % Swing Entered Up Gains Holds Losses Wins Elected % +/−

Liberal (Liberal Party) 15 552 401 41.72% 3.41% 164 111 15 96 15 4 115 38.7% 4

NPC (Nationalist People's Coalition) 6 350 310 17.04% 0.32% 77 42 8 33 9 0 42 14.1%

NUP (National Unity Party) 3 604 266 9.67% 0.98% 39 26 1 22 4 0 23 7.7% 3

Nacionalista (Nationalist Party) 3 512 975 9.42% 0.87% 46 27 3 21 6 0 24 8.1% 3

UNA (United Nationalist Alliance) 2 468 335 6.62% 2.69% 47 8 4 7 1 0 11 3.7% 3

PDP-Laban
PDP-Laban
(Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power) 706 407 1.90% 0.88% 26 0 3 0 0 0 3 1.0% 3

Lakas (People Power–Christian Muslim Democrats) 573 843 1.54% 3.79% 5 7 0 4 3 0 4 1.3% 1

Aksyon (Democratic Action) 514 612 1.38% 1.03% 8 1 1 0 1 0 1 0.3%

KBL (New Society Movement) 198 754 0.53% 0.19% 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%

Asenso Manileño
Asenso Manileño
(Progress for Manilans) 184 602 0.50% 0.50% 4 0 2 0 0 0 2 0.7% 2

Kusog Baryohanon (Force of the Villagers) 172 601 0.46% 0.46% 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0.3%

PTM (Voice of the Masses Party) 145 417 0.39% 0.39% 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0.3%

PCM (People's Champ Movement) 142 307 0.38% 0.38% 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0.3% 1

Bukidnon
Bukidnon
Paglaum (Hope for Bukidnon) 129 678 0.35% 0.01% 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0.3%

Lingap Lugud (Caring Love) 127 762 0.34% 0.34% 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0.3% 1

Padayon Pilipino (Onward Filipinos) 127 759 0.34% 0.34% 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%

1- Cebu
Cebu
(One Cebu) 114 732 0.31% 0.23% 3 1 0 0 1 0 0 0.0% 1

LDP (Struggle of Democratic Filipinos) 111 086 0.30% 0.03% 2 2 0 2 0 0 2 0.7%

Arangkada San Joseño (Forward San Joseans) 83 945 0.23% 0.23% 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0.3% 1

PMP (Force of the Filipino Masses) 78 020 0.21% 0.31% 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%

KABAKA (Partner of the Nation for Progress) 72 130 0.19% 0.15% 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0.3%

Hugpong (Party of the People of the City) 53 186 0.14% 0.10% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%

SZP (Forward Zambales
Zambales
Party) 52 415 0.14% 0.08% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%

CDP (Centrist Democratic Party of the Philippines) 13 662 0.21% 0.21% 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0.0% 1

PMM (Workers' and Peasants' Party) 7 239 0.02% 0.02% 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%

PGRP (Philippine Green Republican Party) 4 426 0.01% 0.01% 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%

Independent 2 172 562 5.83% 0.19% 178 3 3 1 2 0 4 1.3% 1

Vacancy — — — — 3 0 0 3 — 0 0.0% 3

Total 37 275 432 100% N/A 634 234 45 189 45 4 238 80.1% 4

Valid votes 37 275 432 83.97%

Invalid votes 7 077 692 15.94%

Turnout 44 392 375 81.66% 5.89%

Registered voters (without overseas voters) 54 363 844 100% 4.52%

See also[edit]

List of Philippine House committees 2007 Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
bombing Politics of the Philippines President of the Philippines Executive Departments of the Philippines Congress of the Philippines Senate of the Philippines Ombudsman of the Philippines Supreme Court of the Philippines Republic Acts of the Philippines Batasang Pambansa

References[edit]

^ "House of Representatives, 17th Congress". Philippines
Philippines
House of Representatives. Retrieved 21 May 2017.  ^ "House of Representatives, 17th Congress". Philippines
Philippines
House of Representatives. Retrieved 21 May 2017.  ^ Chan-Robles Virtual Law Library. "The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines
Philippines
- Article VI". Retrieved 2008-07-25.  ^ National Statistical Coordination Board. "NSCB - Statistics - Population and Housing". Archived from the original on 2012-07-04. Retrieved 2008-07-25.  ^ Davao Occidental: Mindanao's 27th Province. Retrieved March 10, 2015. ^ a b New Davao province has to wait. Retrieved March 10, 2015. ^ Noynoy asks SC to strike down law on new CamSur district. Retrieved March 10, 2015. ^ Dinagat: The hands that heal hold power. Retrieved March 10, 2015. ^ "Population Counts by Legislative District (Based on the 2015 Census of Population)". Philippine Statistics Authority. 16 July 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.  ^ "RP pop'n calls for 350 Congress seats". Retrieved November 6, 2010.  ^ Quezon
Quezon
Memorial Book. Quezon
Quezon
Memorial Committee. 1952.  ^ "The Official Buildings of the House of Representatives: The Ancestral Quarters". Congress.gov.ph. Retrieved 2011-05-26.  ^ "The Official Buildings of the House of Representatives: The Present Legislative Building". Congress.gov.ph. Retrieved 2011-05-26. 

External links[edit]

Official Website of the House of Representatives Official Website of the Senate

v t e

Political parties in the Philippines
Philippines

Senate (24)

Liberal (6) NPC (3) PDP-Laban (3) Nacionalista (2) UNA (2) Akbayan (1) LDP (1) PMP (1) Independent (4)

House of Representatives (297)

Districts

PDP-Laban (114) Liberal (46) NPC (29) Nacionalista (17) NUP (17) Lakas (3) UNA (2) Arangkada San Joseño (1) Asenso Manileño (1) LDP (1) PTM (1) Independent (1)

Party- lists

Ako Bicol (3) 1-PACMAN (2) Abono
Abono
(2) ACT Teachers (2) Agri (2) AMIN (2) Buhay (2) Coop-NATCCO (2) GABRIELA (2) Kabayan (2) PBA (2) Senior Citizens (2) 1-ang Edukasyon (1) 1-CARE (1) 1-SAGIP (1) AAMBIS-Owa (1) Aangat Tayo (1) AASENSO (1) Abang Lingkod (1) ABS (1) ACTS-OFW (1) AGAP (1) Agbiag! (1) Akbayan
Akbayan
(1) Alona (1) ANAC-IP (1) Anakpawis
Anakpawis
(1) ANGKLA (1) An Waray
An Waray
(1) A TEACHER
A TEACHER
(1) Ang Kabuhayan (1) Bayan Muna (1) BH (1) Butil (1) CIBAC (1) DIWA (1) Kabataan (1) Kalinga (1) Kusug Tausug (1) LPGMA (1) Magdalo (1) Manila
Manila
Teachers (1) Mata (1) SBP (1) TUCP (1) YACAP (1)

Out of Congress

Aksyon CDP KBL PGRP PMM PRP

Portal:Politics List of political parties Politics of the Philippines

v t e

National legislatures of the Philippines

Congress

Senate House of Representatives

Historical

Malolos Congress
Malolos Congress
(1898–99) Philippine Commission
Philippine Commission
(1900–07) Philippine Legislature
Philippine Legislature
(1907–35) National Assembly of the Commonwealth (1935–41) National Assembly of the Second Republic (1943–44) Commonwealth Congress (1945–46) Congress (1946–72; 1987–present) Batasang Pambansa
Batasang Pambansa
(1978–84)

v t e

  Legislative districts for the House of Representatives of the Philippines

Luzon

Abra Albay Antipolo Apayao Aurora Baguio Bataan Batanes Batangas Benguet Biñan Bulacan Cagayan Caloocan Camarines Norte Camarines Sur Catanduanes Cavite Dasmariñas Ifugao Ilocos Norte Ilocos Sur Isabela Kalinga La Union Laguna Las Piñas Malabon Makati Mandaluyong Manila Marikina Marinduque Masbate Mountain Province Muntinlupa Navotas Nueva Ecija Nueva Vizcaya Occidental Mindoro Oriental Mindoro Palawan Pampanga Pangasinan Parañaque Pasay Pasig Pateros & Taguig Quezon Quezon
Quezon
City Quirino Rizal Romblon San Jose del Monte San Juan Sorsogon Taguig Tarlac Valenzuela Zambales

Visayas

Aklan Antique Bacolod Biliran Bohol Capiz Cebu Cebu
Cebu
City Eastern Samar Guimaras Iloilo Iloilo
Iloilo
City Lapu-Lapu City Leyte Negros Occidental Negros Oriental Northern Samar Samar Siquijor Southern Leyte

Mindanao

Agusan del Norte Agusan del Sur Basilan Bukidnon Cagayan
Cagayan
de Oro Camiguin Compostela Valley Cotabato Davao City Davao del Norte Davao del Sur Davao Occidental Davao Oriental Dinagat Islands Iligan Lanao del Norte Lanao del Sur Maguindanao Misamis Occidental Misamis Oriental Sarangani South Cotabato Sultan Kudarat Sulu Surigao del Norte Surigao del Sur Tawi-Tawi Zamboanga City Zamboanga del Norte Zamboanga del Sur Zamboanga Sibugay

Defunct

Defunct districts

Agusan Ambos Camarines Cavite
Cavite
City Davao Kalinga-Apayao Lanao Las Piñas–Muntinlupa Las Piñas–Parañaque Malabon–Navotas Malabon–Navotas–Valenzuela Mindanao
Mindanao
& Sulu Mindoro Misamis Olongapo Pasig–Marikina San Pablo San Juan–Mandaluyong Shariff Kabunsuan Surigao Taguig–Pateros–Muntinlupa Zamboanga

See also: Districts for the Senate (1916–1935)

v t e

Legislatures in the Philippines

Congress

Senate House of Representatives

ARMM Regional Legislative Assembly Provincial Boards City Councils Municipal Councils Barangay
Barangay
Councils Youth Councils

v t e

Philippines articles

History

Timeline

Prehistory (Pre-900) Archaic Era (900–1521) Colonial era (1521–1946)

Spanish period (1521–1898) American period (1898–1946)

Postcolonial era (1946–1986)

Third Republic (1946–65) Marcos dictatorship (1965–86)

Contemporary history (1986–present)

By topic

Archaeology Demographic Discoveries Economic history Inventions Military

Geography

Bays Biosphere reserves Climate Earthquakes Ecoregions Environmental issues Extreme points Island groups

islands

Lakes Landmarks Mountains National parks Protected areas Ramsar sites Rivers Volcanoes Wildlife World Heritage Sites

Politics

Government

Executive

President

Executive Office

Cabinet Civil service National Police

Legislature

Congress

Senate

Senate President President pro tem

House of Representatives

Speaker

Judiciary

Supreme Court Judiciary Court of Appeals

Law

Constitution Philippine legal codes Human rights

Intelligence

National Bureau of Investigation National Counter-Terrorism Action Group National Intelligence Coordinating Agency Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency

Uniformed

Armed Forces of the Philippines

Philippine Air Force Philippine Army Philippine Navy Philippine Marine Corps

Philippine Coast Guard

Administrative divisions Elections Foreign relations Political parties

Economy

Agriculture Business process outsourcing Central Bank Energy Fiscal policy National debt Labor Peso Stock Exchange Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Transportation Science and technology Water and Sanitation

Society

Corruption Crime Demographics Education Ethnic groups Health Income inequality Languages Poverty Provinces by HDI Refugees Religion Women

Culture

Architecture Art Cinema Cuisine Cultural Properties Dance Fashion and clothing Festivals Historical Markers Literature Media Music Mythology Public holidays Psychology Sexuality Sports Traditional games Value system

Symbols

Anthem Coat of arms Arnis Flag Name Narra Philippine eagle Sampaguita

Book Category Philippines
Philippines
portal

v t e

Lower houses of national legislatures

Federal

Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Canada Ethiopia Germany India Malaysia Mexico Nepal Nigeria Pakistan Russia Somalia South Sudan Sudan Switzerland United States

Unitary

Afghanistan Algeria Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belize Bhutan Bolivia Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Central African Republic Chile Colombia Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Czech Republic Dominican Republic Equatorial Guinea France Gabon Grenada Haiti Indonesia Ireland Italy Ivory Coast Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Mauritania Morocco Myanmar Namibia Netherlands New Zealand Oman Palau Paraguay Philippines Poland Romania Rwanda Saint Lucia Slovenia South Africa Spain Swaziland Tajikistan Trinidad and Tobago United Kingdom Uruguay Uzbekistan Zimbabwe

Dependent and other territories

American Samoa Bermuda Isle of Man Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico

Non-UN states

Somaliland

Related

Bicameralism Unicameralism List of legislatures by country

National upper houses National bicameral legislatures National unica

.