Since July 25, 2016
Since August 15, 2016
MAJORITY FLOOR LEADER Rodolfo Fariñas (Nacionalista ) Since July 25, 2016
MINORITY FLOOR LEADER Danilo E. Suarez (Lakas ) Since July 27, 2016
SEATS 297 representatives 238 from geographical districts 59 party-list representatives
* PDP-Laban (123) * NPC (33) * Liberal (27) * NUP (20) * Nacionalista (19) * Lakas (5) * UNA (3) * LDP (1) * CDP (1) * Local parties (3) * Independent (1) * Sectoral (57) * Vacant (4)
COMMITTEES 58 standing committees and 14 special committees
LENGTH OF TERM 3 years
AUTHORITY Article VI, Constitution of the Philippines
VOTING SYSTEM Parallel voting
LAST ELECTION May 9, 2016
NEXT ELECTION May 13, 2019
REDISTRICTING Districts are redistricted by Congress after each census (has never been done since 1987) By statute (most frequent method).
House of Representatives of the Philippines
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
* Charter Change * Laws and legal codes
* Senate President Aquilino Pimentel III
* HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
* Districts * Party-list representation
* Local legislatures
* ARMM Regional Legislative Assembly * Provinces * Cities * Municipalities * Barangays
* PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES
* VICE PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES
* Cabinet * Executive departments * Local government
* SUPREME COURT
* Chief Justice
Maria Lourdes Sereno
* Civil Service Commission * Commission on Elections * Commission on Audit
* Recent elections
* General: 2007 * 2010 * 2013 * 2016
* Capital * Regions * Provinces * Cities * Municipalities * Barangays * Poblacions * Sitios * Puroks
* Foreign relations * Human rights * Taxation
* Other countries * Atlas
* v * t * e
The HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE PHILIPPINES (Filipino :
Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan ng Pilipinas), is the lower house of the
Congress of the Philippines . (The Senate of the
Aside from having its concurrence on every bill in order to be passed for the President 's signature to become a law, the House of Representatives has the power to impeach certain officials, and all money bills must originate from the lower house.
The House of Representatives is headed by the Speaker , currently
* 1 History
* 1.1 Philippine Assembly * 1.2 Jones Act of 1916 * 1.3 Commonwealth and the Third Republic * 1.4 Martial Law * 1.5 1987 Constitution
* 2 Officers
* 2.1 Speaker * 2.2 Deputy Speakers * 2.3 Majority Floor Leader * 2.4 Minority Floor Leader * 2.5 Secretary General * 2.6 Sergeant-at-Arms
* 3 District representation
* 3.1 Legislative districts in provinces * 3.2 Legislative districts in cities
* 4 Party-list representation
* 5 Redistricting
* 5.1 Most populous legislative districts * 5.2 Underrepresentation
* 6 Powers
* 7 Seat
* 8 Current composition * 9 Latest election * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links
Joint session of the Philippine Legislature, Manila. November 15, 1916 Philippine legislature before 1924 Party control of the lower house. Notice the one-party dominance of the Nacionalistas from 1907 to 1941, the two-party system with the emergence of the Liberal Party in 1946, the return of one-party dominance by the KBL from 1978 to 1984, and the multiparty system from 1987 to the present. Same as above, but in cumulative seat totals, instead of percentages.
Main article: Philippine Assembly
At the beginning of American colonial rule, from March 16, 1900, the
sole national legislative body was the
Philippine Commission with all
members appointed by the President of the
Philippine Bill of 1902 , a basic law, or organic act , of the
Insular Government , mandated that once certain conditions were met a
bicameral , or two-chamber,
Philippine Legislature would be created
with the previously existing, all-appointed
Philippine Commission as
the upper house and the
Philippine Assembly as the lower house . This
bicameral legislature was inaugurated in October 1907. Under the
leadership of Speaker
It is this body, founded as the Philippine Assembly, that would continue in one form or another, and with a few different names, up until the present day.
JONES ACT OF 1916
Main article: Jones Law (Philippines)
In 1916, the Jones Act , officially the Philippine Autonomy Act, changed the legislative system. The Philippine Commission was abolished and a new fully elected, bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was established. The Nacionalistas continued their electoral dominance at this point, although they were split into two factions led by Osmeña and Quezon; the two reconciled in 1924, and controlled the Assembly via a virtual dominant-party system .
COMMONWEALTH AND THE THIRD REPUBLIC
Main article: National Assembly of the
The legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935
Constitution established a unicameral National Assembly . But in 1940,
through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of
Upon the inauguration of the Republic of the
This set up continued until President
The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. One deviation from the previous setup was the introduction of the mid-term election; however, the dynamics of the House of Representatives resumed its pre-1972 state, with the party of the president controlling the chamber, although political pluralism ensued that prevented the restoration of the old Nacionalista-Liberal two-party system. Instead, a multi-party system evolved.
The presiding officer is the Speaker . Unlike the Senate President , the Speaker usually serves the entire term of Congress, although there had been instances when the Speaker left office due to conflict with the president: examples include Jose de Venecia, Jr. 's resignation as speaker in 2008 when his son Joey de Venecia exposed alleged corrupt practices by First Gentleman Mike Arroyo , and Manny Villar 's ouster occurred after he allowed the impeachment of President Estrada in 2000.
The members of the House of Representatives who are also its officers are also ex officio members of all of the committees and have a vote.
Main article: Speaker of the House of Representatives of the
The Speaker is the head of the House of Representatives. He presides over the session; decides on all questions of order, subject to appeal by any member; signs all acts, resolutions, memorials, writs, warrants and subpoenas issued by or upon order of the House; appoints, suspends, dismisses or disciplines House personnel; and exercise administrative functions.
The speaker is elected by majority of all the members of the house, including vacant seats. The speaker is traditionally elected at the convening of each Congress. Before a speaker is elected, the House's sergeant-at-arms sits as the "Presiding Officer" until a speaker is elected. Compared to the Senate President , the unseating of an incumbent speaker is rarer.
Main article: Deputy Speakers of the House of Representatives of the
There was a position of speaker pro tempore for congresses prior the reorganization of the officers of the House of Representatives during the 10th Congress in 1995. The speaker pro tempore was the next highest position in the House after the speaker.
The position was replaced by deputy speakers in 1995. Originally,
there was one Deputy Speaker for each island group of
The deputy speakers perform the speaker's role when the speaker is absent. Currently in the 16th Congress, the deputy speakers represent the chamber at-large.
The Deputy Speakers are:
* Eric Singson (Ilocos Sur–2nd , PDP-Laban ) * Mercedes Alvarez (Negros Occidental–6th , NPC ) * Fredenil Castro (Capiz–2nd , NUP ) * Raneo Abu (Batangas–2nd , Nacionalista ) * Miro Quimbo (Marikina–2nd , Liberal )
Since July 25, 2016
Since August 15, 2016
MAJORITY FLOOR LEADER
Main article: Majority Floor Leader of the House of Representatives
The majority leader, aside from being the spokesman of the majority party, is to direct the deliberations on the floor. The Majority Leader is also concurrently the Chairman of the Committee on Rules. The majority leader is elected in a party caucus of the ruling majority party.
The incumbent majority floor leader is Rodolfo C. Fariñas (NP ) of Ilocos Norte 's First district .
MINORITY FLOOR LEADER
Main article: Minority Floor Leader of the House of Representatives
The minority leader is the spokesman of the minority party in the House and is an ex-officio member of all standing Committees. The minority leader is elected in party caucus of all Members of the House in the minority party, although by tradition, the losing candidate for speaker is named the minority leader.
The secretary general enforces orders and decisions of the House; keeps the Journal of each session; notes all questions of order, among other things. The secretary general presides over the chamber at the first legislative session after an election, and is elected by a majority of the members.
As of May 2017, Cesar S Pareja is the Secretary General of the House of Representatives.
The Sergeant-at-Arms is responsible for the maintenance of order in the House of Representatives, among other things. Like the Secretary General, the Sergeant-at-Arms is elected by a majority of the members.
As of May 2017, retired Lieutenant General, Roland M. Detabali is the Sergeant-at-Arms of the House of Representatives.
Main article: Legislative districts of the
There are two types of representatives in the chamber: representatives from congressional districts and party-list representatives. Eighty percent of representatives shall come from congressional districts, with each district returning one representative. Although each district should have a population of at least 250,000 people, all provinces have at least one legislative district, regardless of population, whose residents vote for their own congressman; several cities have representation of their own, independent of provinces, although they should have at least a population of 250,000. For provinces that have more than one legislative district, the provincial districts are identical to the corresponding legislative district, with the exclusion of cities that do not vote for provincial officials.
The representatives from the districts comprise at most 80% of the members of the House; therefore, for a party to have a majority of seats in the House, the party needs to win at least 60% of the district seats. No party since the approval of the 1987 constitution has been able to win a majority of seats, hence coalitions are not uncommon.
LEGISLATIVE DISTRICTS IN PROVINCES
* Abra (1)
* Agusan del Norte (2)
* Agusan del Sur (2)
Davao del Norte (2)
Davao Occidental (1)
* Davao Oriental (2)
Davao del Sur (1)
Dinagat Islands (1)
* Eastern Samar (1)
* Guimaras (1)
* Ifugao (1)
Ilocos Norte (2)
* Ilocos Sur (2)
Nueva Ecija (4)
* Nueva Vizcaya (1)
* Occidental Mindoro (1)
Oriental Mindoro (2)
* Palawan (3)j
LEGISLATIVE DISTRICTS IN CITIES
^A The component cities of Batangas and Lipa are officially known as the 5th and 6th Districts of Batangas, respectively. ^B The component city of San Jose del Monte is represented separately from Bulacan, but remains as part of the province's 1st District for the purpose of electing Sangguniang Panlalawigan members. ^C The independent city of Naga remains part of Camarines Sur's congressional representation. ^D The component city of Dasmariñas is represented under its own name, but also constitutes the Cavite's 4th District. The component cities of Bacoor and Imus are officially only known as Cavite's 2nd and 3rd Districts, respectively. ^E The independent city of Mandaue remains part of Cebu's congressional representation. ^F The independent city of Santiago remains part of Isabela's congressional representation. ^G The component city of Biñan is represented separately from Laguna, but remains as part of the province's 1st District for the purpose of electing Sangguniang Panlalawigan members. ^H The independent cities of Ormoc and Tacloban remain part of Leyte's congressional representation. ^I The independent city of Cotabato remains part of Maguindanao's congressional representation. ^J The independent city of Puerto Princesa remains part of Palawan's congressional representation. ^K The independent city of Angeles remains part of Pampanga's congressional representation. ^L The independent city of Dagupan remains part of Pangasinan's congressional representation. ^M The independent city of Lucena remains part of Quezon's congressional representation. ^N The component city of Antipolo is represented separately from Rizal. The city returns one member from each of its districts to the province's Sangguniang Panlalawigan . ^O The independent city of General Santos remains part of South Cotabato's congressional representation. ^P The independent city of Olongapo remains part of Zambales's congressional representation.
Main article: Party-list representation in the House of
Representatives of the
The party-list system is the name designated for party-list representation. Under the 1987 Constitution , the electorate can vote for certain party-list organizations in order to give voice to significant minorities of society that would otherwise not be adequately represented through geographical district. From 1987-1998, party-list representatives were appointed by the President.
Since 1998, each voter votes for a single party-list organization. Organizations that garner at least 2% of the total number of votes are awarded one representative for every 2% up to a maximum of three representatives. Thus, there can be at most 50 party-list representatives in Congress, though usually no more than 20 are elected because many organizations do not reach the required 2% minimum number of votes.
After the 2007 election , in a controversial decision, the Supreme Court ordered the COMELEC to change how it allocates the party-list seats. Under the new formula only one party will have the maximum 3 seats. It based its decision on a formula contained in the VFP vs. COMELEC decision. In 2009, in the BANAT vs. COMELEC decision, it was changed anew in which parties with less than 2% of the vote were given seats to fulfill the 20% quota as set forth in the constitution.
Aside from determining which party won and allocating the number of seats won per party, another point of contention was whether the nominees should be a member of the marginalized group they are supposed to represent; in the Ang Bagong Bayani vs. COMELEC decision, the Supreme Court not only ruled that the nominees should be a member of the marginalized sector, but it also disallowed major political parties from participating in the party-list election. However, on the BANAT decision, the court ruled hat since the law didn't specify who belongs to a marginalized sector, the court allowed anyone to be a nominee as long as the nominee as a member of the party (not necessarily the marginalized group the party is supposed to represent).
Congressional district population map, as of August 1, 2007.
Note the underrepresentation of areas concentrated around central and
Congress is mandated to reapportion the legislative districts within three years following the return of every census. Since its restoration in 1987, Congress has not passed any general apportionment law, despite the publication of five censuses in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2007 and 2010. The increase in the number of representative districts since 1987 were mostly due to the creation of new provinces, cities, and piecemeal redistricting of certain provinces and cities.
The apportionment of congressional districts is not dependent upon a specially-mandated independent government body, but rather through Republic Acts which are drafted by members of Congress. Therefore, apportionment often can be influenced by political motivations. Incumbent representatives who are not permitted by law to serve after three consecutive terms sometimes resort to dividing their district, or even creating a new province which will be guaranteed a seat, just so that they will be able to run and serve terms in a technically different district. Likewise, politicians whose political fortunes are likely to be jeopardized by any change in district boundaries may delay or even ignore the need for reapportionment.
Since 1987, the creation of some new congressional districts have been met with controversy, especially due to incumbent political clans and their allies benefiting from the new district arrangements. Some of these new congressional districts are tied to the creation of a new province, because such an act necessarily entails the creation of a new congressional district.
* CREATION OF DAVAO OCCIDENTAL , 2013: The rival Cagas and Bautista
clans dominate politics in the province of
Davao del Sur ; their
members have been elected as congressional representatives for the
first and second districts of the province since 1987. However, the
province's governorship has been in contest between the two clans in
recent years: Claude Bautista, the current governor, was elected in
2013; before that Douglas Cagas served as governor from 2007 to 2013,
after succeeding Benjamin Bautista Jr. who served from 2002 to 2007.
Supporters of both clans have been subjected to political violence,
prompting the police to put the province of
Davao del Sur in the
election watchlist. The law which created
Davao Occidental , Republic
Act No. 10360, was co-authored by House Representatives Marc Douglas
Cagas IV and
Franklin Bautista as House Bill 4451; the creation of the
new province is seen as a way to halt the "often violent" political
rivalry between the clans by ensuring that the Cagas and Bautista
clans have separate domains.
* REAPPORTIONMENT OF CAMARINES SUR , 2009: A new congressional
district was created within
Camarines Sur under
Republic Act No. 9716,
which resulted in the reduction of the population of the province's
first district to below the Constitutional ideal of 250,000
inhabitants. The move was seen as a form of political accommodation
that would (and ultimately did) prevent two allies of then-President
MOST POPULOUS LEGISLATIVE DISTRICTS
Currently the district with the lowest population is the lone district of Batanes , with only 17,246 inhabitants in 2015. The most populous congressional district, the 1st District of Caloocan City , has around 69 times more inhabitants. Data below reflect the district boundaries for the 2016 elections , and the population counts from the 2015 census.
RANK LEGISLATIVE DISTRICT POPULATION (2015)
1 1st District of Caloocan City 1,193,419
2 2nd District of Rizal 1,070,852
3 1st District of Rizal 1,036,989
4 2nd District of Laguna 937,382
5 1st District of South Cotabato 856,536
6 1st District of Maguindanao 821,475
7 1st District of Pampanga 775,580
8 Lone district of Pasig City 755,300
9 4th District of Bulacan 746,699
6th District of
Persons per representative per province or city in the House of
Representatives: Provinces (blue) and cities (red) are arranged in
descending order of population from
Because of the lack of a nationwide reapportionment after the publication of every census since the Constitution was promulgated in 1987, faster-growing provinces and cities have become severely underrepresented. Each legislative district is ideally supposed to encompass a population of 250,000. The following jurisdictions currently have a deficit in their congressional representations if the constitutional ideal of 250,000 population count per district is considered:
Province / Independent City Population (2015 census) NUMBER OF LEGISLATIVE DISTRICTS
Current number of representatives Maximum possible representation using the 250,000 population count threshold Deficit in number of representatives
Laguna (including the city of Biñan ) 3,035,081 4 + 1 12 7
Negros Occidental 2,497,261 6 9 3
Pampanga 2,198,110d 4 e 8 4
Nueva Ecija 2,151,461 4 8 4
Camarines Sur (including the independent city of Naga ) 1,952,544g 5 7 2
Isabela (including the independent city of Santiago ) 1,593,566j 4 6 2
Caloocan City 1,583,978 2 6 4
Cotabato 1,379,747 3 5 2
Tarlac 1,366,027 3 5 2
Negros Oriental 1,354,995 3 5 2
Cagayan 1,199,320 3 4 1
Maguindanao 1,173,933k 2 l 4 2
Lanao del Sur 1,045,429 2 4 2
Davao del Norte 1,016,332 2 4 2
Zamboanga del Norte 1,011,393 3 4 1
Zamboanga del Sur 1,010,674 2 4 2
South Cotabato 915,289m 2 n 3 1
Misamis Oriental 888,509 2 3 1
Zamboanga City 861,799 2 3 1
Oriental Mindoro 844,059 2 3 1
Sulu 824,031 2 3 1
Zambales 823,888o 2 3 1
Sultan Kudarat 812,095 2 3 1
Taguig City + Pateros 868,755p 1 + 1 3 1
Sorsogon 792,949 2 3 1
La Union 786,653 2 3 1
Samar 780,481 2 3 1
Capiz 761,384 2 3 1
Bataan 760,650 2 3 1
Pasig City 755,300 1 3 2
Davao del Sur 632,588 1 2 1
General Santos City 594,446 0n 2 2
Las Piñas City 588,894 1 2 1
Antique 582,012 1 2 1
Aklan 574,823 1 2 1
Bacolod City 561,875 1 2 1
Sarangani 544,261 1 2 1
Muntinlupa City 504,409 1 2 1
Angeles City 411,634 0e 1 1
Mandaue City 362,654 0b 1 1
Lucena City 266,248 0i 1 1
Puerto Princesa City 255,116 0q 1 1
^A Population count for
The House of Representatives is modeled after the
Just like most lower houses, money bills , originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may still propose or concur with amendments, same with bills of local application and private bills. The House of Representatives has the sole power to initiate impeachment proceedings, and may impeach an official by a vote of one-third of its members. Once an official is impeached, the Senate tries that official.
William Howard Taft
Batasang Pambansa Complex
Philippine Legislature was inaugurated at the
Marcos then oversaw the construction of the new home of parliament at
BATASANG PAMBANSA COMPLEX
Main article: 17th Congress of the Philippines
The members of the House of Representatives, aside from being grouped into political parties, are also grouped into the "majority bloc," "minority bloc" and "independents" (different from the independent in the sense that they are not affiliated into a political party). Originally, members who voted for the winning Speaker belong to the majority and members who voted for the opponent are the minority. The majority and minority bloc are to elect amongst themselves a floor leader. While members are allowed to switch blocs, they must do so in writing. Also, the bloc where they intend to transfer shall accept their application through writing. When the bloc the member ought to transfer refuses to accept the transferring member, or a member does not want to be a member of either bloc, that member becomes an independent member. A member that transfers to a new bloc forfeits one's committee chairmanships and memberships, until the bloc the member transfers to elects the member to committees.
The membership in each committee should be in proportion to the size of each bloc, with each bloc deciding who amongst them who will go to each committee, upon a motion by the floor leader concerned to the House of Representatives in plenary. The Speaker, Deputy Speakers, floor leaders, deputy floor leaders and the chairperson of the Committee on Accounts can vote in committees; the committee chairperson can only vote to break a tie.
To ensure that the representatives each get their pork barrel, most of them will join the majority bloc, or even to the president's party, as basis of patronage politics (known as the Padrino System locally); thus, the House of Representatives always aligns itself with the party of the sitting president.
The majority bloc sits to the right side of the speaker, facing the House of Representatives.
Current party standing.
PARTY TOTAL %
Liberal 112 38.7%
NPC 39 13.4%
NUP 26 8.9%
Nacionalista 20 6.8%
Lakas 14 4.8%
UNA 9 3.1%
LDP 2 0.7%
Akbayan 1 0.3%
CDP 1 0.3%
KABAKA 1 0.3%
Kambilan 1 0.3%
KBL 1 0.3%
PPP 1 0.3%
Unang Sigaw 1 0.3%
United Negros Alliance 1 0.3%
Independents 5 1.7%
Party-list 55 18.8%
TOTALS 289 99.0%
Main article: Philippine House of Representatives elections, 2016 For the party-list result, see Philippine House of Representatives election, 2016 (party-list) .
e • d Summary of the May 9, 2016 Philippine House of Representatives election results for representatives from congressional districts PARTY/COALITION POPULAR VOTE BREAKDOWN SEATS
TOTAL % ENTERED UP GAINS HOLDS LOSSES WINS ELECTED % +/−
Liberal (Liberal Party) 15 552 401 41.72% 164 111 15 96 15 4 115 38.7% 4
NPC (Nationalist People's Coalition) 6 350 310 17.04% 77 42 8 33 9 0 42 14.1% 4
NUP (National Unity Party) 3 604 266 9.67% 39 26 1 22 4 0 23 7.7% 3
Nacionalista (Nationalist Party) 3 512 975 9.42% 46 27 3 21 6 0 24 8.1% 2
UNA (United Nationalist Alliance) 2 468 335 6.62% 47 8 4 7 1 0 11 3.7% 1
PDP-Laban (Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power) 706 407 1.90% 26 0 3 0 0 0 3 1.0% 3
Lakas (People Power–Christian Muslim Democrats) 573 843 1.54% 5 7 0 4 3 0 4 1.3% 1
Aksyon (Democratic Action) 514 612 1.38% 8 1 1 0 1 0 1 0.3%
KBL (New Society Movement) 198 754 0.53% 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%
Asenso Manileño (Progress for Manilans) 184 602 0.50% 4 0 2 0 0 0 2 0.7% 2
Kusog Baryohanon (Force of the Villagers) 172 601 0.46% 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0.3% 1
PTM (Voice of the Masses Party) 145 417 0.39% 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0.3%
PCM (People's Champ Movement) 142 307 0.38% 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0.3% 1
Lingap Lugud (Caring Love) 127 762 0.34% 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0.3% 1
Padayon Pilipino (Onward Filipinos) 127 759 0.34% 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%
LDP (Struggle of Democratic Filipinos) 111 086 0.30% 2 2 0 2 0 0 2 0.7%
ASJ (Forward San Joseans) 83 945 0.23% 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0.3% 1
PMP (Force of the Filipino Masses) 78 020 0.21% 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%
KABAKA (Partner of the Nation for Progress) 72 130 0.19% 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0.3%
Hugpong (Party of the People of the City) 53 186 0.14% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%
SZP (Forward Zambales Party) 52 415 0.14% 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%
CDP (Centrist Democratic Party of the Philippines) 13 662 0.04% 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0.0%
PMM (Workers' and Peasants' Party) 7 239 0.02% 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%
PGRP (Philippine Green Republican Party) 4 426 0.01% 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0%
Independent 2 172 562 5.83% 178 3 3 1 2 0 4 1.3% 1
Vacancy — — — 3 0 0 3 — 0 0.0% 3
TOTAL 37 275 432 100% 634 234 45 189 45 4 238 80.1% 4
VALID VOTES 37 275 432 83.97%
INVALID VOTES 7 077 692 15.94%
TURNOUT 44 392 375 81.66%
REGISTERED VOTERS (WITHOUT OVERSEAS VOTERS ) 54 363 844 100%
List of Philippine House committees
* ^ "House of Representatives, 17th Congress".
* Official Website of the