The Info List - House Of Plantagenet

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The House of Plantagenet[nb 1] (/plænˈtædʒənɪt/) was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou
in France. The name Plantagenet is used by modern historians to identify four distinct royal houses: the Angevins, who were also Counts of Anjou; the main body of the Plantagenets following the loss of Anjou; and the Plantagenets' two cadet branches, the Houses of Lancaster and York. The family held the English throne
English throne
from 1154, with the accession of Henry II, until 1485, when Richard III died. Under the Plantagenets, England
was transformed – although this was only partly intentional. The Plantagenet kings were often forced to negotiate compromises such as Magna Carta. These constrained royal power in return for financial and military support. The king was no longer just the most powerful man in the nation, holding the prerogative of judgement, feudal tribute and warfare. He now had defined duties to the realm, underpinned by a sophisticated justice system. A distinct national identity was shaped by conflict with the French, Scots, Welsh and Irish, and the establishment of English as the primary language. In the 15th century, the Plantagenets were defeated in the Hundred Years' War and beset with social, political and economic problems. Popular revolts were commonplace, triggered by the denial of numerous freedoms. English nobles raised private armies, engaged in private feuds and openly defied Henry VI. The rivalry between the House of Plantagenet's two cadet branches of York and Lancaster brought about the Wars of the Roses, a decades-long fight for the English succession, culminating in the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, when the reign of the Plantagenets and the English Middle Ages both met their end with the death of King Richard III. Henry VII, of Lancastrian descent, became king of England; five months later, he married Elizabeth of York, thus ending the Wars of the Roses, and giving rise to the Tudor dynasty. The Tudors worked to centralise English royal power, which allowed them to avoid some of the problems that had plagued the last Plantagenet rulers. The resulting stability allowed for the English Renaissance, and the advent of early modern Britain.


1 Terminology

1.1 Plantagenet 1.2 Angevins

2 Origin 3 Angevin kings

3.1 Arrival in England 3.2 Angevin zenith 3.3 Decline and the loss of Anjou

4 Main line

4.1 Baronial conflict and the establishment of Parliament 4.2 Constitutional change and the reform of feudalism 4.3 Expansion in Britain 4.4 Conflict with the House of Valois 4.5 Descendants of Edward III 4.6 Demise of the main line

5 House of Lancaster 6 House of York 7 House of Tudor
House of Tudor
and other Plantagenet descendants

7.1 Tudor 7.2 De La Pole 7.3 Pole 7.4 Stafford 7.5 Tudor succession

8 Further information 9 Notes

9.1 References 9.2 Bibliography

10 External links

Terminology[edit] Plantagenet[edit]

Henry II, 1154-1189, is considered by some to be the first Plantagenet king of England.

Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York, adopted Plantagenet as his family name in the 15th century. "Plantegenest" (or "Plante Genest") had been a 12th-century nickname for his ancestor Geoffrey, Count of Anjou
and Duke of Normandy. One of many popular theories suggests the common broom, planta genista in medieval Latin, as the source of the nickname.[1] It is uncertain why Richard chose this specific name, although during the Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
it emphasised Richard's status as Geoffrey's patrilineal descendant. The retrospective usage of the name for all of Geoffrey's male descendants was popular during the subsequent Tudor dynasty, perhaps encouraged by the further legitimacy it gave to Richard's great-grandson, Henry VIII.[2] It was only in the late 17th century that it passed into common usage among historians.[3] Angevins[edit] Further information: Angevin kings of England
Angevin kings of England
and Angevin Empire The three Angevin kings (French for "from Anjou") were Henry II, Richard I and John; "Angevin" can also refer to the period of history in which they reigned. Many historians identify the Angevins as a distinct English royal house. "Angevin" is also used in reference to any sovereign or government derived from Anjou. As a noun, it refers to any native of Anjou
or an Angevin ruler, and specifically to: other counts and dukes of Anjou, including the ancestors of the three kings that formed the English royal house; their cousins, who held the crown of Jerusalem; and to unrelated members of the French royal family who were later granted the titles and formed different dynasties, such as the Capetian House of Anjou
and the Valois House of Anjou.[4] Consequently, there is disagreement between those who consider Henry III to be the first Plantagenet monarch and those who do not distinguish between Angevins and Plantagenets and therefore consider the first Plantagenet to be Henry II.[5][6][7][8] The term "Angevin Empire" was coined by Kate Norgate in 1887. There was no known contemporary collective name for all of the territories under the rule of the Angevin Kings of England. This led to circumlocutions such as "our kingdom and everything subject to our rule whatever it may be" or "the whole of the kingdom which had belonged to his father". The "Empire" portion of "Angevin Empire" has been controversial, especially as these territories were not subject to any unified laws or systems of governance, and each retained its own laws, traditions, and feudal relationships. In 1986 a convention of historians concluded that there had not been an Angevin state, and therefore no "Angevin Empire", but that the term espace Plantagenet (French for "Plantagenet space") was acceptable.[9] Nonetheless, historians have continued to use "Angevin Empire".[nb 2] Origin[edit]

13th-century depiction of Henry II and his legitimate children: William, Henry, Richard, Matilda, Geoffrey, Eleanor, Joan and John

The later counts of Anjou, including the Plantagenets, descended from Geoffrey II, Count of Gâtinais, and his wife Ermengarde of Anjou. In 1060 the couple inherited the title via cognatic kinship from an Angevin family that was descended from a noble named Ingelger, whose recorded history dates from 870.[10] During the 10th and 11th centuries, power struggles occurred between rulers in northern and western France including those of Anjou, Normandy, Brittany, Poitou, Blois, Maine, and the kings of France. In the early 12th century Geoffrey of Anjou
married Empress Matilda, King Henry I's only surviving legitimate child and heir to the English throne. As a result of this marriage, Geoffrey's son Henry II inherited the English throne
English throne
as well as Norman and Angevin titles, thus marking the beginning of the Angevin and Plantagenet dynasties.[11] The marriage was the third attempt of Geoffrey's father, Fulk V, Count of Anjou, to build a political alliance with Normandy. He first espoused his daughter, Alice, to William Adelin, Henry I's heir. After William drowned in the wreck of the White Ship
White Ship
Fulk married another of his daughters, Sibylla, to William Clito, son of Henry I's older brother, Robert Curthose. Henry I had the marriage annulled to avoid strengthening William's rival claim to Normandy. Finally Fulk achieved his goal through the marriage of Geoffrey and Matilda. Fulk then passed his titles to Geoffrey and became King of Jerusalem.[12] Angevin kings[edit] See also: Angevin kings of England Arrival in England[edit] Further information: The Anarchy

Henry's continental holdings in 1154

When Henry II was born in 1133, his grandfather, Henry I, was reportedly delighted, saying that the boy was "the heir to the kingdom".[13] The birth reduced the risk that the King's realm would pass to his son-in-law's family, which might have occurred if the marriage of Matilda and Geoffrey had proved childless. The birth of a second son, also named Geoffrey, increased the likelihood that, in accordance with French custom, Henry would receive the English maternal inheritance and Geoffrey the Angevin paternal inheritance. This would separate the realms of England
and Anjou.[13] In order to secure an orderly succession, Geoffrey and Matilda sought more power from Henry I, but quarrelled with him after the King refused to give them power that might be used against him. When he died in December 1135, the couple were in Anjou, allowing Matilda's cousin Stephen to seize the crown of England. Stephen's contested accession initiated the widespread civil unrest later called the Anarchy.[14] Count Geoffrey had little interest in England. Instead he commenced a ten-year war for the duchy of Normandy, but it became clear that to bring this conflict to a successful conclusion Stephen would need to be challenged in England
so in 1139 Matilda and her half-brother, Robert invaded England.[15] From the age of nine, Henry was repeatedly sent to England
to be the male figurehead of the campaigns, since it became apparent that he would become king if England
was conquered. In 1141 Stephen was captured at the Battle of Lincoln and later exchanged for Robert who had also been captured. Geoffrey continued the conquest of Normandy
and in 1150 transferred the duchy to Henry while retaining the primary role in the duchy's government.[16] Three events allowed the Angevins' successful termination of the conflict:

Count Geoffrey died in 1151 before finalizing the division of his realm between Henry and Henry's younger brother Geoffrey, who would have inherited Anjou. According to William of Newburgh, who wrote in the 1190s, Count Geoffrey decided that Henry would receive England
and Anjou
for as long as he needed the resources for the conflict against Stephen. Count Geoffrey instructed that his body should not be buried until Henry swore an oath that the young Geoffrey would receive Anjou when England
and Normandy
were secured.[17] W. L. Warren cast doubt on this account on the grounds that it was written later based on a single contemporary source, it would be questionable that either Geoffrey or Henry would consider such an oath binding and it would break the inheritance practice of the time.[18] The young Geoffrey died in 1158, before receiving Anjou, but he had become count of Nantes
when the citizens of Nantes
rebelled against their ruler. Henry had supported the rebellion.[19] Louis VII of France
Louis VII of France
was granted an annulment of his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine
on 18 March 1152, and she married Henry (who would become Henry II) on 18 May 1152. Consequently, the Angevins acquired the Duchy of Aquitaine.[20] Stephen's wife and elder son, Eustace, died in 1153 leading to the Treaty of Wallingford. The treaty agreed the peace offer that Matilda had rejected in 1142, recognised Henry as Stephen's heir, guaranteed Stephen's second son William his father's estates and allowed Stephen to be king for life. Stephen died soon afterwards, and Henry acceded to the throne in late 1154.[21]

Angevin zenith[edit] Of Henry's siblings, William and Geoffrey died unmarried and childless, but the tempestuous marriage of Henry and Eleanor, who already had two daughters (Marie and Alix) through her first marriage to King Louis, produced eight children in thirteen years:[22]

William, Count of Poitiers (1153–1156) Henry the Young King
Henry the Young King
(1155–1183) Matilda, Duchess of Saxony (1156–1189)—married Henry the Lion, Duke of Bavaria. The eldest amongst the couple's children, Richenza, is probably the daughter English chroniclers call Matilda, who was left in Normandy
with her grandparents in 1185 and married firstly to Geoffrey, count of Perche, and secondly to Enguerrand de Coucy. The eldest son, Henry, became duke of Saxony and count palatine of the Rhine. His brother Otto was nominated by his uncle Richard I as earl of York and count of Poitiers
before being elected emperor in opposition to the Hohenstaufen
candidate. Otto was crowned in Rome
but he was later excommunicated and declared deposed. Childless, Otto lost power following the defeat of the Welf and Angevin forces at the Battle of Bouvines. The youngest child, William of Winchester married Helena daughter of Valdemar I of Denmark. Their only son, also called Otto, was the sole male heir of his uncle Henry. The ducal house of Brunswick-Lüneburg and the British royal house of Windsor both descend from him.[23] King Richard the Lionheart (1157–1199). He had no legitimate offspring, but is thought to have had two illegitimate sons, of whom little is known, called Fulk and Phillip, Lord of Cognac.[24] Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany
(1158–1186)—married Constance daughter of Duke Conan of Brittany
and became duke of Brittany
by right of his wife. The couple's son Arthur was a competitor to John for the Angevin succession.[25] Eleanor, Queen of Castile (1161–1214)—married King Alfonso VIII of Castile. The couple's children included King Henry of Castile and four queen consorts, Berengaria, Queen of Leon, Urraca, Queen of Portugal, Blanche, Queen of France and Eleanor,Queen of Aragon.[26] Joan, Queen of Sicily (1165–1199)—married firstly King William II of Sicily and secondly Count Raymond VI of Toulouse. Her children included Raymond VII of Toulouse.[27] King John Lackland (1166–1216)

Miniature from an English psalter presenting a spirited account of the murder of Archbishop Becket, c. 1250, Walters Art Museum

Henry also had illegitimate children with several mistresses, possibly as many as twelve. These children included Geoffrey, William, Peter and four children who died young by Alys, the daughter of Louis VII, while she was betrothed to his son Richard.[27] William’s many competencies and importance as a royal bastard led to a long and illustrious career.[28] Henry reasserted and extended previous suzerainties to secure possession of his inherited realm.[29] In 1162 he attempted to re-establish what he saw as his authority over the English Church by appointing his friend Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket
as Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
upon the death of the incumbent archbishop, Theobald. Becket's defiance as Archbishop alienated the king and his counsellors. Henry and Becket had repeated disputes over issues such as church tenures, the marriage of Henry's brother, and taxation. Henry reacted by getting Becket and other English bishops to recognise sixteen ancient customs in writing for the first time in the Constitutions of Clarendon, governing relations between the king, his courts and the church. When Becket tried to leave the country without permission, Henry tried to ruin him by filing legal cases relating to Becket's previous tenure as chancellor. Becket fled and remained in exile for five years. Relations later improved, and Becket returned, but they declined again when Henry's son was crowned as coregent by the Archbishop of York, which Becket perceived as a challenge to his authority. Becket later excommunicated those who had offended him. When he received this news, Henry said: "What miserable drones and traitors have I nurtured and promoted in my household who let their lord be treated with such shameful contempt by a low-born clerk." Four of Henry's knights killed Becket in Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
after Becket resisted a failed arrest attempt. Henry was widely considered complicit in Becket's death throughout Christian Europe. This made Henry a pariah; in penance, he walked barefoot into Canterbury Cathedral, where he was severely whipped by monks.[30] From 1155 Henry claimed that Pope Adrian IV
Pope Adrian IV
had given him authorisation to reform the Irish church by assuming control of Ireland, but Professor Anne Duggan's research indicates that the Laudabiliter
is a falsification of an existing letter and that was not in fact Adrian's intention.[31] It originally allowed Henry's brother William some territory. Henry did not personally act on this until 1171 by which time William was already dead. He invaded Ireland to assert his authority over knights who had accrued autonomous power after they recruited soldiers in England
and Wales
and colonised Ireland with his permission. Henry later gave Ireland to his youngest son, John.[32] In 1172 Henry gave John the castles of Chinon, Loudun and Mirebeau
as a wedding gift. This angered Henry's eighteen-year-old son, Henry the Young King, who believed these were his. A rebellion by Henry II's wife and three eldest sons ensued. Louis VII of France supported the rebellion. William the Lion, king of the Scots, and others joined the revolt. After eighteen months, Henry subdued the rebels.[33]

King Richard I's Great Seal of 1189. Exhibited in History Museum of Vendee.

In Le Mans
Le Mans
in 1182, Henry II gathered his children to plan a partible inheritance: his eldest surviving son, Henry, would inherit England, Normandy
and Anjou; Richard (his mother's favourite) would inherit the Duchy of Aquitaine; Geoffrey would inherit Brittany; and John would inherit Ireland. This resulted in further conflict. The younger Henry rebelled again, but died of dysentery. Geoffrey died in 1186 after an accident in a tournament. In 1189, Richard and Philip II of France reasserted their various claims exploiting the aging Henry's failing health. Henry was forced to accept humiliating peace terms, including naming Richard his sole heir. The old King died two days later, defeated and miserable. French and English contemporary moralists viewed this fate as retribution for the murder of Becket;[34] even his favourite legitimate son, John, had rebelled although the constantly loyal illegitimate son Geoffrey remained with Henry until the end.[35] Following Richard's coronation he quickly put the kingdom's affairs in order and departed on a Crusade for the Middle East. Opinion of Richard has fluctuated. Although he was respected for his military leadership and courtly manners, he had rejected and humiliated the sister of the king of France, deposed the king of Cyprus and later sold the island, he made enemies on the Third Crusade
Third Crusade
such as Leopold V, Duke of Austria by showing disrespect to his banners as well as refusing to share the spoils of war, and was rumoured to have arranged the assassination of Conrad of Montferrat. His ruthlessness was demonstrated by his massacre of 2,600 prisoners in Acre.[36] He obtained victories during the Third Crusade, but failed to capture Jerusalem. According to Steven Runciman
Steven Runciman
Richard was "a bad son, a bad husband and a bad king".[37] Jonathan Riley-Smith described him as "vain ... devious and self-centred".[38] In an alternate view John Gillingham points out that for centuries Richard was considered a model king.[39] Returning from the crusade with a small band of followers, Richard was captured by Leopold and was passed to Emperor Henry VI. Henry held Richard captive for eighteen months (1192–1194) while his mother raised the ransom, valued at 100,000 marks. In Richard's absence, Philip II overran large portions of Normandy
and John acquired control of Richard's English lands. After returning to England, Richard forgave John and re-established his authority in England. He left again in 1194 and battled Philip for five years, attempting to regain the lands seized during his captivity. When close to complete victory, he was injured by an arrow during a siege and died ten days later.[40] Decline and the loss of Anjou[edit]

One of only four surviving exemplifications of the 1215 text of Magna Carta

Richard's failure to provide an heir caused a succession crisis and conflict between supporters of the claim of his nephew, Arthur, and John. Guillaume des Roches led the magnates of Anjou, Maine, and Touraine declaring for Arthur.[41] Once again Philip II of France attempted to disturb the Plantagenet territories on the European mainland by supporting his vassal Arthur's claim to the English crown. John won a significant victory while preventing Arthur's forces from capturing his mother, seizing the entire rebel leadership at the Battle of Mirebeau
and his sister Eleanor, Fair Maid of Brittany.[42] Foolishly John disregarded his allies' opinions on the fate of the prisoners, many of them their neighbours and kinsmen. Instead he kept his prisoners so vilely and in such evil distress that it seemed shameful and ugly to all those who were with him and who saw this cruelty' according to the L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal.[41] As a result of John's behaviour the powerful Thouars, Lusignan, and des Roches families rebelled and John lost control of Anjou, Maine, Touraine, and northern Poitou. His son, King Henry III, maintained the claim to the Angevin territories until December 1259 when he formally surrendered them and in return was granted Gascony
as duke of Aquitaine
and a vassal of the king of France.[43] John's reputation was further damaged by the rumour, described in the Margam annals, that while drunk he himself had murdered Arthur and if not true it is almost certain John ordered the killing.[41] There are two contrasting schools of thought explaining the sudden collapse of John's position. Sir James Holt suggests this was the inevitable result of superior French resources. John Gillingham identifies diplomatic and military mismanagement and points out that Richard managed to hold the Angevin territory with comparable finances.[44] Nick Barratt has calculated that Angevin resources available for use in the war were 22 per cent less than those of Phillip, putting the Angevins at a disadvantage.[45] By 1214 John had re-established his authority in England
and planned what Gillingham has called a grand strategy to recapture Normandy
and Anjou.[46] The plan was that John would draw the French from Paris, while another army, under his nephew Otto IV, the Holy Roman Emperor, and his half-brother William attacked from the north. He also brought his niece Eleanor of Brittany, aiming to establish her as Duchess of Brittany. The plan failed when John's allies were defeated at the Battle of Bouvines. Otto retreated and was soon overthrown, William was captured by the French and John agreed to a five-year truce.[28][41] (From then on John also gave up the claim to Brittany of Eleanor and had her confined for life.)[47] John's defeat weakened his authority in England, and his barons forced him to agree to the Magna Carta, which limited royal power. Both sides failed to abide by the terms of the Magna Carta, leading to the First Barons' War, in which rebellious barons invited Prince Louis, the husband of Blanche, Henry II's granddaughter, to invade England.[41] Louis did so but in October 1216, before the conflict was conclusively ended, John died.[48] The official website of the British Monarchy presents John's death as the end of the Angevin dynasty and the beginning of the Plantagenet dynasty.[49] Main line[edit] Baronial conflict and the establishment of Parliament[edit] All subsequent English monarchs were descendants of the Angevin line via John, who had five legitimate children with Isabella:[50]

Henry III – king of England
for most of the 13th-century Richard – king of the Romans in the Holy Roman Empire[51] Joan – queen consort of Alexander II of Scotland[52] Isabella – wife of the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II[53] Eleanor – wife of William Marshal's son (also named William), and later the English rebel Simon de Montfort.[54]

John also had illegitimate children with several mistresses. These children probably included nine sons called Richard, Oliver, Henry, Osbert Gifford, Geoffrey, John FitzJohn or Courcy, Odo or Eudes FitzRoy, Ivo, Henry, Richard the constable of Wallingford Castle
Wallingford Castle
and three daughters called Joan, Matilda the abbess of Barking and Isabella la Blanche.[55] Joan was the best known of these, since she married Prince Llewelyn the Great
Llewelyn the Great
of Wales.[56]

Henry, Westminster Abbey, c1272

William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, was appointed regent for the nine-year-old King Henry on King John's death. Thereafter, support for Louis declined, and he renounced his claims in the Treaty of Lambeth after Marshal's victories at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich in 1217.[43] The Marshal regime issued an amended Magna Carta
Magna Carta
as a basis for future government.[43] Despite the Treaty of Lambeth, hostilities continued and Henry was forced to compromise with the newly crowned Louis VIII of France
Louis VIII of France
and Henry's stepfather, Hugh X of Lusignan. They both overran much of Henry's remaining continental lands, further eroding the Angevins' power on the continent. In his political struggles, Henry perceived many similarities between himself and England's patron saint, Edward the Confessor.[57] Consequently, he named his first son Edward and built the existing magnificent shrine for the Confessor.[58] In early 1225 a great council approved a tax of £40,000 to dispatch an army, which quickly retook Gascony. During an assembly feudal prerogatives of the king were challenged by the barons, bishops and magnates who demanded that the King reissue the Magna Carta
Magna Carta
and the Charter of the Forest in exchange for support. Henry declared that the charters were issued of his own "spontaneous and free will" and confirmed them with the royal seal, giving the new Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest of 1225 much more authority than any previous versions.[43] Henry III had nine children:[59]

Edward I (1239–1307) Margaret of England
(1240–1275). Her three children predeceased her husband, Alexander III of Scotland; consequently, the crown of Scotland became vacant on the death of their only grandchild, Margaret, Maid of Norway
Margaret, Maid of Norway
in 1290.[60] Beatrice, Countess of Richmond (1242–1275). She initially married John de Montfort of Dreux, and later married John II, Duke of Brittany. Edmund Crouchback
Edmund Crouchback
(1245–1296), who was granted the titles and estates of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester
Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester
and the earldom of Leicester after Henry defeated Montfort in the Second Barons' War. Henry later granted Edmund the earldoms of Lancaster and Ferrers. From 1276, through his wife, Edmund was Count of Champagne
Count of Champagne
and Brie.[61] Later Lancastrians would attempt to use Henry IV's maternal descent from Edmund to legitimise his claim to the throne, spuriously claiming that Edmund was the eldest son of Henry III but had not become king due to deformity.[62] Through his second marriage to Blanche, the widow of Henry I of Navarre, Edmund was at the centre of European aristocracy. Blanche's daughter, Joan, was queen regnant of Navarre and queen consort of France through her marriage to Philip IV. Edmund's son Thomas became the most powerful nobleman in England, adding to his inheritance the earldoms of Lincoln and Salisbury through his marriage to the heiress of Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln.[63] Four others who died as children: Richard (1247–1256), John (1250–1256), William (c. 1251/1252–1256), Katherine (c. 1252/3–1257) and Henry (no recorded dates).

Henry was bankrupted by his military expenditure and general extravagance. The pope offered Henry's brother Richard the Kingdom of Sicily, but the military cost of displacing the incumbent Emperor Frederick was prohibitive. Matthew Paris
wrote that Richard stated: "You might as well say, 'I make you a present of the moon—step up to the sky and take it down'." Instead, Henry purchased the kingdom for his son Edmund, which angered many powerful barons. The barons led by Henry's brother-in-law Simon de Montfort forced him to agree to the Provisions of Oxford, under which his debts were paid in exchange for substantial reforms. In France, with the Treaty of Paris, Henry formally surrendered the territory of his Angevin ancestors to Louis IX of France, receiving in return the title duke of Aquitaine
and the territory of Gascony
as a vassal of the French king.[43]

Death of Simon de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham

Disagreements between the barons and the king intensified. The barons, under Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, captured most of southeast England
in the Second Barons' War. At the Battle of Lewes
Battle of Lewes
in 1264, Henry and Prince Edward were defeated and taken prisoner. De Montfort assembled the Great Parliament, recognized as the first Parliament because it was the first time the cities and boroughs had sent representatives.[64] Edward escaped, raised an army and defeated and killed de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham
Battle of Evesham
in 1265.[65] Savage retribution was inflicted upon the rebels, and authority restored to Henry. With the realm now peaceful, Edward left England
to join Louis IX on the Ninth Crusade; he was one of the last crusaders. Louis died before Edward's arrival, but Edward decided to continue. The result was disappointing; Edward's small force only enabled him to capture Acre and launch a handful of raids. After surviving an assassination attempt, Edward left for Sicily later in the year, never to participate in a crusade again. When Henry III died, Edward acceded to the throne; the barons swore allegiance to him even though he did not return for two years.[65] Constitutional change and the reform of feudalism[edit] Edward I married Eleanor of Castile, daughter of King Ferdinand of Castile, a great grandson of Henry II through his second daughter Eleanor in 1254. Edward and Eleanor had sixteen children; five daughters survived to adulthood, but only one son survived Edward:[66]

Eleanor, Countess of Bar (1264/69−1298) Three daughters (Joan, Alice, and Juliana/Katherine) and two sons (John and Henry) born between 1265 and 1271. They died between 1265 and 1274 with little historical trace. Joan, Countess of Gloucester (1272–1307) Alphonso, Earl of Chester
Alphonso, Earl of Chester
(1273–1284) Margaret, Duchess of Brabant (1275–1333) Mary of Woodstock
Mary of Woodstock
(1278–1332), who became a nun Isabella (1279–1279) Elizabeth, firstly Countess of Holland and on widowhood, secondly Countess of Hereford
(1282–1316). Among her eleven children were the earls of Hereford, Essex, and Northampton, and the countesses of Ormond and Devon. Edward II Two other daughters (Beatrice and Blanche), who died as children.

Following Eleanor's death in 1290, Edward married Margaret of France, daughter of Philip III of France, in 1299. Edward and Margaret had two sons, who both lived to adulthood, and a daughter who died as a child:[67]

Thomas (1300–1338), whose daughter Margaret inherited his estates. Margaret's grandson, Thomas Mowbray, was the first duke of Norfolk, but Richard II
Richard II
exiled him and stripped him of his titles. Edmund, Earl of Kent (1301 to 1330). Edmund's loyalty to his half-brother, Edward II, resulted in his execution by order of the rebel Mortimer
and his lover, Edward's queen, Isabella. His daughter, Joan, inherited his estates and married her own cousin, Edward the Black Prince; together, they had Richard, who later became the English king. Eleanor (1306–1311).

Evidence for Edward's involvement in legal reform is hard to find but his reign saw a major programme of legal change. Much of the drive and determination is likely to have come from the king and his experience of the baronial reform movement of the late 1250s and early 1260s. With the Statutes of Mortmain, Edward imposed his authority over the Church; the statutes prohibited land donation to the Church, asserted the rights of the Crown at the expense of traditional feudal privileges, promoted the uniform administration of justice, raised income and codified the legal system. His military campaigns left him in heavy debt and when Philip IV of France
Philip IV of France
confiscated the Duchy of Gascony
in 1294, Edward needed funds to wage war in France. When Edward summoned a precedent-setting assembly in order to raise more taxes for military finance, he included lesser landowners and merchants. The resulting parliament included barons, clergy, knights, and burgesses for the first time.[65] Expansion in Britain[edit] See also: Wars of Scottish Independence
Wars of Scottish Independence
and Conquest of Wales
by Edward I

after the Treaty of Montgomery in 1267   Gwynedd, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's principality   Territories conquered by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd   Territories of Llywelyn's vassals   Lordships of the Marcher barons   Lordships of the King of England

On his accession, Edward I sought to organise his realm, enforcing his claims to primacy in the British Isles. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd
claimed to rule North Wales
"entirely separate from" England
but Edward viewed him to be "a rebel and disturber of the peace". Edward's determination, military experience and skilful naval manoeuvres ended what was to him rebellion. The invasion was executed by one of the largest armies ever assembled by an English king, comprising Anglo-Norman cavalry and Welsh archers and laying the foundation for future victories in France. Llywelyn was driven into the mountains, later dying in battle. The Statute of Rhuddlan established England's authority over Wales, and Edward's son was proclaimed the first English Prince of Wales
upon his birth. Edward spent vast sums on his two Welsh campaigns with a large portion of it spent on a network of castles.[65] Edward asserted that the king of Scotland owed him feudal allegiance, and intended to unite the two nations by marrying his son Edward to Margaret, the sole heir of King Alexander III.[65] When Margaret died in 1290, competition for the Scottish crown ensued. By invitation of Scottish magnates, Edward I resolved the dispute, ruling in favour of John Balliol, who duly swore loyalty to him and became king. Edward insisted that he was Scotland's sovereign and possessed the right to hear appeals against Balliol's judgements, undermining Balliol's authority. Balliol allied with France in 1295; Edward invaded Scotland the following year, deposing and exiling Balliol.[65] Edward was less successful in Gascony, which was overrun by the French. With his resources depleting, Edward was forced to reconfirm the Charters, including Magna Carta, to obtain the necessary funds. In 1303 the French king restored Gascony
to Edward by signing the Treaty of Paris. Meanwhile, William Wallace
William Wallace
rose in Balliol's name and recovered most of Scotland. Wallace was defeated at the Battle of Falkirk, after which Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce
rebelled and was crowned king of Scotland. Edward died while travelling to Scotland for another campaign.[65]

Scene from the Holkham Bible, shows knights and foot soldiers from the period of Bannockburn

King Edward II's coronation oath on his succession in 1307 was the first to reflect the king's responsibility to maintain the laws that the community "shall have chosen" ("aura eslu").[68] He was not unpopular initially but faced three challenges: discontent over the financing of wars; his household spending; and the role of his favourite Piers Gaveston.[69] When Parliament decided that Gaveston should be exiled the king was left with no choice but to comply.[70] Edward engineered Gaveston's return, but was forced to agree to the appointment of Ordainers, led by his cousin Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, to reform the royal household with Piers Gaveston
Piers Gaveston
exiled again.[69] When Gaveston returned again to England, he was abducted and executed after a mock trial.[70] The ramifications of this drove Thomas and his adherents from power. Edward's humiliating defeat by Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn, confirming Bruce's position as an independent king of Scots, leading to Lancaster being appointed head of the king's council.[69] Edward finally repealed the Ordinances after defeating and executing Lancaster at the Battle of Boroughbridge in 1322.[69] The French monarchy asserted its rights to encroach on Edward's legal rights in Gascony. Resistance to one judgement in Saint-Sardos resulted in Charles IV declaring the duchy forfeit. Charles's sister, Queen Isabella, was sent to negotiate and agreed a treaty that required Edward to pay homage in France to Charles. Edward resigned Aquitaine
and Ponthieu to his son Edward, who travelled to France to give homage in his stead. With the English heir in her power, Isabella refused to return to England
unless Edward II dismissed his favourites, and she became the mistress of Roger Mortimer.[69] The couple invaded England
and, with Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, captured the king.[71] Edward II abdicated on condition that his son would inherit the throne rather than Mortimer. Although there is no historical record of the cause of death, he is popularly believed to have been murdered at Berkeley Castle by having a red-hot poker thrust into his bowels.[72][73] A coup by Edward III ended four years of control by Isabella and Mortimer. Mortimer
was executed. Though removed from power, Isabella was treated well, and lived in luxury for the next 27 years.[69] Conflict with the House of Valois[edit] Main articles: Hundred Years' War, Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
(1337–60), and Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War

Isabella, third from left, with her father, Philip IV, her future French king brothers, and Philip's brother, Charles of Valois

In 1328 Charles IV of France
Charles IV of France
died without a male heir. Queen Isabella made a claim to throne of France on behalf of her son Edward on the grounds that he was a matrilineal grandson of Philip IV of France. However, the precedents set by Philip V's succession over his niece Joan II of Navarre
Joan II of Navarre
and Charles IV's succession over his nieces meant that the senior grandson of Philip III in the male line, Phillip of Valois, became king. Not yet in power, Edward paid homage to Phillip as Duke of Aquitaine. In 1337 Phillip confiscated Aquitaine
and Ponthieu from Edward alleging he was harbouring Phillip’s fugitive cousin and enemy, Robert of Artois.[74] In response, Edward proclaimed himself king of France to encourage the Flemish to rise in open rebellion against the French king. The conflict, later known as the Hundred Years' War, included a significant English naval victory at the Battle of Sluys,[74] and a victory on land at Crécy, leaving Edward free to capture the important port of Calais. A subsequent victory against Scotland at the Battle of Neville's Cross
Battle of Neville's Cross
resulted in the capture of David II and reduced the threat from Scotland.[74] The Black Death brought a halt to Edward's campaigns by killing perhaps a third of his subjects.[74] The only Plantagenet known to have died from the Black Death was Edward III's daughter Joan in Bordeaux.[74]

The victory at Crécy was an important Plantagenet victory of the Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
in France.

Edward, the Black Prince
Edward, the Black Prince
resumed the war with destructive chevauchées starting from Bordeaux. His army was caught by a much larger French force at Poitiers, but the ensuing battle was a decisive English victory resulting in the capture of John II of France. John agreed a treaty promising the French would pay a four million écus ransom. The subsequent Treaty of Brétigny
Treaty of Brétigny
was demonstrably popular in England, where it was both ratified in parliament and celebrated with great ceremony. To reach agreement, clauses were removed that would have had Edward renounce his claim to the French crown in return for territory in Aquitaine
and the town of Calais. These were entered in another agreement to be effected only after the transfer of territory by November 1361 but both sides prevaricated over their commitments for the following nine years. Hostages from the Valois family were held in London while John returned to France to raise his ransom. Edward had restored the lands of the former Angevin Empire
Angevin Empire
holding Normandy, Brittany, Anjou, Maine
and the coastline from Flanders
to Spain. When the hostages escaped back to France, John was horrified that his word had been broken and returned to England, where he eventually died.[74] Fighting in the Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
spilled from the French and Plantagenet lands into surrounding realms, including the dynastic conflict in Castile between Peter of Castile and Henry II of Castile. The Black Prince allied himself with Peter, defeating Henry at the Battle of Nájera. Edward and Peter fell out when Peter was unable to reimburse Edward’s military expenses leaving him bankrupt.[75] The Plantagenets continued to interfere, and John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, the Black Prince's brother, married Peter's daughter Constance, claiming the Crown of Castile in her name. He invaded with an army of 5000 men. Fighting was inconclusive before Gaunt agreed a treaty with King Juan of Castile.[76] Terms of the treaty included the marriage of John of Gaunt's daughter Katherine to Juan's son, Enrique.[77] Charles V of France
Charles V of France
maintained the terms of the treaty of Brétigny but encouraged others in Aquitaine
to challenge the authority of the Plantagenets in Aquitaine.[75] The prince, who had suffered a debilitating illness for nearly a decade which often restricted his movement to being carried in a litter,[75] returned to England, where he soon died.[78] John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
assumed leadership in France with limited success, and peace negotiations over several years were inconclusive.[76] Descendants of Edward III[edit]

Richard II
Richard II
meets the rebels of the Peasants' Revolt
Peasants' Revolt
in a painting from Froissart's Chronicles

The marriage of Edward III and Philippa of Hainault
Philippa of Hainault
produced thirteen children and thirty-two grandchildren:[79]

Edward (1330–1376)—married his cousin Joan of Kent, a granddaughter of Edward I, with whom he had two sons:

Edward (1365–1371/2) Richard (1367–1400)

Isabella (1332–1382)—married Enguerrand II, Lord of Coucy, and had two daughters:

Marie Philippa

Joan (1335–1348) William (1334/6–1337) Lionel (1338–1368)—had one daughter with Elizabeth de Burgh:

Philippa (1355–1378/81)—through Philippa, the House of York, by cognatic kinship, asserted that its claim to the throne was superior to the House of Lancaster's. Philippa's granddaughter and heir, Anne Mortimer, married Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, the Duke of York's heir. The earls of Northumberland and Clifford, significant supporters of the Lancasters during the Wars of the Roses, were descendants of Philippa through her other daughter, Elizabeth Mortimer.

John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
(1340–1399)—married Blanche of Lancaster, the heiress to the duchy of Lancaster and a direct descendant of Henry III, and had six children with her:

Philippa (1360–1415)—married John I of Portugal. John (c. 1362/1364)—died as an infant. Elizabeth (1364–1426)—married John Hastings, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter, and John Cornwall, 1st Baron Fanhope, respectively. Edward of Lancaster (1365–1365) John of Lancaster (1366)—died as an infant. Henry (1367–1413) Isabella of Lancaster (b. 1368)—died as a child.

After Blanche's death in 1369, John married Constance of Castile, trying unsuccessfully to obtain the throne of Castile. The marriage produced two children:

Catherine of Lancaster
Catherine of Lancaster
(1372–1418)—married Henry III of Castile, with whom she was a great-grandmother of Catherine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII
Henry VIII
of England. John (1374–1375)

Constance died in 1394, after which John married Katherine Swynford
Katherine Swynford
on 13 January 1396. Their four children were born before they married. The pope legitimised them in 1396, as did Richard II
Richard II
by charter, on the condition that their children could not ascend the throne:

John (c. 1371/1372–1410)—grandfather of Margaret Beaufort, Henry VII's mother. Henry (1375–1447) Thomas (1377–1427) Joan (1379–1440)—Joan's son, Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, and her grandson, Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, were leading supporters of the House of York.

Edmund (1341–1402)—founder of the House of York. He had three children with Isabella of Castile:

Edward (1373–1415)—killed at the Battle of Agincourt. Constance (1374–1416) Richard—(1375–1415)

Blanche (1342)—died as a child. Mary of Waltham (1344–1362)—married John V, Duke of Brittany. No issue. Margaret (1346–1361)—married John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke. No issue. Joan (b. 1351) Thomas (1355–1397)—murdered or executed for treason by order of Richard II; his daughter, Anne, married Edmund Stafford.

Edward’s long reign had forged a new national identity, reinforced by Middle English beginning to establish itself as the spoken and written language of government. As a result, he is considered by many historians in cultural respects the first ‘English’ post-conquest ruler.[74] Demise of the main line[edit]

Portrait of Richard II
Richard II
(c. 1390)

The Black Prince's ten-year-old son succeeded as Richard II
Richard II
of England on the death of his grandfather, nominally exercising all the powers of kingship supported by various councils . His government levied poll taxes to finance military campaigns and combined with the poor state of the economy resulted in the Peasants' Revolt
Peasants' Revolt
in 1381, followed by brutal reprisals against the rebels.[80] The king's uncle Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel, and Thomas de Beauchamp, 12th Earl of Warwick, became known as the Lords Appellant when they sought to impeach five of the king's favourites and restrain what was increasingly seen as tyrannical and capricious rule. Later they were joined by Henry Bolingbroke, the son and heir of John of Gaunt, and Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk. Initially, they were successful in establishing a commission to govern England
for one year, but they were forced to rebel against Richard, defeating an army under Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, at the skirmish of Radcot Bridge.[80] Richard was reduced to a figurehead with little power. As a result of the Merciless Parliament, de Vere and Michael de la Pole, 1st Earl of Suffolk, who had fled abroad, were sentenced to death in their absence. Alexander Neville, Archbishop of York, had all his possessions confiscated. Several of Richard's council were executed. On John of Gaunt's return from Spain, Richard was able to re-establish his power, having Gloucester murdered in captivity in Calais. Warwick was stripped of his title. Bolingbroke and Mowbray were exiled.[80] When John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
died in 1399, Richard disinherited John's son, Henry, who invaded England
in response with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Henry deposed Richard to have himself crowned Henry IV of England. Richard died in captivity early the next year, probably murdered, bringing an end to the main Plantagenet line. None of Henry's heirs were free from challenge on the grounds of not being the true heir of Richard II
Richard II
and that the Lancastrian dynasty had gained the throne by an act of usurpation.[80] House of Lancaster[edit] Main article: House of Lancaster Further information: Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
(1415–1453) Henry married his Plantagenet cousin Mary de Bohun, who was paternally descended from Edward I and maternally from Edmund Crouchback.[81] They had seven children:[82]

Edward (b. 1382; died as a child)—buried at Monmouth
Castle, Monmouth. Henry (1386–1422)—had one son:

Henry (1421–1471)—also had one son:

Edward (1453–1471)

Thomas (1387–1421)—killed at the Battle of Baugé. His marriage to Margaret Holland
Margaret Holland
proved childless; he had an illegitimate son named John, also known as the Bastard of Clarence. John (1389–1435)—had two childless marriages: to Anne of Burgundy, daughter of John the Fearless, and Jacquetta of Luxembourg. John had an illegitimate son and daughter, named Richard and Mary, respectively. Humphrey (1390–1447)—died under suspicious circumstances while imprisoned for treason against Henry VI; his death may have been the result of a stroke. Blanche (1392–1409)—married Louis III, Count Palatine of the Rhine, in 1402. Philippa (1394–1430)—married Eric of Pomerania, king of Denmark, Norway
and Sweden, in 1406.

Parchment miniature of Henry V's victory at the Battle of Agincourt
Battle of Agincourt
in 1415, from Enguerrand de Monstrelet's Chronique de France circa 1495

Henry went to convoluted legal means to justify his succession. Many Lancastrians asserted that his mother had had legitimate rights through her descent from Edmund Crouchback, who it was claimed was the elder son of Henry III of England, set aside due to deformity.[83] As the great-grandson of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, was the heir presumptive to Richard II
Richard II
and Henry used multiple rationales stressing his Plantagenet descent, divine grace, powerful friends, and Richard's misgovernment.[84] In fact Mortimer
never showed interest in the throne. The later marriage of his sister Anne to Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge consolidated this claim to the throne with that of the more junior House of York. Henry planned to resume war with France, but was plagued with financial problems, declining health and frequent rebellions.[85] He defeated a Scottish invasion, a serious rebellion by Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland
Earl of Northumberland
in the North and Owain Glyndŵr's rebellion in Wales.[85] Many saw it as a punishment from God when Henry was later struck down with unknown but chronic illnesses.[84] Henry IV died in 1413. His son and successor, Henry V of England, aware that Charles VI of France's mental illness had caused instability in France, invaded to assert the Plantagenet claims and won a near total victory over the French at the Battle of Agincourt.[86] In subsequent years Henry recaptured much of Normandy and secured marriage to Catherine of Valois. The resulting Treaty of Troyes stated that Henry's heirs would inherit the throne of France, but conflict continued with the Dauphin. When Henry died in 1422, his nine-month-old son succeeded him as Henry VI of England. During the minority of Henry VI the war caused political division among his Plantagenet uncles, Bedford, Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester, and Cardinal Beaufort. Humphrey's wife was accused of treasonable necromancy after two astrologers in her employ unwisely, if honestly, predicted a serious illness would endanger Henry VI's life, and Humphrey was later arrested and died in prison.[87] Depopulation stemming from the Black Death led to increased wages, static food costs and a resulting improvement in the standard of living for the peasantry. However, under Henry misgovernment and harvest failures depressed the English economy to a pitiful state known as the Great Slump. The economy was in ruins by 1450, a consequence of the loss of France, piracy in the channel and poor trading relations with the Hanseatic League.[88] The economic slowdown began in the 1430s in the north of the country, spreading south in the 1440s, with the economy not recovering until the 1480s.[89] It was also driven by multiple harvest failures in the 1430s and disease amongst livestock, which drove up the price of food and damaged the wider economy.[90] Certain groups were particularly badly affected: cloth exports fell by 35 per cent in just four years at the end of the 1440s, collapsing by up to 90 per cent in some parts of the South-West.[91] The Crown's debts reached £372,000, Henry's deficit was £20,000 per annum, and tax revenues were half those of his father.[92] House of York[edit] Main article: House of York Further information: Wars of the Roses Edward III made his fourth son Edmund the first duke of York in 1362. Edmund was married to Isabella, a daughter of King Peter of Castile and María de Padilla
María de Padilla
and the sister of Constance of Castile, who was the second wife of Edmund's brother John of Gaunt. Both of Edmund's sons were killed in 1415. Richard became involved in the Southampton Plot, a conspiracy to depose Henry V in favour of Richard's brother-in-law Edmund Mortimer. When Mortimer
revealed the plot to the king, Richard was executed for treason. Richard's childless older brother Edward was killed at the Battle of Agincourt
Battle of Agincourt
later the same year. Constance of York was Edmund's only daughter and was an ancestor of Queen Anne Neville. The increasingly interwoven Plantagenet relationships were demonstrated by Edmund's second marriage to Joan Holland. Her sister Alianore Holland was mother to Richard's wife, Anne Mortimer. Margaret Holland, another of Joan's sisters, married John of Gaunt's son. She later married Thomas of Lancaster, John of Gaunt's grandson by King Henry IV. A third sister, Eleanor Holland, was mother-in-law to Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury—John's grandson by his daughter Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland. These sisters were all granddaughters of Joan of Kent, the mother of Richard II, and therefore Plantagenet descendants of Edward I.[93] Edmund's son Richard was married to Anne Mortimer, the daughter of Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March
Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March
and Eleanor Holland and great-granddaughter of Edward III's second surviving son Lionel. Anne died giving birth to their only son in September 1411.[94] Richard's execution four years later left two orphans: Isabel, who married into the Bourchier family, and a son who was also called Richard. Although his earldom was forfeited, Richard (the father) was not attainted, and the four-year-old orphan Richard was his heir. Within months of his father's death, Richard's childless uncle, Edward Duke of York, was killed at Agincourt. Richard was allowed to inherit the title of Duke of York in 1426. In 1432 he acquired the earldoms of March and Ulster on the death of his maternal uncle Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, who had died campaigning with Henry V in France, and the earldom of Cambridge which had belonged to his father. Being descended from Edward III in both the maternal and the paternal line gave Richard a significant claim to the throne if the Lancastrian line should fail, and by cognatic primogeniture arguably a superior claim.[95] He emphasised the point by being the first to assume the Plantagenet surname in 1448. Having inherited the March and Ulster titles, he became the wealthiest and most powerful noble in England, second only to the king himself. Richard married Cecily Neville, a granddaughter of John of Gaunt, and had thirteen or possibly fifteen children:[96]

Joan (b. 1438; died as a child) Anne of York (1439–1476)— Mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA
taken from a descendant of her second daughter, Anne St Leger, Baroness de Ros, was used in the identification of the remains of Richard III, which were found in 2012.[97] Henry (b. 1441; died as a child) Edward (1442–1483) Edmund (1443–1460) Elizabeth (1444–1503)—married John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk; she was the mother of several claimants to the throne. Margaret (1446–1503)—married Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. William (b. 1447; died as a child) John (b. 1448; died as a child) George (1449–1478) Thomas (b. 1450/51; died as a child) Richard (1452–1485) Ursula (b. 1455; died as a child) In her will, Cecily stated that Katherine and Humphrey were her children, but they may have been her grandchildren through de la Pole.

The Battle of Tewkesbury, as illustrated in the Ghent manuscript

When Henry VI had a mental breakdown, Richard was named regent, but the birth of a male heir resolved the question of succession.[95] When Henry's sanity returned, the court party reasserted its authority, but Richard of York and the Nevilles defeated them at a skirmish called the First Battle of St Albans. The ruling class was deeply shocked and reconciliation was attempted.[95] York and the Nevilles fled abroad, but the Nevilles returned to win the Battle of Northampton, where they captured Henry.[95] When Richard of York joined them he surprised Parliament by claiming the throne and forcing through the Act of Accord, which stated that Henry would remain as king for his lifetime, but would be succeeded by York. Margaret found this disregard for her son's claims unacceptable, and so the conflict continued. York was killed at the Battle of Wakefield
Battle of Wakefield
and his head set on display at Micklegate Bar
Micklegate Bar
along with those of Edmund, Earl of Rutland, and Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, who had been captured and beheaded.[95] The Scottish queen Mary of Guelders provided Margaret with support but London welcomed York's son Edward, Earl of March and Parliament confirmed that Edward should be made king. He was crowned after consolidating his position with victory at the Battle of Towton.[98] Edward's preferment of the former Lancastrian-supporting Woodville family, following his marriage to Elizabeth Woodville, led Warwick and Clarence to help Margaret depose Edward and return Henry to the throne. Edward and Richard, Duke of Gloucester, fled, but on their return, Clarence switched sides at the Battle of Barnet, leading to the death of the Neville brothers. The subsequent Battle of Tewkesbury brought the demise of the last of the male line of the Beauforts. The battlefield execution of Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, and the later probable murder of Henry VI extinguished the House of Lancaster.[99] By the mid-1470s, the victorious House of York
House of York
looked safely established, with seven living male princes: Edward IV and his two sons, his brother George and George's son, his brother Richard and Richard's son. Edward and Elizabeth Woodville
Elizabeth Woodville
themselves had ten children, seven of whom survived him:[100]

Elizabeth (1466–1503)—queen consort to Henry VII of England Mary (1467–1482) Cecily (1469–1507)—initially married John Welles, 1st Viscount Welles, and later married Thomas Kyme (or Keme) following John's death. Edward (1470–c. 1483)—briefly succeeded his father as King Edward V. Margaret (1472; died that year) Richard (1473–c. 1483) Anne (1475–1511)—married Thomas Howard George (1477–1479) Catherine of York
Catherine of York
(1479–1527)—married William Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon. Bridget of York
Bridget of York
(1480–1517)—became a nun — possibly had an illegitimate daughter called Agnes of Eltham

Dynastic infighting and misfortune quickly brought about the demise of the House of York. George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, plotted against his brother and was executed. Following Edward's premature death in 1483, his brother Richard had Parliament declare Edward's two sons illegitimate on the pretext of an alleged prior pre-contract to Lady Eleanor Talbot, leaving Edward's marriage invalid.[101] Richard seized the throne, and the Princes in the Tower
Princes in the Tower
were never seen again. Richard's son predeceased him and Richard was killed in 1485[102] after an invasion of foreign mercenaries led by Henry Tudor, who claimed the throne through his mother Margaret Beaufort.[103] Tudor assumed the throne as Henry VII, founding the Tudor dynasty
Tudor dynasty
and bringing the Plantagenet line of kings to an end.[104] House of Tudor
House of Tudor
and other Plantagenet descendants[edit]

Elizabeth of York

Tudor[edit] When Henry Tudor seized the throne there were eighteen Plantagenet descendants who might today be thought to have a stronger hereditary claim, and by 1510 this number had been increased further by the birth of sixteen Yorkist children.[105] Henry mitigated this situation with his marriage to Elizabeth of York. She was the eldest daughter of Edward IV, and all their children were his cognatic heirs. Indeed, Polydore Vergil
Polydore Vergil
noted Henry VIII's pronounced resemblance to his grandfather Edward: "For just as Edward was the most warmly thought of by the English people
English people
amongst all English kings, so this successor of his, Henry, was very much like him in general appearance, in greatness of mind and generosity and for that reason was the most acclaimed and approved of all."[106] This did not deter Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy—Edward's sister and Elizabeth's aunt—and members of the de la Pole family—children of Edward's sister and John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk— from frequent attempts to destabilise Henry's regime.[107] Henry imprisoned Margaret's nephew Edward, Earl of Warwick, the son of her brother George, in the Tower of London, but in 1487 Margaret financed a rebellion led by Lambert Simnel
Lambert Simnel
pretending to be Edward. John de la Pole, 1st Earl of Lincoln, joined the revolt, probably anticipating that it would further his own ambitions to the throne, but he was killed in the suppression of the uprising at the Battle of Stoke Field in 1487.[108] Warwick was implicated by two further failed invasions supported by Margaret using Perkin Warbeck
Perkin Warbeck
pretending to be Edward IV's son Richard of Shrewsbury, and Warbeck's later planned escape for them both; Warwick was executed in 1499. Edward's execution may simply have been a precondition for the marriage of Arthur, Prince of Wales
to Katherine of Aragon
Katherine of Aragon
in 1501.[109] De La Pole[edit] John de la Pole's attainder meant that his brother Edmund inherited their father's titles, but much of the wealth of the duchy of Suffolk was forfeit. Edmund did not possess sufficient finances to maintain his status as a duke, so as a compromise he accepted the title of earl of Suffolk. Financial difficulties led to frequent legal conflicts and Edmund's indictment for murder in 1501. He fled with his brother Richard, while their remaining brother, William, was imprisoned in the Tower—where he would remain until his death 37 years later—as part of a general suppression of Edmund's associates Philip the Fair had been holding Edmund and in 1506 he returned him to Henry. Edmund was imprisoned in the Tower. In 1513, he was executed after Richard de la Pole, whom Louis XII of France
Louis XII of France
had recognised as king of England
the previous year, claimed the kingship in his own right.[110] Richard, known as the White Rose, plotted an invasion of England
for years but was killed in 1525 at the Battle of Pavia
Battle of Pavia
while fighting as the captain of the French landsknechts during François I of France's invasion of Italy.[111] Pole[edit]

Cardinal Reginald Pole

Warwick's sister, and therefore Edward IV's niece, Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, was executed by Henry VIII
Henry VIII
in 1541. By then, the cause was more religious and political rather than dynastic. The attainder of her father, Clarence, was a legal bar to any claims to the throne by his children. Additionally her marriage, arranged by Henry VII, to Sir Richard Pole, his half-cousin and trusted supporter, was not auspicious. Nevertheless, it did allow the couple to be closely involved in court affairs. Margaret's fortunes improved under Henry VIII
Henry VIII
and in February 1512 she was restored to the earldom of Salisbury and all the Warwicks' lands. This made her the first and, apart from Anne Boleyn, the only woman in 16th-century England
to hold a peerage title in her own right.[112] Her daughter Ursula married the son of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham. Buckingham's fall after arguments with the king over property, and Margaret's open support for Catherine of Aragon
Catherine of Aragon
and Princess Mary began the Poles' estrangement from the king. Hope of reconciliation was dashed by De unitate, the letter that Margaret's son Reginald Pole
Reginald Pole
wrote to Henry VIII, in which Reginald declared his opposition to the royal supremacy. In 1538 evidence came to light that Pole family members in England
had been in communication with Reginald. Margaret's sons Geoffrey and Henry were arrested for treason along with several friends and associates, including Henry's wife and brother-in-law—Edward Neville. Among those arrested was the king's cousin Henry Courtenay, 1st Marquess of Exeter, his wife and 11-year-old son. Courteney's wife was released two years later, but their son spent 15 years in the Tower until Queen Mary released him. Except for the surviving Geoffrey Pole, all the others implicated were beheaded.[113] Margaret was attainted. The possibility of an invasion involving Reginald via her south coast estates and her embittered relationship with Henry VIII
Henry VIII
precluded any chance of pardon. However, the decision to execute her seems a spontaneous, rather than a premeditated, act. According to the Calendar of State Papers her execution was botched at the hands of "a wretched and blundering youth ... who literally hacked her head and shoulders to pieces in the most pitiful manner". In 1886 she was beatified by Pope Leo XIII on the grounds she had laid down her life for the Holy See "and for the truth of the orthodox Faith".[112] Stafford[edit] Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, combined multiple lines of Plantagenet descent: from Edward III by his son Thomas of Woodstock, from Edward III via two of his Beaufort grandchildren, and from Edward I from Joan of Kent and the Holland family. His father failed in his rebellion against Richard III in 1483 but was restored to his inheritance on the reversal of his father's attainder late in 1485. His mother married Henry VII's uncle Jasper Tudor, and his wardship was entrusted to the king's mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort. In 1502, during Henry VII's illness, there was debate as to whether Buckingham or Edmund de la Pole should act as regent for Henry VIII. There is no evidence of continuous hostility between Buckingham and Henry VIII, but there is little doubt of the duke's dislike of Thomas Wolsey, whom he believed to be plotting to ruin the old nobility. Therefore, Henry VIII instructed Wolsey to watch Buckingham, his brother Henry Stafford, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, and three other peers. Neither Henry VIII nor his father planned to destroy Buckingham because of his lineage and Henry VIII
Henry VIII
even allowed Buckingham's son and heir, Henry Stafford, 1st Baron Stafford, to marry Ursula Pole, giving the Staffords a further line of royal blood descent. Buckingham himself was arrested in April 1521; he was found guilty on 16 May and executed the next day. Evidence was provided that the duke had been listening to prophecies that he would be king and that the Tudor family lay under God's curse for the execution of Warwick. This was said to explain Henry VIII's failure to produce a male heir. Much of this evidence consisted of ill-judged comments, speculation and bad temper, but it underlined the threat presented by Buckingham's descent.[114] Tudor succession[edit] Main article: Succession to Elizabeth I of England As late as 1600, with the Tudor succession in doubt, older Plantagenet lines remained as possible claimants to a disputed throne, and religious and dynastic factors gave rise to complications. Thomas Wilson wrote in his report The State of England, Anno Domini 1600 that there were 12 "competitors" for the succession. At the time of writing (about 1601), Wilson had been working on intelligence matters for Lord Buckhurst and Sir Robert Cecil.[115] The alleged competitors included five descendants of Henry VII and Elizabeth, including the eventual successor James I of England, but also seven from older Plantagenet lines:[116]

Henry Hastings, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon George Hastings, 4th Earl of Huntingdon Charles Neville, 6th Earl of Westmorland Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland António, Prior of Crato Ranuccio I Farnese, Duke of Parma Philip III of Spain
Philip III of Spain
and his infant daughter

Ranulph Crewe, Chief Justice of the King's Bench, argued that by 1626 the House of Plantagenet
House of Plantagenet
could not be considered to remain in existence in a speech during the Oxford Peerage case, which was to rule on who should inherit the earldom of Oxford. It was referred by Charles I of England
to the House of Lords, who called for judicial assistance. Crewe said:

I have labored to make a covenant with myself, that affection may not press upon judgment; for I suppose there is no man that hath any apprehension of gentry or nobleness, but his affection stands to the continuance of a house so illustrious, and would take hold of a twig or twine-thread to support it. And yet time hath his revolutions; there must be a period and an end to all temporal things—finis rerum—an end of names and dignities, and whatsoever is terrene; and why not of de Vere? For where is Bohun? Where is Mowbray? Where is Mortimer? Nay, which is more, and most of all, where is Plantagenet? They are entombed in the urns and sepulchres of mortality! yet let the name of de Vere stand so long as it pleaseth God.[117]

Further information[edit] See also: Plantagenet monarchs' family tree

Family tree

This family tree includes selected members of the House of Plantagenet who were born legitimate.[118]










































House of Lancaster





















House of York














Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou 1113–1151











































Henry II, King of England 1133–1189


Geoffrey, Count of Nantes 1134–1158


William FitzEmpress 1136–1164















































Henry, Junior King of England 1155–1183


Richard I, King of England 1157–1199


Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany 1158–1186







John, King of England 1167–1216


















































Arthur I, Duke of Brittany 1187–1203


Henry III, King of England 1207–1272







Richard, King of Germany 1209–1272

























































Edward I, King of England 1239–1307






Edmund, 1st Earl of Lancaster 1245–1296


Henry of Almain 1235–1271


Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall 1249–1300

















































Alphonso, Earl of Chester 1273–1284


Edward II, King of England 1284–1327


Thomas, 1st Earl of Norfolk 1300–1338


Edmund, 1st Earl of Kent 1301–1330


Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster 1278–1322


Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster 1281–1345
















































Edward III, King of England 1312–1377


John, Earl of Cornwall 1316–1336


Edmund, 2nd Earl of Kent 1326–1331


John, 3rd Earl of Kent 1330–1352




Henry, 1st Duke of Lancaster 1310–1361






























































Edward, Prince of Wales 1330–1376


Lionel, 1st Duke of Clarence 1338–1368


John, 1st Duke of Lancaster 1340–1399








Edmund, 1st Duke of York 1341–1402




Thomas, 1st Duke of Gloucester 1355–1397


















































Richard II, King of England 1367–1400


Philippa, 5th Countess of Ulster and the House of Mortimer


Henry IV, King of England 1366–1413


John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset (legitimated)


Edward, 2nd Duke of York 1373–1415


Richard, 3rd Earl of Cambridge 1375–1415 m. Anne de Mortimer


Humphrey, 2nd Earl of Buckingham 1381–1399

















































































Henry V, King of England 1386–1422


Thomas, 1st Duke of Clarence 1387–1421


John, 1st Duke of Bedford 1389–1435


Humphrey, 1st Duke of Gloucester 1390–1447


House of Beaufort


Richard, 3rd Duke of York 1411–1460







































































































Henry VI, King of England 1421–1471


Lady Margaret Beaufort (mother of Henry VII) and the House of Tudor


Edward IV, King of England 1442–1483


Edmund, Earl of Rutland 1443–1460


Elizabeth of York and the House of York-de la Pole


George, 1st Duke of Clarence 1449–1478


Richard III, King of England 1452–1485





















































Edward, Prince of Wales 1453–1471


Elizabeth of York (m. Henry VII) and the House of Tudor


Edward V, King of England 1470–?


Richard, 1st Duke of York 1473–?


Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury and the House of Pole


Edward, 17th Earl of Warwick 1475–1499


Edward, Prince of Wales 1473–1484

List of members of the House of Plantagenet
House of Plantagenet
(all male and some significant females)

Angevins[119] Henry II of England, 1133–1189, had 5 sons;

1. William IX, Count of Poitiers, 1153–1156, died in infancy 2. Henry the Young King, 1155–1183, died without issue 3. Richard I of England, 1157–1199, died without legitimate issue 4. Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany, 1158–1186, had 1 son;

A. Arthur I, Duke of Brittany, 1187–1203, died without issue

5. John of England, 1167–1216, had 2 sons;


A. Henry III of England, 1207–1272, had 6 sons;

I. Edward I of England, 1239–1307, had 6 sons.

a. John of England, 1266–1271, died young b. Henry of England, 1267–1274, died young c. Alphonso, Earl of Chester, 1273–1284, died young d. Edward II of England, 1284–1327, had 2 sons;

i. Edward III of England, 1312–1377, had 8 sons;

1. Edward, the Black Prince, 1330–1376, had 2 sons;

A. Edward, 1365–1372, died young B. Richard II
Richard II
of England, 1367–1400, died without issue

2. William of Hatfield, 1337–1337, died in infancy 3. Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, 1338–1368, 1 daughter.[121]

A. Philippa, 5th Countess of Ulster, 1355–1381, married Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March, 2 sons and 2 daughters

I Elizabeth Mortimer, 1371–1417 married Henry Percy (Hotspur), 1 son, 2 daughter

To the Earls of Northumberland[122]

II Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, 1373–1398, married Eleanor daughter of Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent
Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent
and Alice Holland, Countess of Kent granddaughter of Eleanor of Lancaster

a. Anne de Mortimer, 1373–1399, married Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge (see below) and it is through her descent from Lionel that the House of York
House of York
claimed precedence over the House of Lancaster. To the House of York[123] b. Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, 1391–1425, heir presumptive to Richard II, no descendents

6. Thomas of England, 1347–1348, died in infancy 7. William of Windsor, 1348–1348, died in infancy 8. Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, 1355–1397, had 1 son;

A. Humphrey Plantagenet, 2nd Earl of Buckingham, 1381–1399, died without issue

ii. John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall, 1316–1336, died without issue

e. Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, 1300–1338, had 2 sons;

i. Edward of Norfolk, 1320–1334, died young ii. John Plantagenet, 1328–1362, died without issue

f. Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, 1301–1330, had 2 sons;

i. Edmund Plantagenet, 2nd Earl of Kent, 1326–1331, died young ii. John Plantagenet, 3rd Earl of Kent, 1330–1352, died without issue

II. Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, 1245–1296, had 3 sons;

a. Thomas Plantagenet, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, 1278–1322, died without issue b. Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, 1281–1345, had 1 son;

i. Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, 1310–1361, died without male issue, 2 daughters

Maud, Countess of Leicester, 1339–1362, died without issue Blanche of Lancaster, married John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
and had 1 son and two daughters

To House of Lancaster

c. John of Beaufort, Lord of Beaufort, 1286–1327, died without issue

III. Richard of England, 1247–1256, died young IV. John of England, 1250–1256, died young V. William of England, 1251–1256, died young VI. Henry of England, 1256–1257, died young

B. Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall, 1209–1272, had 5 sons;

I. John of Cornwall, 1232–1233, died in infancy II. Henry of Almain, 1235–1271, died without issue III. Nicholas of Cornwall, 1240–1240, died in infancy IV. Richard of Cornwall, 1246–1246, died in infancy V. Edmund, 2nd Earl of Cornwall, 1249–1300, died without issue

House of Lancaster[124]

4. John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, 1340–1399, had 4 sons;

A. John of Lancaster, 1362–1365, died in infancy B. Edward Plantagenet, 1365–1368, died in infancy C. John Plantagenet, 1366–1367, died in infancy D. Henry IV of England, 1366–1413, had 5 sons;

I. Edward Plantagenet, 1382–1382, died in infancy II. Henry V of England, 1387–1422, had 1 son;

a. Henry VI of England, 1421–1471, had 1 son;

i. Edward of Westminster, 1453–1471, died without issue

III. Thomas, Duke of Clarence, 1388–1421, died without issue IV. John, Duke of Bedford, 1389–1435, died without issue V. Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, 1390–1447, died without male issue

E. John, 1374–1375, died in infancy

House of Beaufort
House of Beaufort
(illegitimate branch of House of Lancaster)[125]

F. John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, 1373–1410, illegitimate, had 4 sons;

I. Henry Beaufort, 2nd Earl of Somerset, 1401–1418, died without issue II. John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, 1403–1444, died without male issue

a. Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby
Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby
1430–1509, married Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, 1 son

i. Henry VII of England
married Elizabeth of York To the House of Tudor

III. Thomas Beaufort, Count of Perche, 1405–1431, died without issue IV. Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset, 1406–1455, had 4 sons;

a. Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of Somerset, 1436–1464, had 1 son;

i. Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester,1460–1526, illegitimate, had 1 son;

1. Henry Somerset, 2nd Earl of Worcester, 1496–1549, had 4 sons;

A. William Somerset, 3rd Earl of Worcester, 1526–1589, had 1 son;

I. Edward Somerset, 4th Earl of Worcester, 1568– 1628, had 8 sons;

B. Francis Somerset C. Charles Somerset D. Thomas Somerset

b. Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset, 1439–1471, died without issue c. John Beaufort, Earl of Dorset, 1455–1471, died without issue g. Thomas Beaufort, 1455–1463, died young

G. Cardinal Henry Beaufort
Henry Beaufort
Bishop of Winchester, 1375–1447, died without issue H. Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, 1377–1427, had 1 son;

I. Henry Beaufort, died young

House of York[126]

5. Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1341–1402, had 2 sons;

A. Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York, 1373–1415, died without issue B. Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, 1375–1415, had 1 son;

I. Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, 1411–1460, had 8 sons;

a. Henry of York, 1441–1441, died in infancy b. Edward IV of England, 1442–1483, had 3 sons and 7 daughters;

i. Edward V of England, 1470–?, died without issue ii. Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, 1473–?, died without issue iii. George Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford, 1477–1479, died young iv. Elizabeth of York
Elizabeth of York
married Henry VII of England, 4 sons and 4 daughters

To the House of Tudor

c. Edmund, Earl of Rutland, 1443–1460, died without issue d. William of York, 1447–1447, died in infancy e. John of York, 1448–1448, died in infancy f. George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, 1449–1478, had 2 sons and 2 daughters;

i. Edward Plantagenet, 17th Earl of Warwick, 1475–1499, died without issue ii. Richard of York, 1476–1477, died in infancy iii. Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, 1473–1541, considered by some to be the last of the Plantagenets, had 4 sons and one daughter, considered the source of one of the Alternative successions of the English crown.

A. Henry Pole, 1st Baron Montagu

To the Earl of Huntingdon, Marquess of Hastings
Marquess of Hastings
and Earl of Loudoun

g. Thomas of York, 1451–1451, died in infancy h. Richard III of England, 1452–1485, had 1 son;

i. Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales, 1473–1484, died young


^ The Plantagenet name is spelt in English sources in several ways, such as Plantaganet, Plantagenett, Plantagenette, Plantaginet, Plantagynett, etc. ^ For instance, David Crouch in William Marshal: Court, Career, and Chivalry in the Angevin Empire, 1147–1219 (Longman, 1990); Ralph V. Turner and Richard Heiser in The Reign of Richard Lionheart: Ruler of The Angevin Empire, 1189–1199 (Routledge, 2000)


^ Plant 2007 ^ Wagner 2001, p. 206 ^ Keefe 2008 ^ "Angevin". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ BlockmansHoppenbrouwers 2014, p. 173 ^ Gillingham 2007a, pp. 15–23 ^ Power 2007, pp. 85–86 ^ Warren 1991, pp. 228–229 ^ Gillingham 2001, pp. 2–5 ^ Davies 1997, p. 190 ^ Gillingham 2001, p. 7 ^ Davies 1999, p. 309. ^ a b Gillingham 2001, pp. 11–12 ^ Schama 2000, p. 117 ^ Gillingham 2001, p. 15 ^ Gillingham 2001, pp. 15–18 ^ Gillingham 2001, p. 18 ^ Warren 1973, pp. 45–46 ^ Gillingham 2001, p. 21 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 60–61 ^ Gillingham 2001, pp. 19–20 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 59–74 ^ Norgate 2004b ^ Weir 2008, pp. 66–67 ^ Weir 2008, p. 63 ^ Weir 2008, p. 64 ^ a b Weir 2008, pp. 64–65 ^ a b Strickland 2010 ^ Gillingham 2001, p. 23 ^ Schama 2000, p. 142 ^ Duggan, Anne. "Laudabiliter: a new interpretation by Professor Anne Duggan". History Ireland. Retrieved 30 January 2016.  ^ Gillingham 2001, pp. 28–29 ^ Gillingham 2001, pp. 34–36 ^ Gillingham 2001, p. 40 ^ Lovatt 2007 ^ Runciman 1987, p. 53 ^ Runciman 1987, p. 75 ^ Riley-Smith 1987, p. 113 ^ Gillingham 1985, pp. 17–23 ^ Gillingham 2009 ^ a b c d e Gillingham 2010 ^ Gillingham 2001, p. 91 ^ a b c d e Ridgeway 2010 ^ Barratt 2003, pp. 75–100 ^ TurnerHeiser 2014, p. 48 ^ Gillingham 2001, p. 103 ^ G. Seabourne. "Eleanor of Brittany
and her Treatment by King John and Henry III", Nottingham Medieval Studies, Vol. LI (2007), pp. 73-110. ^ Weir 2008, p. 74 ^ "The official website of the British Monarchy". The Angevins. The Royal Household. Retrieved 20 February 2015.  ^ Weir 2008, pp. 67–74 ^ Vincent 2008 ^ Stringer 2004 ^ Abulafia 2004 ^ Hallam 2004 ^ Weir 2008, p. 73 ^ Norgate 2004 ^ Carpenter 2007 ^ Schama 2000, p. 172 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 74–81 ^ Weir 2008, p. 203 ^ Weir 2008, p. 75 ^ Mortimer
2008, p. 183 ^ Maddicott 2008 ^ Schama 2000, p. 181 ^ a b c d e f g Prestwich 2008 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 82–86 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 86–90 ^ McKisack 1959, pp. 4–6 ^ a b c d e f Phillips 2008 ^ a b Hamilton 2008 ^ Waugh 2006 ^ Schama 2000, p. 220 ^ Weir 2008, p. 92 ^ a b c d e f g Ormrod 2008 ^ a b c Barber 2008 ^ a b Walker 2008 ^ Goodman 2004 ^ Weir 2008, p. 93 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 92–117 ^ a b c d Tuck 2009 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 79–80 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 124–130 ^ Schama 2000, p. 264 ^ a b BrownSummerson 2010 ^ a b Mortimer
2003, p. 353 ^ Schama 2000, p. 265 ^ Harriss 2011 ^ Davies 1977, p. 19 ^ Hicks 2012, p. 50 ^ Hatcher 2002, p. 246 ^ Hicks 2012, p. 51 ^ Davies 1977, p. 68 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 93–114 ^ Harriss 2012 ^ a b c d e Watts 2011 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 134–139 ^ "Family tree". University of Leicester. 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2015.  ^ Horrox 2011 ^ Griffiths 2015 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 139–145 ^ Horrox 2013 ^ Weir 2008, p. 145 ^ Gunn 2009 ^ Anon 2004 ^ Weir 2008, p. 148 ^ Starkey 2009, p. 305 ^ Jones 2008 ^ Horrox 2004 ^ Carpenter 2008 ^ Cunningham 2008 ^ Cunningham 2004a ^ a b Pierce 2015 ^ Cooper 2008 ^ Davies 2008 ^ Kelsey 2008 ^ Public Records Office 1870 ^ Bent 1887, p. 166 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 57–145 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 59–66 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 67–119 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 96–97 ^ Weir 2008, p. 96 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 112–114 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 124–134 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 103–111 ^ Weir 2008, pp. 134–145


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A History of Britain – At the Edge of the world. BBC. ISBN 0-563-53483-4.  Strickland, Matthew (2010). "Longespée, William (I), third earl of Salisbury (b. in or before 1167, d. 1226)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/16983.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Stringer, Keith (2004). "Joan (1210–1238)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14820.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Tuck, Anthony (2009). " Richard II
Richard II
(1367–1400)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/23499.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Turner, Ralph V; Heiser, Richard (2014). The Reign of Richard Lionheart: Ruler of The Angevin Empire, 1189–1199. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-89042-3.  Vincent, Nicholas (2008). "Richard, first earl of Cornwall and king of Germany (1209–1272)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/23501.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Wagner, John (2001). Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-358-3.  Walker, Simon (2008). "John, duke of Aquitaine
and duke of Lancaster, styled king of Castile and León (1340–1399)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14843.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Warren, W. L. (1973). Henry II. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-02282-9. Retrieved 20 October 2015.  Warren, W. L. (1991). King John. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-413-45520-3. Retrieved 20 February 2015.  Watts, John (2011). "Richard of York, third duke of York (1411–1460)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/23503.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Waugh, Scott L. (2006). "Henry of Lancaster, third earl of Lancaster and third earl of Leicester (c.1280–1345))". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12959.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Weir, Alison (2008). Britain's Royal Families. Vintage. ISBN 978-0-09-953973-5. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Plantagenet at Wikimedia Commons

Royal house
Royal house
— House of Plantagenet Cadet branch of the Angevins Deposition: 1485

Preceded by House of Blois Ruling House of England Angevins (until 1214) House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
(1399–1461) House of York
House of York
(1461–1485) 1154–1485 Succeeded by House of Tudor

Preceded by House of Penthièvre Ruling House of Brittany 1181–1203 Succeeded by House of Thouars

Preceded by House of Ingelger Ruling House of Anjou until 1214 Succeeded by House of Anjou

v t e

 Kingdom of England


Timeline Anglo-Saxon England


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in the Late Middle Ages Wars of the Roses Tudor period Stuart period English Renaissance English Reformation Elizabethan era Union of the Crowns Overseas possessions Gunpowder Plot Jacobean era Civil War Interregnum

Commonwealth of England The Protectorate

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Royal Houses

Wessex Knýtlinga Normandy Angevin Plantagenet Lancaster York Tudor Stuart Orange-Nassau

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House of Lords House of Commons


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Acts of Parliament: to 1483 1485–1601 1603–1641 1642–1660 1660–1699 1700–1706


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v t e

Royal houses of Europe

Nordic countries


Knýtlinga Fairhair Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg


Bjelbo Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov


Fairhair Knýtlinga Hardrada Gille Sverre Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg


Munsö Stenkil Sverker Eric Bjelbo Estridsen Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse-Kassel Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte


Fairhair Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Britain and Ireland


Mercia Wuffing Kent Sussex Essex Bernicia Deira Northumbria Uí Ímair Wessex Knýtlinga Normandy Angevin Plantagenet Lancaster York Tudor


Fergus Óengus Strathclyde Mann and the Isles Alpin Northumbria Bernicia Uí Ímair Galloway Dunkeld Sverre Balliol Bruce Stuart


Dinefwr Aberffraw Gwynedd Mathrafal Cunedda Tudor


Ulaid Dál Riata Érainn Corcu Loígde Laigin Connachta Uí Néill Ó Gallchobhair Ó Domhnail Ó Néill Ó Máel Sechlainn Mac Murchada Ó Briain Mac Lochlainn Ó Conchobhair

Gaelic Ireland

Laigin Síl Conairi Ulaid Dáirine Osraige Cruthin Dál nAraidi Connachta Uí Fiachrach Uí Briúin Uí Néill Síl nÁedo Sláine Clann Cholmáin Eóganachta Chaisil Glendamnach Raithlind Uí Dúnlainge Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
(Norse) Uí Ceinnselaig Dál gCais Ó Briain Mac Carthaig Ó Conchobhair Ó Ruairc De Burgh (Norman) FitzGerald (Norman) Ó Domhnaill Ó Néill

Great Britain

Stuart Orange-Nassau Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Windsor

Eastern Europe


Angevin Progon Arianiti Thopia Kastrioti Dukagjini Wied Zogu Ottoman Savoy


Orontid Artaxiad Arsacid Bagratid Artsruni Rubenids Hethumids Lusignan Savoy


Boričević Kulinić Kotromanić Kosača Ottoman Habsburg-Lorraine


Dulo Krum Cometopuli Asen Smilets Terter Shishman Sratsimir Battenberg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Trpimirović Domagojević Svačić Ottoman Luxembourg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine Bonaparte Savoy (disputed)


Plantagenet Lusignan Ottoman Savoy


Pharnavazid Artaxiad Arsacid Ottoman Chosroid Bagrationi


Argead Macedonian Doukas Komnenos Angelos Laskaris Palaiologos Ottoman Wittelsbach Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg


Mindaugas Gediminids Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov


Dragoș (Drăgoșești) Rossetti Bogdan-Muşat Movilești Drăculeşti Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Racoviță Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Basarab


Vojislavljević Balšić Ottoman Crnojević Petrović-Njegoš


House of Basarab Rossetti Bogdan-Mușat Movilești Drăculești Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Romanov Racoviță Ottoman Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Romania/Royal family


Rurik Borjigin Godunov Shuysky Vasa Romanov


Vlastimirović Vukanović Nemanjić Lazarević Mrnjavčević Dejanović Branković Ottoman Obrenović Karađorđević




Rurikids Piast Gediminids Olshanski Olelkovich Giray Romanov Habsburg-Lorraine

1 Transcontinental country. 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia
but having socio-political connections with Europe.

Western Europe


Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Merovingian Carolingian Capet Valois Bourbon Bonaparte Orléans


Aleramici Appiani Bonaparte Bourbon-Parma Bourbon-Two Sicilies Carolingian Della Rovere Este Farnese Flavian Gonzaga Grimaldi Habsburg Julio-Claudian Malatesta Malaspina Medici Montefeltro Nerva–Antonine Ordelaffi Orsini Palaiologos Pallavicini Savoy Severan Sforza Visconti


Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Bourbon-Parma




Bonaparte Orange-Nassau (Mecklenburg) (Lippe) (Amsberg)


Vímara Peres Burgundy Aviz Habsburg Spanish Braganza

Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Asturias Barcelona Jiménez Burgundy Champagne Capet Évreux Trastámara Habsburg Bourbon

Bonaparte Savoy

Central Europe


Babenberg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine


Přemyslid Piast Luxembourg Jagiellon Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine


Ascania Carolingian Conradines Ottonian Luitpolding Salian Süpplingenburg Hohenstaufen Welf Habsburg Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Nassau Luxembourg Wittelsbach Schwarzburg Brunswick-Lüneburg House of Pomerania Hohenzollern Württemberg Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Mecklenburg Vasa Palatine Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov Bonaparte Wettin Lippe Zähringen


Árpád Přemyslid Wittelsbach Angevin Luxembourg Hunyadi Jagiellon Szapolyai Ottoman Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine




Piast Přemyslid Samborides Griffins Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski

After partitions:

Kingdom of Poland Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Wettin Duchy of Warsaw Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk Hohenzollern Duchy of Poznań

v t e

House of Plantagenet

Henry II of England

Wife: Eleanor of Aquitaine

William IX, Count of Poitiers Henry the Young King Richard I of England Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany Matilda of England, Duchess of Saxony Eleanor of England, Queen of Castile Joan of England, Queen of Sicily John, King of England

Illegitimate: William de Longespée, Earl of Salisbury Geoffrey (archbishop of York)

Henry the Young King

Wife: Margaret of France, Queen of England
and Hungary

William Plantagenet
William Plantagenet
(died in infancy)

Richard I of England

Wife: Berengaria of Navarre

Illegitimate: Philip of Cognac

John, King of England

Wife: Isabella of Angoulême

Henry III of England Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall Joan of England, Queen of Scotland Isabella of England Eleanor of Leicester

Illegitimate: Joan, Lady of Wales Richard FitzRoy Oliver FitzRoy Geoffrey FitzRoy John FitzRoy Henry FitzRoy

Osbert Gifford Eudes FitzRoy Bartholomew FitzRoy Maud FitzRoy Isabel FitzRoy Philip FitzRoy William de Forz

Henry III of England

Wife: Eleanor of Provence

Edward I of England Margaret of England Beatrice of England Edmund Crouchback Katherine of England

Edward I of England

Wives: Eleanor of Castile Margaret of France, Queen of England

Eleanor of England, Countess of Bar Joan, Countess of Hertford and Gloucester Alphonso, Earl of Chester Margaret of England, Duchess of Brabant Mary of Woodstock Elizabeth of Rhuddlan Edward II of England Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent

Edward II of England

Wife: Isabella of France

Edward III of England John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall Eleanor of Woodstock Joan of the Tower

Edward III of England

Wife: Philippa of Hainault

Edward the Black Prince Isabella de Coucy Joan of England
(1335–1348) Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York Mary of Waltham Margaret, Countess of Pembroke Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester

Richard II
Richard II
of England

Wives: Anne of Bohemia Isabella of Valois

Henry IV of England

Wives: Mary de Bohun Joan of Navarre, Queen of England

Henry V of England Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester Blanche of England Philippa of England

Henry V of England

Wife: Catherine of Valois

Henry VI of England

Henry VI of England

Wife: Margaret of Anjou

Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales

Edward IV of England

Wife: Elizabeth Woodville

Elizabeth of York Mary of York Cecily of York Edward V of England Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York Anne of York, Lady Howard Catherine of York Bridget of York

Illegitimate: Elizabeth Arthur Plantagenet, 1st Viscount Lisle Grace Mary John Tuchet, 6th Baron Audley unnamed

Edward V of England

no consort or issue

Richard III of England

Wife: Anne Neville

Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales

Illegitimate: John of Gloucester Katherine, Countess of Pembroke Richard of Eastw