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Holy Roman Emperor King of the Romans King of Bohemia King of Hungary King of Poland
King of Poland
(titular) Duke of Luxembourg Duke of Görlitz Margrave of Brandenburg Margrave of Moravia Count of Luxembourg Count of Tyrol Count of Ligny Count of Saint-Pol Count of Conversano Count of Marle Count of Soissons Lord of Beaurevoir Count of Brienne

Dissolution 1437 (Senior branch); 1415 (Ligny); 1482 (Saint-Pol); 1608–16 (Brienne);[1]

Cadet branches

House of Ligny House of Saint-Pol House of Brienne

The House of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(Czech: Lucemburkové) was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans
King of the Romans
and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia (Čeští králové, König von Böhmen) and Hungary. Their rule over the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was twice interrupted by the rival House of Wittelsbach.

Contents

1 History 2 Notable members 3 Genealogy

3.1 House of Limburg–Arlon 3.2 Early Luxembourg
Luxembourg
counts 3.3 Ancestors

4 See also 5 References

History[edit] The Luxembourg
Luxembourg
line was initially a cadet branch of the ducal House of Limburg–Arlon, when in 1247 Henry, younger son of Duke Waleran III of Limburg inherited the County of Luxembourg
County of Luxembourg
upon the death of his mother Countess Ermesinde, a scion of the House of Namur. Her father, Count Henry IV of Luxembourg, was related on his mother's side to the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty
Ardennes-Verdun dynasty
(also called the elder House of Luxembourg),[citation needed] which had ruled the county since the late 10th century.

Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
under Charles IV   Habsburg   Luxembourg   Wittelsbach

Count Henry V's grandson Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
upon the death of his father Henry VI at the 1288 Battle of Worringen, was elected Rex Romanorum in 1308. The election was necessary after the Habsburg king Albert I of Germany
Albert I of Germany
had been murdered, and Henry, backed by his brother Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, prevailed against Charles, Count of Valois. Henry arranged the marriage of his son John with the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia in 1310, through whom the House of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
acquired the Kingdom of Bohemia, enabling that family to compete more effectively for power with the Habsburg and Wittelsbach dynasties. One year after being crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome, Henry VII, still on campaign in Italy, died in 1313. The prince-electors, perturbed by the rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, and the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria. John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and gradually vassalized the Piast dukes of adjacent Silesia from 1327 until 1335. His son Charles IV, in 1346 mounted the Imperial throne. His Golden Bull of 1356
Golden Bull of 1356
served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant and Limburg in the west, but also the former March of Lusatia
March of Lusatia
and even the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Margraviate of Brandenburg
in 1373 under the Kingdom of Bohemia. The family's decline began under Charles' son King Wenceslaus, deposed by the prince-electors in 1400 who chose the Wittelsbach Elector Palatine Rupert. In 1410 rule was assumed by Wenceslaus' brother Sigismund, who once again stabilized the rule of the Luxembourgs and even contributed to end the Western Schism
Western Schism
in 1417; however, with his death in 1437, the senior branch of the dynasty became extinct. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, the Habsburg archduke Albert V of Austria. The Habsburgs finally prevailed as Luxembourg
Luxembourg
heirs, ruling the Empire until the extinction of their senior branch upon the death of Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
in 1780.

Notable members[edit]

Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
and King of Bohemia

Henry VII (1275–1313) — elected King of the Romans
King of the Romans
in 1308 succeeding assassinated Albert of Habsburg, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1312. He was succeeded by Louis IV from the House of Wittelsbach.

Baldwin — brother of Henry, Prince-Archbishop of Trier and thereby Archchancellor
Archchancellor
of Burgundy 1307–54.

John the Blind (1296–1346) — only son of Henry. He was enfeoffed with Bohemia by his father in 1310, married the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia and deposed the Bohemian king Henry the Carinthian. Charles IV (1316–78) — eldest son of John. He was elected King of the Romans in opposition to Louis IV in 1346 and succeeded his father as king of Bohemia in the same year, crowned Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
in 1355.

John Henry, Margrave of Moravia
John Henry, Margrave of Moravia
— younger brother of Charles. He married Margaret, Countess of Tyrol, daughter of Henry the Carinthian in 1330.

Jobst of Moravia
Jobst of Moravia
(1351–1411) — eldest son of John Henry. Margrave of Brandenburg 1388–1411, elected King of the Romans
King of the Romans
in 1410.

Wenceslaus (1361–1419) — eldest surviving son of Charles. As Margrave of Brandenburg from 1373 to 1378, he was elected King of the Romans in 1376 and succeeded his father as King of Bohemia in 1378. Declared deposed by the prince-electors in 1400, he was succeeded by Rupert of Wittelsbach. Sigismund (1368–1437) — younger son of Charles. Margrave of Brandenburg from 1378 to 1388, he was King of Hungary
King of Hungary
from 1387 in right of his wife Mary of Anjou, and was elected King of the Romans
King of the Romans
in 1411,[2] succeeding his brother as King of Bohemia in 1419, being crowned Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
in 1433 yet he left no heirs male. Jacquetta of Luxembourg (1415/1416-1472) — Mother of Queen Consort, Elizabeth Woodville
Elizabeth Woodville
and subsequent ancestress of all English and British monarchs since Henry VIII
Henry VIII
including the current monarch, Elizabeth II.

Elizabeth of Luxembourg, only child of Emperor Sigismund, married Archduke Albert V of Austria from the Albertinian line of the House of Habsburg in 1422, becoming queen consort of Hungary from 1437 as well as Queen of the Romans and queen consort of Bohemia from 1438 until Albert's death in 1439: she was the heiress who conveyed the major portion of the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
inheritance to the Habsburgs and, later, the Jagiellons through her daughter Elisabeth of Austria.

According to the Salic law, the succession could have been disputed, in which case it would have passed collaterally to the cadet branch of Ligny. That branch descended from a younger son of Henry V, and was headed by Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, before he was executed for treason by Louis XI of France.[3] Genealogy[edit] See also: German monarchs' family tree

House of Limburg–Arlon[edit]

 

Waleran I († 1082) Count of Limburg │ Henry I (1059 † 1119) Count of Limburg │ Waleran II (1085 † 1139) Duke of Limburg │ Henry II (1111 † 1167) Duke of Limburg │ Henry III (1140 † 1221)

Duke of Limburg │ Waleran III (1180 † 1226)

Duke of Limburg │

│ Henry IV († 1247)

Duke of Limburg and Count of Berg │ │

│ Waleran († 1242)

Lord of Fauquemont │ Henry V (1217 † 1281)

Count of Luxembourg │ │ │ Gerard († 1276)

Count of Durbuy

│ Adolf IV (1220 † 1259)

Count of Berg │ │ Waleran IV († 1279)

Duke of Limburg │ │ Henry VI (1250 † 1288)

Count of Luxembourg │ │ Waleran I (1252 † 1288)

Lord of Ligny │

│ Adolf V († 1296)

Count of Berg │ William I († 1308)

Count of Berg │ Henry of Windeck († 1292) │ │ │ │ │ │ Ermengarde († 1283)

x Reginald I of Guelders │ Henry VII (1275 † 1313)

Holy Roman Emperor │ │ Waleran II (1275 † 1354)

Lord of Ligny │

Adolf VI († 1348)

Count of Berg

John the Blind (1296 † 1346)

King of Bohemia │ John I (1300 † 1364)

Lord of Ligny │

│ Charles IV (1316 † 1378)

Holy Roman Emperor King of Bohemia │ │ John Henry (1322 † 1372)

Margrave of Moravia │ │ Wenceslaus I (1337 † 1383)

Duke of Luxembourg │ Guy (1340 † 1371)

Count of Ligny Count of Saint-Pol │

│ Wenceslaus IV (1361 † 1419)

King of the Romans King of Bohemia │ Sigismund (1368 † 1437)

Holy Roman Emperor King of Bohemia and Hungary │ │ John (1370 † 1396)

Duke of Görlitz │ │ │ │ │ Jobst (1351 † 1411)

holy roman emperor margrave of Moravia and Brandenburg

│ Waleran III (1356 † 1415)

Count of Ligny and of Saint-Pol │ John (1370 † 1397)

Lord of Beauvoir Count of Brienne │ │ │

│ Elizabeth of Luxembourg (1409 † 1442) X Albert II of Habsburg │ Elisabeth (1390 † 1453)

Duchess of Luxembourg, sold duchy to the Dukes of Burgundy

│ Peter (1390 † 1433)

Count of Saint-Pol │ │ │

│ John II (1392 † 1441)

Count of Ligny

│ Louis (1418 † 1475)

Count of Saint-Pol │ │ │ Peter II († 1482)

Count of Saint-Pol

│ Thibaud († 1477)

Lord of Fiennes, Count of Brienne, Bishop of Le Mans │ Jacques († 1487)

Lord of Fiennes and Gavre

Early Luxembourg
Luxembourg
counts[edit] The first instance of the house of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
seems to be:

 

Cunigunda of Montjoie │ │

Waleran III Duke of Limburg │ │

Ermesinde Countess of Luxembourg │

│ Henry IV Duke of Limburg and Count of Berg

│ Waleran Lord of Fauquemont

│ Henry V Count of Luxembourg

│ Gerard Count of Durbuy

│ Adolphe IV Count of Berg

│ Waleran IV Duke of Limburg

│ Henry VI Count of Luxembourg

│ Waleran I Lord of Ligny

Ancestors[edit] Two houses descended from the women of the counts of Luxembourg, the Counts of Loon and the Counts of Grandpré, wear a shield barry. Both families had a place in relation to the succession of the House of Ardennes. Indeed, the Count of Grandpré was the next heir of Conrad II of Luxembourg, the last representative of the Ardennes dynasty, but Emperor Frederick Barbarossa preferred that Luxembourg
Luxembourg
was held by a lord Germanic rather than French and attributed the county to Henry, son of Conrad's aunt Ermesinde and Count Godfrey I of Namur. The Counts of Loon are also in position to claim the inheritance Luxembourg, albeit weaker position:

 

Conrad I (1040 † 1086) Count of Luxembourg │

│ Henry III († 1086) Count of Luxembourg

│ William (1081 † 1131) Count of Luxembourg X 1105 Matilda of Northeim │

│ Ermesinde (1075 † 1143) X 1) Albert II, Count of Dagsburg X 2) Godfrey I, Count of Namur │

│ Conrad II († 1136) Count of Luxembourg s.p.

│ Liutgarde (1120 † 1170) X Henri II (1125 † 1211) Counts of Grandpré

│ Hugh VII1 († 1137) Count of Dagsburg │ three children died without issue

│ Mathilde1 X Folmar V († 1145) Count of Metz │

│ Henri IV² (1112 † 1196) Count of Namur and of Luxembourg │ Ermesinde (1186 † 1247) X 1) Theobald I, Count of Bar X 2) Waleran III, Duke of Limburg │ Henry V (1216 † 1284) Count of Luxembourg

│ two sons died without issue

│ Agnès X Louis I, Count of LoonLouis I (1110 † 1171) Counts of Loon

       

See also[edit]

Jacquetta of Luxembourg

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Luxemburg dynasty.

^ http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Luxembourg-Saint-Pol.pdf ^ "Sigismund (Holy Roman emperor) - Encyclopædia Britannica". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2014-03-29.  ^ Cave, Roy; Coulson, Herbert (1965). A Source Book for Medieval Economic History. New York: Biblo and Tannen. p. 336. 

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