LORRAINE: 1738 – Francis I ceded title in accordance with the Treaty of Vienna , gaining Tuscany
Holy Roman Empire, Luxembourg, Brabant, and Flanders: 1805 – Francis II & I ceded titles in accordance with the Peace of Pressburg
PARMA: 1847 – Marie Louise died without issue
TUSCANY: 1859 – Leopold II abdicated due to pressure from Italian nationalists
1867 – Maximilian I executed by Liberal revolutionaries AUSTRIA,
HUNGARY AND BOHEMIA:
1918 – Charles I at the turn of the 10th century they were Counts
of Metz and ruled a set of lordships in
What is more securely demonstrated is that in 1048 Emperor Henry III
gave the Duchy of
HOUSES VAUDEMONT AND GUISE
After a brief interlude of 1453–1473, when the duchy passed in right of Charles's daughter to her husband John of Calabria , a Capetian , Lorraine reverted to the House of Vaudemont, a junior branch of House of Lorraine, in the person of René II who later added to his titles that of Duke of Bar .
French Wars of Religion
Under the Bourbon monarchy the remaining branch of the House of Guise, headed by the duc d' Elbeuf , remained part of the highest ranks of French aristocracy, while the senior branch of the House of Vaudemont continued to rule the independent duchies of Lorraine and Bar. Louis XIV 's imperialist ambitions (which involved the occupation of Lorraine in 1669–97) forced the dukes into a permanent alliance with his archenemies, the Holy Roman Emperors from the House of Habsburg .
HOUSE OF HABSBURG-LORRAINE
Following the failure of both
Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI
to produce a son and heir, the
Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the
throne to the latter's yet unborn daughter,
At Charles's death in 1740 the Habsburg lands passed to Maria Theresa
and Francis, who was later elected
Holy Roman Emperor
Apart from the core Habsburg dominions, including the triple crowns
of Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia , several junior branches of the
House of Habsburg-Lorraine reigned in the Italian duchies of Tuscany
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
LIST OF HEADS
The following is a list of ruling heads (after 1918 pretenders) of the house of Ardennes-Metz and its successor houses of Lorraine and Habsburg-Lorraine, from the start of securely documented genealogical history in the 11th century.
HOUSE OF METZ (ARDENNES-METZ)
* Adalbert , Duke of
Charles II died without male heir, the duchy passing to Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine , consort of Naples by marriage to Duke René of Anjou . The duchy passed to their son John II (r. 1453–1470), whose son Nicholas I (r. 1470–1473) died without male heir. The title now went to Nicholas' aunt (sister of John II) Yolande .
HOUSE OF LORRAINE
House of Lorraine
* René II, Duke of Lorraine , r. 1473–1508 * Antoine , r. 1508–1544 * Francis I , r. 1544/5 * Charles III , r. 1545–1608 (his mother Christina of Denmark served as his regent during his minority)
* Henry II (I) , r. 1608–1624 (leaving no sons, both of his daughters became Duchesses of Lorraine by marriage)
* Nicole (m. Charles IV) * Claude (m. Nicholas II)
* Francis II , (son of Charles III, duke for six days in 1625, abdicated in favour of his son)
* Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine r. 1624–1675 (briefly abdicated in favour of his brother in 1634)
* Nicholas Francis (Nicholas II) (briefly made duke during the French invasion of Lorraine in 1634)
* Charles V , r. 1675–1690 (son of Nicholas Francis) * Leopold , r. 1690–1729 * Francis (III) Stephen, Duke of Lorraine , r. 1728–1737, Holy Roman Emperor (as Francis I) r. 1745–1765
HOUSE OF HABSBURG-LORRAINE
Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
The heir of Franz Joseph,
Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria
* Blessed Charles of Austria (Charles I and IV) (1887–1922), r. 1916–1919 (dissolution of the monarchy) * Otto von Habsburg (1912–2011) * Karl von Habsburg (b. 1961) * Ferdinand Zvonimir von Habsburg , heir apparent (b. 1997)
NOTES AND REFERENCES
* ^ A B Gordon Brook-Shepherd. Uncrowned Emperor: the Life and
Times of Otto von Habsburg. Continuum International Publishing Group,
2003. ISBN 1-85285-439-1 . Pages XI, 179, 216.
* ^ A B C Cawley, Charles, Lorraine, Medieval Lands database,
Foundation for Medieval Genealogy ,, in Medieval Lands Project
* ^ See Chapter XXI.
* ^ William W. Kibler, Grover A. Zinn. Medieval France: an
Encyclopedia. Routledge, 1995. ISBN 0-8240-4444-4 . Page 561.
* ^ Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages (ed. by André Vauchez).
Routledge, 2000. ISBN 1-57958-282-6 . Page 1227.
* ^ Robert Knecht. The Valois: Kings of
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