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Coordinates : 35°40′35.5″N 139°44′40.5″E / 35.676528°N 139.744583°E / 35.676528; 139.744583

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House of Councillors 参議院 Sangiin

TYPE

TYPE Upper house

LEADERSHIP

PRESIDENT Chūichi Date , LDP (caucus: independent) Since August 1, 2016

VICE PRESIDENT Akira Gunji , DP (caucus: independent) Since August 1, 2016

OPPOSITION LEADER Renhō , DP Since September 15, 2016

STRUCTURE

SEATS 242

POLITICAL GROUPS

Party strength before 191st Diet GOVERNMENT (146) LDP (121) Kōmeitō (25)

REVISIONIST OPPOSITION (15) Initiatives (12) PJK (3)

OTHER OPPOSITION (69) DP (49) JCP (14) Energize (2) SDP (2) LP (2)

INDEPENDENTS width:1.5em; height:1.5em; margin:1px 0; border:1px solid black; background-color:#DDDDDD; color:black; font-size:100%; text-align:center;"> Government-aligned independents (3) Opposition-aligned independents (5) OSMP (1) Other independents (3)

ELECTIONS

VOTING SYSTEM Parallel voting : Single non-transferable vote (146 seats) Party-list proportional representation (96 seats) Staggered elections

LAST ELECTION July 10, 2016

MEETING PLACE

Chamber of the House of Councillors

WEBSITE

www.sangiin.go.jp

JAPAN

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of Japan
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The HOUSE OF COUNCILLORS (参議院, Sangiin) is the upper house of the National Diet of Japan
Japan
. The House of Representatives is the lower house . The House of Councillors is the successor to the pre-war House of Peers . If the two houses disagree on matters of the budget, treaties, or designation of the prime minister, the House of Representatives can insist on its decision. In other decisions, the House of Representatives can override a vote of the House of Councillors only by a two-thirds majority of members present.

The House of Councillors has 242 members who each serve six-year terms, two years longer than those of the House of Representatives. Councillors must be at least 30 years old, compared with 25 years old in the House of Representatives. The House cannot be dissolved, as only half of its membership is elected at each election. Of the 121 members subject to election each time, 73 are elected from the 47 prefectural districts (by single non-transferable vote ) and 48 are elected from a nationwide list by proportional representation with open lists .

CONTENTS

* 1 Current composition * 2 Latest election * 3 Historical notes * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links

CURRENT COMPOSITION

(as of July 5, 2017 )

Caucus (English name) (domestic name) MEMBERS

Term expires TOTAL

July 25, 2022 July 28, 2019

Liberal Democratic Party and The Party for Japanese Kokoro Jiyūminshutō・Kokoro 56 70 126

The Democratic Party and The Shin-Ryokufukai Minshintō・Shin- Ryokufūkai (~"Dem. Prog. Party, New Ryokufūkai ") 32 18 50

Komeito Kōmeitō (~"Justice/Fairness Party") 14 11 25

Japanese Communist Party Nihon Kyōsantō 6 8 14

Nippon Ishin( Japan
Japan
Innovation Party) Nippon Ishin no Kai (~" Japan
Japan
Innovation/Restoration Association") 6 5 11

Hope Coalition (Kibou) Kibō no kai (jiyū, shamin) (~"Assembly of hope (LP , SDP )") 4 2 6

Independents Club Mushozoku kurabu 0 4 4

Okinawa
Okinawa
Whirlwind Okinawa
Okinawa
no kaze (~"Wind of Okinawa") 1 1 2

Independents (Members who do not sit with a caucus, includes Pres., Vice Pres.) 2 2 4

TOTAL 121 121 242

For a list of individual members, see the List of members of the Diet of Japan
Japan
.

LATEST ELECTION

e • d Summary of the 10 July 2016 Japanese House of Councillors election results PARTY PRE-ELECTION SNTV/FPTP MAJORITARIAN D\'HONDT PROPORTIONAL SEATS WON NEW TOTAL CHANGE FROM

TOTAL NOT UP UP VOTES % SEATS VOTES % SEATS BEFORE 2013 2010

Ruling parties 135 76 59

69 145 +10 +10 +42

Liberal Democratic Party LDP 115 65 50 22,590,793 39.94 % 36 20,114,788 35.91 % 19 55 120 +5 +5 +36

Komeito K 20 11 9 4,263,422 7.54 % 7 7,572,960 13.52 % 7 14 25 +5 +5 +6

Revisionist opposition parties 10 8 2

7 15 +5 (new +15) +6 from JRP (new +15)

Initiatives from Osaka

7 5 2 3,303,419 5.84 % 3 5,153,584 9.20 % 4 7 12 +5 (new +12) (new +12)

Party for Japanese Kokoro

3 3 0 535,517 0.95 % 0 734,024 1.31 % 0 0 3 0 (new +3) (new +3) 0 from SPJ

Anti-revisionist opposition parties (joint nominations in single-member districts) 79 27 52

40 67 -12 n/a n/a

Democratic Party DP 62 17 45 14,215,956 25.14 % 21 11,751,015 20.98 % 11 32 49 -13 (new +49) -10 from DPJ (new +49) -57 from DPJ

Japanese Communist Party JCP 11 8 3 4,103,514 7.26 % 1 6,016,195 10.74 % 5 6 14 +3 +3 +8

People\'s Life Party PLP 3 1 2 not contested independently 1,067,301 1.91 % 1 1 2 -1 -1 (new +2)

Social Democratic Party SDP 3 1 2 289,899 0.51 % 0 1,536,239 2.74 % 1 1 2 -1 -1 -2

New Renaissance Party NRP 2 0 2 60,431 0.11 % 0 580,653 1.04 % 0 0 0 -2 -1 -1

Happiness Realization Party HRP 0 0 0 963,585 1.70 % 0 366,815 0.65 % 0 0 0 0 0 -1

Seitō shiji nashi ("no party supported")

0 0 0 127,367 0.23 % 0 647,071 1.16 % 0 0 0 0 (new 0) (new 0)

Angry voice of the people

0 0 0 82,357 0.15 % 0 466,706 0.83 % 0 0 0 0 (new 0) (new 0)

Others

0 0 0 279,681 0.49 % 0 not contested 0 0 n/a n/a n/a

Assembly to Energize Japan
Japan
AEJ 3 2 1 not contested 0 2 -1 (new +2) -16 from YP (new +2) -9 from YP

Okinawa Socialist Mass Party OSMP 1 1 0 not contested 0 1 0 0 0

Independents (incl. some joint opposition-endorsed "independents" this resulted in ten seats being removed (five each at the 2001 and 2004 elections), bringing the total number of seats to 242. Further reforms to address malapportinoment took effect in 2007 and 2016, but did not change the total number of members in the house.

From 1947 to 1983, the House had 100 seats allocated to a national block (全国区, zenkoku-ku), of which fifty seats were allocated in each election. It was originally intended to give nationally prominent figures a route to the House without going through local electioneering processes. Some national political figures, such as feminists Shidzue Katō and Fusae Ichikawa and former Imperial Army general Kazushige Ugaki , were elected through the block, along with a number of celebrities such as comedian Yukio Aoshima (later Governor of Tokyo), journalist Hideo Den and actress Yūko Mochizuki . Shi