The Info List - House Of Bourbon

Bourbons of Spain

House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies House of Bourbon-Parma

House of Orléans

House of Orléans-Braganza House of Orléans-Galliera

House of Condé (extinct)

House of Conti House of Soissons

The House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(English: /ˈbɔːrbən/; French: [buʁbɔ̃]) is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbonic kings first ruled France and Navarre
in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain
and Luxembourg
currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon. The royal Bourbons originated in 1272 when the heiress of the lordship of Bourbon married the youngest son of King Louis IX.[1] The house continued for three centuries as a cadet branch, while more senior Capetians ruled France, until Henry IV became the first Bourbon king of France
in 1589.[1] Bourbon monarchs then united to France
the small kingdom of Navarre, which Henry's father had acquired by marriage in 1555, ruling both until the 1792 overthrow of the monarchy during the French Revolution. Restored briefly in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, the senior line of the Bourbons was finally overthrown in the July Revolution
July Revolution
of 1830. A cadet Bourbon branch, the House of Orléans, then ruled for 18 years (1830–1848), until it too was overthrown. The Princes de Condé were a cadet branch of the Bourbons descended from an uncle of Henry IV, and the Princes de Conti were a cadet branch of the Condé. Both houses were prominent French noble families well known for their participation in French affairs, even during exile in the French Revolution, until their respective extinctions in 1830 and 1814. When the Bourbons inherited the strongest claim to the Spanish throne, the claim was passed to a cadet Bourbon prince, a grandson of Louis XIV of France, who became Philip V of Spain.[1] Permanent separation of the French and Spanish thrones was secured when France
and Spain ratified Philip's renunciation, for himself and his descendants, of the French throne in the Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht
in 1714, and similar arrangements later kept the Spanish throne separate from those of the Two Sicilies and Parma. The Spanish House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(rendered in Spanish as Borbón [borˈβon]) has been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700–1808, 1813–1868, 1875–1931, and since 1975. Bourbons ruled in Naples from 1734–1806 and in Sicily from 1734–1816, and in a unified Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
from 1816–1860. They also ruled in Parma from 1731–1735, 1748–1802 and 1847–1859. Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg
married a cadet of the Parmese line and thus her successors, who have ruled Luxembourg
since her abdication in 1964, have also been members of the House of Bourbon. Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, regent for her father, Pedro II of the Empire of Brazil, married a cadet of the Orléans line and thus their descendants, known as the Orléans-Braganza, were in the line of succession to the Brazilian throne and expected to ascend its throne had the monarchy not been abolished by a coup in 1889. All legitimate, living members of the House of Bourbon, including its cadet branches, are direct agnatic descendants of Henry IV through his son Louis XIII of France.

Part of a series on the

History of France


Palaeolithic Mesolithic Neolithic Copper Age Bronze Age Iron Age


Greek colonies  

Celtic Gaul   until 50 BC

Roman Gaul 50 BC – 486 AD

Early Middle Ages


Merovingians 481–751

Carolingians 751–987

Middle Ages

Direct Capetians 987–1328

Valois 1328–1498

Early modern

Ancien Régime

Valois-Orléans 1498–1515

Valois-Angoulême 1515–89

Bourbon 1589–1792

Long 19th century

French Revolution 1789–1799

Kingdom of France 1791–92

First Republic 1792–1804

First Empire 1804–14

Restoration 1814–30

July Monarchy 1830–1848

Second Republic 1848–52

Second Empire 1852–70

Third Republic 1870–1940

20th century

Third Republic 1870–1940

Free France Vichy France


Provisional Republic 1944–46

Fourth Republic 1946–58

Fifth Republic 1958–present



v t e


1 Origins 2 List of Bourbons

2.1 Bourbon branches

3 France

3.1 Rise of Henry IV 3.2 Early Bourbons in France 3.3 Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and Louis XV 3.4 French Revolution 3.5 Bourbon Restoration

3.5.1 Aftermath

4 Bourbons of Spain
and Italy

4.1 Philip V 4.2 Ferdinand VI
Ferdinand VI
and Charles III 4.3 Bourbons of Parma

5 Later Bourbon monarchs outside France 6 List of Bourbon rulers

6.1 France

6.1.1 Monarchs of France 6.1.2 Claimants to the throne of France 6.1.3 Monarchs of France 6.1.4 Legitimist claimants in France 6.1.5 Legitimist claimants in France
(Spanish branch) 6.1.6 Orléanist and Unionist claimants in France

6.2 Kingdom of Spain

6.2.1 Monarchs of Spain 6.2.2 "Carlist" claimants in Spain

6.3 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

6.3.1 Grand Dukes of Luxembourg

6.4 Other significant Bourbon titles

7 Surnames used 8 Family trees 9 From Louis IX to Henry IV 10 Descent from Henry IV 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading

13.1 Other languages

14 External links


Capetian dynasty
Capetian dynasty

Direct Capetians House of Burgundy House of Dreux House of Courtenay House of Artois Capetian House of Anjou House of Bourbon House of Valois House of Évreux

v t e

The castle of Bourbon-l'Archambault

The pre-Capetian House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
was a noble family, dating at least from the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by the Sire de Bourbon who was a vassal of the King of France. The term House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
("Maison de Bourbon") is sometimes used to refer to this first house and the House of Bourbon-Dampierre, the second family to rule the seigneury. In 1272, Robert, Count of Clermont, sixth and youngest son of King Louis IX of France, married Beatrix of Bourbon, heiress to the lordship of Bourbon and member of the House of Bourbon-Dampierre.[1] Their son Louis was made Duke of Bourbon
Duke of Bourbon
in 1327. His descendant, the Constable of France
Charles de Bourbon, was the last of the senior Bourbon line when he died in 1527. Because he chose to fight under the banner of Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V and lived in exile from France, his title was discontinued after his death. The remaining line of Bourbons henceforth descended from James I, Count of La Marche, the younger son of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon.[1] With the death of his grandson James II, Count of La Marche
James II, Count of La Marche
in 1438, the senior line of the Count of La Marche became extinct. All future Bourbons would descend from James II's younger brother, Louis, who became the Count of Vendôme
Count of Vendôme
through his mother's inheritance.[1] While the most senior branch of the family, the House of Valois, continued to occupy the throne of France, at the death of Charles IV, Duke of Alençon in 1525, all of the princes of the blood royal were Bourbons. In 1514, Charles, Count of Vendôme
Count of Vendôme
had his title raised to Duke of Vendôme. His son Antoine became King of Navarre, on the northern side of the Pyrenees, by marriage in 1555.[1] Two of Antoine's younger brothers were Cardinal Archbishop Charles de Bourbon and the French and Huguenot general Louis de Bourbon, 1st Prince of Condé. Louis' male-line, the Princes de Condé, survived until 1830. Finally, in 1589, the House of Valois
House of Valois
died out and Antoine's son Henry III of Navarre
became Henry IV of France.[1] List of Bourbons[edit] Main articles: Descendants of Henry IV of France, Descendants of Louis XIV of France, Descendants of Philip V of Spain, Descendants of Charles III of Spain, and List of living legitimate male Capetians

Dukes of Bourbon

Counts of La Marche

Dukes of Vendôme

Princes of Condé

Dukes of Orléans

Dukes of Anjou
Dukes of Anjou
(Spanish Royal Family)

Bourbon branches[edit]

House of Clermont, later called House of Bourbon

House of the Dukes of Bourbon (extinct 1521)

House of Bourbon-Lavedan (illegitimate), extinct 1744 House of Bourbon-Busset
(illegitimate) House of Bourbon-Roussillon (illegitimate), extinct 1510 House of Bourbon-Montpensier, Counts of Montpensier (extinct 1527)

House of Bourbon-La Marche (extinct 1438)

House of Bourbon-Vendôme

House of Bourbon, Kings of France

House of Artois
House of Artois
(extinct 1883) House of Bourbon, Kings of Spain

Carlists (extinct 1936) Alfonsines

House of Bourbon-Anjou House of Bourbon, Kings of Spain

House of Bourbon-Seville House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies House of Bourbon-Braganza
House of Bourbon-Braganza
(extinct 1979) House of Bourbon-Parma

House of Luxembourg-Nassau

House of Bourbon-Maine
House of Bourbon-Maine
(illegitimate), extinct 1775 House of Bourbon-Penthièvre
(illegitimate), extinct 1793 House of Orléans

House of Orléans-Braganza House of Orléans-Galliera

House of Bourbon-Vendôme
(illegitimate), extinct 1727

House of Bourbon-Condé (extinct 1830)

House of Bourbon-Conti (extinct 1814) House of Bourbon-Soissons (extinct 1692)

House of Bourbon-Saint Pol (extinct 1601) House of Bourbon-Montpensier, Dukes of Montpensier (extinct 1693)

House of Bourbon-Carency (extinct 1520)

House of Bourbon-Duisant (extinct 1530)

House of Bourbon-Préaulx (extinct 1442)

Family from India's claim to be a branch and their claim to The "Throne of France"

Bourbons of India, claim to be descendants of Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, of the first House of Bourbon-Montpensier.[2][3][4][5][6][7]

As per the latest research carried out by Prince Michael of Greece
Prince Michael of Greece
and incorporated in his historical novel, Le Rajah Bourbon[8], Balthazar Napoleon
lV de Bourbon from India
is the eldest in line to the French Throne.[9][10][11][12] France[edit]

French kings from House of Bourbon. Family tree

Rise of Henry IV[edit] Main article: Henry IV of France's succession The first Bourbon king of France
was Henry IV.[1] He was born on 13 December 1553 in the Kingdom of Navarre. Antoine de Bourbon, his father, was a ninth-generation descendant of King Louis IX of France.[1] Jeanne d'Albret, his mother was the Queen of Navarre
and niece of King Francis I of France. He was baptized Catholic, but raised Calvinist. After his father was killed in 1562, he became Duke of Vendôme at the age of 10, with Admiral Gaspard de Coligny (1519–1572) as his regent. Seven years later, the young duke became the nominal leader of the Huguenots
after the death of his uncle the Prince de Condé in 1569. Henry succeeded to Navarre
as Henry III when his mother died in 1572. That same year Catherine de' Medici, mother of King Charles IX of France, arranged for the marriage of her daughter, Margaret of Valois, to Henry, ostensibly to advance peace between Catholics and Huguenots. Many Huguenots
gathered in Paris for the wedding on 24 August, but were ambushed and slaughtered by Catholics in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Henry saved his own life by converting to Catholicism. He repudiated his conversion in 1576 and resumed his leadership of the Huguenots. The period from 1576 to 1584 was relatively calm in France, with the Huguenots
consolidating control of much of the south with only occasional interference from the royal government. Extended civil war erupted again in 1584, when François, Duke of Anjou, younger brother of King Henry III of France, died, leaving Navarre
next in line for the throne. Thus began the War of the Three Henrys, as Henry of Navarre, Henry III, and the ultra-Catholic leader, Henry of Guise, fought a confusing three-cornered struggle for dominance. After Henry III was assassinated on 31 July 1589, Navarre
claimed the throne as the first Bourbon king of France, Henry IV. Much of Catholic France, organized into the Catholic League, refused to recognize a Protestant monarch and instead recognized Henry IV's uncle, Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon, as rightful king, and the civil war continued. Henry won a crucial victory at Ivry on 14 March 1590 and, following the death of the Cardinal the same year, the forces of the League lacked an obvious Catholic candidate for the throne and divided into various factions. Nevertheless, as a Protestant, Henry IV was unable to take Paris, a Catholic stronghold, or to decisively defeat his enemies, now supported by the Spanish. He reconverted to Catholicism
in 1593—he is said to have remarked, "Paris is well worth a mass"[13]—and was crowned king retroactively to 1589 at the Cathedral of Chartres
Cathedral of Chartres
on 27 February 1594. Early Bourbons in France[edit] Henry granted the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
on 13 April 1598, establishing Catholicism
as an official state religion but also granting the Huguenots
a measure of religious tolerance and political freedom short of full equality with the practice of Catholicism. This compromise ended the religious wars in France. That same year the Treaty of Vervins ended the war with Spain, adjusted the Spanish-French border, and resulted in a belated recognition by Spain
of Henry as king of France. Ably assisted by Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully, Henry reduced the land tax known as the taille; promoted agriculture, public works, construction of highways, and the first French canal; started such important industries as the tapestry works of the Gobelins; and intervened in favor of Protestants in the duchies and earldoms along the German frontier. This last was to be the cause of his assassination.

Henry IV of France, the first Bourbon King of France

Henry's marriage to Margaret, which had produced no heir, was annulled in 1599 and he married Marie de Medici, niece of the grand duke of Tuscany. A son, Louis, was born to them in 1601. Henry IV was assassinated on 14 May 1610 in Paris. Louis XIII was only nine years old when he succeeded his father.[1] He was to prove a weak ruler; his reign was effectively a series of distinct regimes, depending who held the effective reins of power. At first, Marie de Medici, his mother, served as regent and advanced a pro-Spanish policy. To deal with the financial troubles of France, Louis summoned the Estates General in 1614; this would be the last time that body met until the eve of the French Revolution. Marie arranged the 1615 marriage of Louis to Anne of Austria, the daughter of King Philip III of Spain. In 1617, however, Louis conspired with Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes to dispense with her influence, having her favorite Concino Concini assassinated on 26 April of that year. After some years of weak government by Louis's favorites, the King made Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, a former protégé of his mother, the chief minister of France
in 1624. Richelieu advanced an anti- Habsburg
policy. He arranged for Louis' sister, Henrietta Maria, to marry King Charles I of England, on 11 May 1625. Her pro-Catholic propaganda in England was one of the contributing factors to the English Civil War. Richelieu, as ambitious for France
and the French monarchy as for himself, laid the ground for the absolute monarchy that would last in France
until the Revolution. He wanted to establish a dominating position for France
in Europe, and he wanted to unify France
under the monarchy. He established the role of intendants, non-noble men whose arbitrary powers of administration were granted (and revocable) by the monarch, superseding many of the traditional duties and privileges of the noble governors. Although it required a succession of internal military campaigns, he disarmed the fortified Huguenot towns that Henry had allowed. He involved France
in the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
(1618–1648) against the Habsburgs by concluding an alliance with Sweden in 1631 and, actively, in 1635. He died in 1642 before the conclusion of that conflict, having groomed Cardinal Jules Mazarin
Jules Mazarin
as a successor. Louis XIII outlived him but by one year, dying in 1643 at the age of forty-two. After a childless marriage for twenty-three years his queen, Anne, delivered a son on 5 September 1638, whom he named Louis after himself.[1] In the mid eighteenth century, the Bourbon monarchy had a faulty system for finance and taxation. Their lacking a national bank lead to them taking short-term loans, and ordering financial agents to make payments in advance or in excess of tax revenues collected.[14] Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and Louis XV[edit]

Royal Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of France
and Navarre.

Main article: Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France Main article: Louis XV of France Louis XIV
Louis XIV
succeeded his father at four years of age;[1] he would go on to become the most powerful king in French history. His mother Anne served as his regent with her favorite Jules, Cardinal Mazarin, as chief minister. Mazarin continued the policies of Richelieu, bringing the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
to a successful conclusion in 1648 and defeating the nobility's challenge to royal absolutism in a series of civil wars known as the Frondes. He continued to war with Spain
until 1659. In that year the Treaty of the Pyrenees
was signed signifying a major shift in power, France
had replaced Spain
as the dominant state in Europe. The treaty called for an arranged marriage between Louis and his cousin Maria Theresa, a daughter of King Philip IV of Spain
by his first wife Elisabeth, the sister of Louis XIII. They were married in 1660 and had a son, Louis, in 1661.[1] Mazarin died on 9 March 1661 and it was expected that Louis would appoint another chief minister, as had become the tradition, but instead he shocked the country by announcing he would rule alone. For six years Louis reformed the finances of his state and built formidable armed forces. France
fought a series of wars from 1667 onward and gained some territory on its northern and eastern borders. Maria Theresa died in 1683 and the next year he secretly married the devoutly Catholic Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon. Louis XIV began to persecute Protestants, undoing the religious tolerance established by his grandfather Henry IV, culminating in his revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
in 1685. The last war waged by Louis XIV
Louis XIV
proved to be one of the most important to dynastic Europe. In 1700, King Charles II of Spain, a Habsburg, died without a son. Louis's son the Grand Dauphin, as the late king's nephew, was the closest heir, and Charles willed the kingdom to the Dauphin's second son, the Duke of Anjou. Other powers, particularly the Austrian Habsburgs, who had the next closest claims, objected to such a vast increase in French power. Initially, most of the other powers were willing to accept Anjou's reign as Philip V, but Louis's mishandling of their concerns soon drove the English, Dutch and other powers to join the Austrians in a coalition against France. The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
began in 1701 and raged for 12 years. In the end Louis's grandson was recognized as king of Spain, but he was obliged to agree to the forfeiture of succession rights in France, the Spanish Habsburgs' other European territories were largely ceded to Austria, and France was nearly bankrupted by the cost of the struggle. Louis died on 1 September 1715 ending his seventy-two year reign, the longest in European history.

Dynastic group portrait of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
(seated) with his son le Grand Dauphin (to the left), his grandson Louis, Duke of Burgundy
Louis, Duke of Burgundy
(to the right), his great-grandson the duc d'Anjou, later Louis XV, and Madame de Ventadour, his governess, who commissioned this painting some years later; busts of Henry IV and Louis XIII in the background.

The reign of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
was so long that he outlived both his son and eldest grandson. He was succeeded by his great-grandson Louis XV.[1] Louis XV was born on 15 February 1710 and was thus aged only five at his ascension, the third Louis in a row to become king of France before the age of thirteen (Louis XIII became king at 9, Louis XIV
Louis XIV
at almost 5 and himself at 5). Initially, the regency was held by Philip, Duke of Orléans, Louis XIV's nephew, as nearest adult male to the throne.[1] This Regence
was seen as a period of greater individual expression, manifested in secular, artistic, literary and colonial activity, in contrast to the austere latter years of Louis XIV's reign. Following Orléans' death in 1723, the Duke of Bourbon, representative of the Bourbon-Condé cadet line, became prime minister. It was expected that Louis would marry his cousin, the daughter of King Philip V of Spain, but this engagement was broken by the duke in 1725 so that Louis could marry Maria Leszczynska, the daughter of Stanislas, former king of Poland. Bourbon's motive appears to have been a desire to produce an heir as soon as possible so as to reduce the chances of a succession dispute between Philip V and the Duke of Orléans in the event of the sickly king's death. Maria was already an adult woman at the time of the marriage, while the infanta was still a young girl.

A posthumous painting commissioned around 1670 by Philippe de France. It shows the French Bourbon Family around that time. It includes: Henrietta Maria
Henrietta Maria
of France
(died 1669), exiled Queen of England; Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, founder of the House of Orléans; his first wife Princess Henriette (died 1670); the couple's first daughter Marie Louise d'Orléans (later Queen of Spain); Anne of Austria
Anne of Austria
(died 1666); the Orléans daughters of Gaston de France; Louis XIV; the Dauphin of France
with his wife Maria Theresa of Spain
with her third daughter Marie-Thérèse de France, called Madame Royale (died 1672) and her second son Philippe-Charles de France, duc d' Anjou
(d1671). The first daughter of Gaston stands on the far right: Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans. The picture frame with the 2 children are the other 2 daughters of Louis and Maria Theresa who died in 1662 and 1664.

Nevertheless, Bourbon's action brought a very negative response from Spain, and for his incompetence Bourbon was soon replaced by Cardinal Andre Hercule de Fleury, the young king's tutor, in 1726. Fleury was a peace-loving man who intended to keep France
out of war, but circumstances presented themselves that made this impossible. The first cause of these wars came in 1733 when Augustus II, the elector of Saxony and king of Poland died. With French support, Stanislas was again elected king. This brought France
into conflict with Russia and Austria who supported Augustus III, Elector of Saxony and son of Augustus II. Stanislas lost the Polish crown, but he was given the Duchy of Lorraine as compensation, which would pass to France
after his death. Next came the War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession
in 1740 in which France supported King Frederick II of Prussia
Frederick II of Prussia
against Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary. Fleury died in 1743 before the conclusion of the war. Shortly after Fleury's death in 1745 Louis was influenced by his mistress the Marquise de Pompadour
Marquise de Pompadour
to reverse the policy of France
in 1756 by creating an alliance with Austria against Prussia in the Seven Years' War. The war was a disaster for France, which lost most of her overseas possessions to the British in the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Maria, his wife, died in 1768 and Louis himself died on 10 May 1774. French Revolution[edit] Main article: French Revolution Louis XVI
Louis XVI
had become the Dauphin of France
upon the death of his father Louis, the son of Louis XV, in 1765. He married Marie Antoinette of Austria, a daughter of Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa, in 1770. Louis intervened in the American Revolution
American Revolution
against Britain in 1778, but he is most remembered for his role in the French Revolution. France
was in financial turmoil and Louis was forced to convene the Estates-General on 5 May 1789. They formed the National Assembly and forced Louis to accept a constitution that limited his powers on 14 July 1790. He tried to flee France
in June 1791, but was captured. The French monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792 and a republic was proclaimed. The chain of Bourbon monarchs begun in 1589 was broken. Louis XVI
Louis XVI
was executed on 21 January 1793. Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
and her son, Louis, were held as prisoners. Many French royalists proclaimed him Louis XVII, but he never reigned. She was executed on 16 October 1793. He died of tuberculosis on 8 June 1795 at the age of ten while in captivity.[15] The French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
and Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
spread nationalism and anti-absolutism throughout Europe, and the other Bourbon monarchs were threatened. Ferdinand was forced to flee from Naples in 1806 when Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
deposed him and installed his brother, Joseph, as king. Ferdinand continued to rule from Sicily until 1815. Napoleon
conquered Parma in 1800 and compensated the Bourbon duke with Etruria, a new kingdom he created from the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. It was short-lived, counting only two monarchs, Louis and Charles, as Napoleon
annexed Etruria in 1807. King Charles IV of Spain
had been an ally of France. He succeeded his father, Charles III, in 1788. At first he declared war on France
on 7 March 1793, but he made peace on 22 June 1795. This peace became an alliance on 19 August 1796. His chief minister, Manuel de Godoy convinced Charles that his son, Ferdinand, was plotting to overthrow him. Napoleon
exploited the situation and invaded Spain
in March 1808. This led to an uprising that forced Charles to abdicate on 19 March in favor of his son, Ferdinand VII. Napoleon
forced Ferdinand to return the crown to Charles on 30 April and then convinced Charles to relinquish it to him on 10 May. In turn, he gave it to his brother, Joseph, king of Naples on 6 June. Joseph abandoned Naples to Joachim Murat, the husband of Napoleon's sister. This was very unpopular in Spain
and resulted in the Peninsular War, a struggle that would contribute to the downfall of Napoleon. Bourbon Restoration[edit]

The standard of the French royal family under the Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
and the restoration period.

Main article: Bourbon Restoration With the abdication of Napoleon
on 11 April 1814 the Bourbon dynasty was restored to the kingdom of France
in the person of Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI. Napoleon
escaped from exile and Louis fled in March 1815. Louis was again restored after the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
on 7 July. The conservative elements of Europe dominated the post-Napoleonic age, but the values of the French Revolution
French Revolution
could not be easily swept aside. Louis granted a constitution on 14 June 1814 to appease the liberals, but the ultra-royalist party, led by his brother, Charles, continued to influence his reign.[16] When he died in 1824 his brother became king as Charles X much to the dismay of French liberals. In a saying ascribed to Talleyrand, "they had learned nothing and forgotten nothing".[17] Aftermath[edit] Charles passed several laws that appealed to the upper class, but angered the middle class. The situation came to a head when he appointed a new minister on 8 August 1829 who did not have the confidence of the chamber. The chamber censured the king on 18 March 1830 and in response Charles proclaimed five ordinances on 26 July intended to silence criticism against him.[citation needed] This almost resulted in another revolution as dramatic as the one in 1789, but moderates were able to control the situation.[citation needed]

Coat of Arms of Louis-Philippe of the Orleanist
cadet branch, French king during the July monarchy
July monarchy
1830–48 (with the revolutionary Tricolour flag and the Napoleonic Order of the Legion of Honour)

As a compromise the crown was offered to Louis-Philippe, duke of Orléans, a descendant of the brother of Louis XIV, and the head of the Orleanist
cadet branch of the Bourbons. Agreeing to reign constitutionally and under the tricolour, he was proclaimed King of the French on 7 August. The resulting regime, known as the July monarchy, lasted until the Revolution of 1848. The Bourbon monarchy in France
ended on 24 February 1848, when Louis-Philippe was forced to abdicate and the short-lived Second Republic was established. Some legitimists refused to recognize the Orleanist
monarchy. After the death of Charles in 1836 his son was proclaimed Louis XIX, though this title was never formally recognized. Charles' grandson Henri, comte de Chambord, the last Bourbon claimant of the French crown, was proclaimed by some Henry V, but the French monarchy was never restored. Following the 1870 collapse of the empire of Emperor Napoleon
III, Henri was offered a restored throne. However Chambord refused to accept the throne unless France
abandoned the revolution-inspired tricolour and accepted what he regarded as the true Bourbon flag of France, featuring the fleur-de-lis. The tricolour, originally associated with the French Revolution
French Revolution
and the First Republic, had been used by the July Monarchy, the Second Republic and both Empires; the French National Assembly
French National Assembly
could not possibly agree. A temporary Third Republic was established, while monarchists waited for the comte de Chambord to die and for the succession to pass to the Comte de Paris, who was willing to accept the tricolour. Henri lived until 1883, by which time public opinion had come to accept the republic as the "form of government that divides us least." His death without issue marked the extinction of the French Bourbons. Thus the head of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
became Juan, Count of Montizón
Juan, Count of Montizón
of the Spanish line of the house who was also Carlist
claimant to the throne of Spain, and had become the senior male of the dynasty by primogeniture. His heir as eldest Bourbon and head of the house is today Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou. By an ordinance of Louis Philippe I
Louis Philippe I
of France
of 13 August 1830, it was decided that the king's children (and his sister) would continue to bear the arms of Orléans, that Louis-Philippe's eldest son, as Prince Royal, would bear the title of duc d'Orléans, that the younger sons would continue to have their existing titles, and that the sister and daughters of the king would be styled Royal Highness and "d'Orléans", but the Orléans dynasts did not take the name "of France". Bourbons of Spain
and Italy[edit]

Spanish kings from House of Bourbon. Family tree

Philip V[edit]

Arms of the present King of Spain
of the House of Bourbon

The Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
was founded by Philip V. He was born in 1683 in Versailles, the second son of the Grand Dauphin, son of Louis XIV. He was Duke of Anjou
and probably never expected to be raised to a rank higher than that. However King Charles II of Spain, dying without issue, willed the throne to his grand-nephew the Duke of Anjou, younger grandson of his eldest sister Marie-Thérèse, daughter of King Philip IV of Spain
who had married Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France. The prospect of Bourbons on both the French and Spanish thrones was resisted as creating an imbalance of power in Europe by its dominant regimes and, upon Charles II's death on 1 November 1700, a Grand Alliance of European nations united against Philip. This was known as the War of Spanish Succession. In the Treaty of Utrecht, signed on 11 April 1713, Philip was recognized as king of Spain
but his renunciation of succession rights to France
was affirmed and, of the Spanish Empire's other European territories, Sicily was ceded to Savoy, and the Spanish Netherlands, Milan and Naples were allotted to the Austrian Habsburgs. Philip had two sons by his first wife. After her death he married Elisabeth Farnese, niece of Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma, in 1714. She presented Philip with three sons, for whom she had ambitions of securing Italian crowns. Thus she induced Philip to occupy Sardinia and Sicily in 1717. A Quadruple Alliance of Britain, France, Austria and the Netherlands was organized on 2 August 1718 to stop him. In the Treaty of The Hague, signed on 17 February 1720, Philip renounced his conquests of Sardinia and Sicily, but assured the ascension of his eldest son by Elisabeth to the Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Parma
upon the reigning duke's death. Philip abdicated in January 1724 in favor of Louis I, his eldest son with his first wife, but Louis died in August and Philip resumed the crown. When the War of the Polish Succession
War of the Polish Succession
began in 1733, Philip and Elisabeth saw another opportunity to advance the claims of their sons and recover at least part of the former possessions of the Spanish crown on the Italian peninsula. Philip signed the Family Compact with Louis XV, his nephew and king of France. Charles, Duke of Parma
Duke of Parma
since 1731, invaded Naples. At the conclusion of peace on 13 November 1738, control of Parma and Piacenza was ceded to Austria, which had occupied the duchies but was now forced to recognise Charles as King of Naples and Sicily. Philip also used the War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession
to win more territory in Italy. He did not live to see it to its conclusion, however, dying in 1746. Ferdinand VI
Ferdinand VI
and Charles III[edit] Ferdinand VI, second son of Philip V and his first wife, succeeded his father. He was a peace-loving monarch who kept Spain
out of the Seven Years' War. He died in 1759 in the midst of that conflict and was succeeded by his half-brother Charles III. Charles was the eldest son of Philip and Elisabeth Farnese. He was born in 1716 and had become Duke of Parma
Duke of Parma
when the last Farnese duke died in 1731. Following Spain's victory over the Austrians at the battle of Bitonto, it proved inexpedient to reunite Naples and Sicily to Spain, so as a compromise Charles became King of Naples, as Charles IV and VII of Sicily. Following Charles' accession to the Spanish throne in 1759 he was required, by the Treaty of Naples of 3 October 1759, to abdicate Naples and Sicily to his third son, Ferdinand, thus initiating the branch known as the Neapolitan Bourbons. Charles revived the Family Compact with France
on 15 August 1761 and joined in the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
against Britain in 1762; the reformist policies he had espoused in Naples were pursued with similar energy in Spain, where he completely overhauled the cumbersome bureaucracy of the state. As a French ally he opposed Britain during the American Revolution in June 1779, supplying large quantities of weapons and munitions to the rebels and keeping one third of all the British forces in the Americas occupied defending Florida and what is now Alabama, which were ultimately recaptured by Spain. Charles died in 1788. Bourbons of Parma[edit] Elisabeth Farnese's ambitions were realized at the conclusion of the War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession
in 1748 when the Duchy of Parma
Duchy of Parma
and Piacenza, already occupied by Spanish troops, were ceded by Austria to her second son, Philip, and combined with the former Gonzaga duchy of Guastalla. Elisabeth died in 1766. Later Bourbon monarchs outside France[edit]

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Coat of Arms of the Royal House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
Spain-Two Sicilies

Coat of Arms of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon

Upon the fall of the French Empire, Ferdinand I was restored to the throne of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
in 1815, founding the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. His subjects revolted in 1820 and he was forced to grant a constitution; Austria invaded in March 1821 and revoked the constitution. He was succeeded by his son, Francis I, in 1825 and by his grandson, Ferdinand II, in 1830. Another revolution erupted in January 1848 and Ferdinand was also forced to grant a constitution. This constitution was revoked in 1849. Ferdinand was succeeded by his son, Francis II, in May 1859. When Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
captured Naples in 1860, Francis restored the constitution in an attempt to save his sovereignty. He fled to the fortress of Gaeta, which was captured by the Piedmontese troops in February 1861; his kingdom was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy on 17 March 1861, after the fall the fortress of Messina
(surrendered on 12 March), although the Neapolitan troops in Civitella del Tronto resisted three days longer. After the fall of Napoleon, Napoleon's wife, Maria Louisa, was made Duchess of Parma. As compensation, Charles Louis, the former king of Etruria, was made the Duke of Lucca. When Maria Louisa died in 1847 he was restored to Parma as Charles II. Lucca was incorporated into Tuscany. He was succeeded by his son, Charles III, and grandson, Robert I, in 1854. The people of Parma voted for a union with the kingdom of Sardinia in 1860. After Italian unification
Italian unification
the next year, the Bourbon dynasty in Italy
was no more. Ferdinand VII
Ferdinand VII
was restored to the throne of Spain
in March 1814. Like his Italian Bourbon counterpart, his subjects revolted against him in January 1820 and he was forced to grant a constitution. A French army invaded in 1823 and the constitution was revoked. Ferdinand married his fourth wife, Maria Christina, the daughter of Francis I, the Bourbon king of Sicily, in 1829. Despite his many marriages he did not have a son, so in 1833 he was influenced by his wife to abolish the Salic Law
Salic Law
so that their daughter, Isabella, could become queen depriving his brother, Don Carlos, of the throne. Isabella II succeeded her father when he died in 1833. She was only three years old and Maria Cristina, her mother, served as regent. Maria knew that she needed the support of the liberals to oppose Don Carlos so she granted a constitution in 1834. Don Carlos found his greatest support in Catalonia and the Basques country because the constitution centralized the provinces thus denying them the autonomy they sought. He was defeated and fled the country in 1839. Isabella was declared of age in 1843 and she married her cousin Francisco de Asis, the son of her father's brother, on 10 October 1846. A military revolution broke out against Isabella in 1868 and she was deposed on 29 September. She abdicated in favor of her son, Alfonso, in 1870, but Spain
was proclaimed a republic for a brief time. When the First Spanish Republic
First Spanish Republic
failed the crown was offered to Isabella's son who accepted on 1 January 1875 as Alfonso XII. Don Carlos, who returned to Spain, was again defeated and resumed his exile in February 1876. Alfonso granted a new constitution in July 1876 that was more liberal than the one granted by his grandmother. His reign was cut short when he died in 1885 at the age of twenty-eight. Alfonso XIII was born on 17 May 1886 after the death of his father. His mother, Maria Christina, the second wife of Alfonso XII served as regent. Alfonso XIII was declared of age in 1902 and he married Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena of Battenberg, the granddaughter of the British queen Victoria, on 31 May 1906. He remained neutral during World War I, but supported the military coup of Miguel Primo de Rivera on 13 September 1923. A movement towards the establishment of a republic began in 1930 and Alfonso fled the country on 14 April 1931. He never formally abdicated, but lived the rest of his life in exile. He died in 1941. The Bourbon dynasty seemed finished in Spain
as in the rest of the world, but it would be resurrected. The Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic
was overthrown in the Spanish Civil War, leading to the dictatorship of Francisco Franco. He named Juan Carlos de Borbón, a grandson of Alfonso XIII, his successor in 1969. When Franco died six years later, Juan Carlos I took the throne to restore the Bourbon dynasty. The new king oversaw the Spanish transition to democracy; the Spanish Constitution of 1978 recognized the monarchy. Since 1964 the Bourbon-Parma line has reigned agnatically in Luxembourg
through Grand Dukes Jean and his son Henri. In June 2011, Luxembourg
adopted absolute primogeniture, replacing the old Semi-Salic law that might have guaranteed the survival of Bourbon rule for generations. Though it is not as powerful as it once was and no longer reigns in its native country of France, the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
is by no means extinct and has survived to the present-day world, predominantly composed of republics. The House of Bourbon, in its surviving branches, is believed to be the oldest royal dynasty of Europe (and the oldest documented European family altogether) that is still existing in the direct male line today: The House of Capet's male ancestors, the Robertians, go back to Robert of Hesbaye (d. 807) as their first secured ancestor and he is believed to be a direct male descendant of Charibert de Haspengau (c. 555–636). Should this be true, only the Imperial House of Japan would outmatch the Bourbon's age, being reliably documented – as a ruling house already – from about 540. The House of Hesse
House of Hesse
traces its line back to 841, the House of Welf-Este and the House of Wettin
House of Wettin
are both emerging in the 10th century (and so do some Italian non-ruling houses like the Caetani
or the Massimo family), whereas most of the other ruling families of Europe only turn up to the light of history after the year 1000. List of Bourbon rulers[edit] France[edit] Monarchs of France[edit] Dates indicate reigns, not lifetimes.

Henry IV, the Great (1589–1610) Louis XIII, the Just (1610–1643) Louis XIV, the Sun King (1643–1715) Louis XV, the Well-Beloved (1715–1774) Louis XVI
Louis XVI

Claimants to the throne of France[edit] Dates indicate claims, not lifetimes.

Louis XVI
Louis XVI
(1792–1793) Louis XVII (1793–1795) Louis XVIII (1795–1814)

Monarchs of France[edit] Dates indicate reigns, not lifetimes.

Louis XVIII (1814–1824) Charles X (1824–1830) Louis-Philippe (House of Bourbon-Orléans) (1830–1848)

Legitimist claimants in France[edit] Dates indicate claims, not lifetimes.

Charles X (1830–1836) Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême
Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême
(Louis XIX) (1836–1844) Henri, Count of Chambord
Henri, Count of Chambord
(Henri V) (1844–1883)

Legitimist claimants in France
(Spanish branch)[edit] Dates indicate claims, not lifetimes.

Juan, Count of Montizón
Juan, Count of Montizón
(Jean III) (1883–1887) Carlos, Duke of Madrid
Carlos, Duke of Madrid
(Charles XI) (1887–1909) Jaime, Duke of Anjou
and Madrid (Jacques I) (1909–1931) Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime
Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime
(Charles XII)(1931–1936) Alfonso XIII of Spain
(Alphonse I) (1936–1941) (did not claim the Throne of France[18]) Jaime, Duke of Segovia
Jaime, Duke of Segovia
(Jacques II / Henri VI) (1941–1975) Alfonso, Duke of Anjou
and Cádiz (Alphonse II) (1975–1989) Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou
Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou
(Louis XX) (1989–present)

Orléanist and Unionist claimants in France[edit] Dates indicate claims, not lifetimes.

Prince Philippe, Count of Paris
Prince Philippe, Count of Paris
(Philippe VII) (1883–1894) Prince Philippe, Duke of Orléans
Duke of Orléans
(Philippe VIII) (1894–1926) Prince Jean, Duke of Guise
Prince Jean, Duke of Guise
(Jean III) (1926–1940) Prince Henri, Count of Paris (Henry VI) (1940–1999) Prince Henri, Count of Paris (Henry VII) (1999 – Present)

Kingdom of Spain[edit] Monarchs of Spain[edit] Dates indicate seniority, not lifetimes. Where reign as king or queen of Spain
is different, this is noted.

Philip V (1700–1746) [abdicated 1724, resumed throne on death of son] Louis I [King 1724; ruled less than one year] Ferdinand VI
Ferdinand VI
(1746–1759) Charles III (1759–1788) Charles IV (1788–1808) Ferdinand VII, El Deseado (1808–1833) [King 1808, 1813–1833] Isabella II (1833–1870) [Queen 1833–1868] Alfonso XII (1870–1885) [King 1874–1885] Alfonso XIII (1886–1941) [King 1886–1931] Juan, Count of Barcelona
Juan, Count of Barcelona
(1941–1977) [did not become King] Juan Carlos I (1977–2014) [King 1975–2014] Felipe VI (2014–present) [King 2014–present]

"Carlist" claimants in Spain[edit] Dates indicate claims, not lifetimes.

Infante Carlos, Count of Molina
Infante Carlos, Count of Molina
(Carlos V) (1833–1845) Infante Carlos, Count of Montemolin
Infante Carlos, Count of Montemolin
(Carlos VI) (1845–1861) Juan, Count of Montizón
Juan, Count of Montizón
(Juan II) (1861–1868) Carlos, Duke of Madrid
Carlos, Duke of Madrid
(Carlos VII) (1868–1909) Jaime, Duke of Madrid
Jaime, Duke of Madrid
(Jaime III) (1909–1931) Alfonso Carlos of Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime
Alfonso Carlos of Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime
(Alfonso Carlos I) (1931–1936) Xavier, Duke of Parma
Duke of Parma
(Xavier I) (1936–1952–1977) Carlos Hugo of Bourbon, Duke of Parma
Duke of Parma
(Carlos Hugo I) (1977–1979) Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma
Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma
(Sixto Enrique I) (1979–present)

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg[edit]

Coat of Arms of the Grand Dukes of Luxemburg of the House of Bourbon-Parma

Grand Dukes of Luxembourg[edit] Dates indicate reigns, not lifetimes.

Jean (1964–2000) Henri (2000–present)

Other significant Bourbon titles[edit]

Dukes of Bourbon, Montpensier, Vendôme, Anjou, Kings of the Two Sicilies, Dukes of Parma, Dukes of Orléans, Princes of Orléans and Braganza Princes of Condé Princes of Conti

Surnames used[edit] Officially, the King of France
had no family name. A prince with the rank of fils de France
(Son of France) is surnamed "de France"; all the male-line descendants of each fils de France, however, took his main title (whether an appanage or a courtesy title) as their family or last name. However, when Louis XVI
Louis XVI
was put on trial and later "guillotined" (executed) by the revolutionaries National Convention
National Convention
in France
in 1793, they somewhat contemptously referred to him in written documents and spoken address as "Citizen Louis Capet" as if a "commoner" (referring back to the Medieval
origins of the Bourbon Dynasty's name and referring to Hugh Capet, founder of the Capetian Dynasty). Members of the House of Bourbon-Condé and its cadet branches, which never ascended to the throne, used the surname "de Bourbon" until their extinction in 1830. The daughters of Gaston, Duke of Orleans, were the first members of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
since the accession of Henry IV to take their surname from the appanage of their father (d'Orleans). Gaston died without a male heir; his titles reverted to the crown. It was given to his nephew, Philippe I, Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV, whose descendants still bear the surname. When Philippe, grandson of Louis XIV, became King of Spain
as Philip V, he gave up his French titles. As a Son of France, his actual surname was "de France". However, since that surname was not heritable for descendants of rank lower than Son of France, and since Philippe had already given up his French titles, his descendants simply took the name of their royal house as their surname ("de Bourbon", rendered in Spanish as "de Borbón"). The children of Philippe's brother, Charles, Duke of Berry
Duke of Berry
(all of whom died in infancy), were given the surname "d'Alencon". He was Duke of Berry only in name, so the surname of his children was taken from his first substantial duchy. The children of Charles Philippe, Count of Artois, brother of Louis XVI, were surnamed "d'Artois". When Charles succeeded to the throne as Charles X, his son Louis Antoine became a Son of France, with the corresponding change in surname. His grandson, Henri d'Artois, being merely a Grandson of France, would use the surname until his death. Family trees[edit] See also: French kings family tree and Spanish kings family tree Simplified family trees showing the relationships between the Bourbons and the other branches of the Royal House of France.

From Louis IX to Henry IV[edit]

Direct Capetians

Louis IX King of France 1214–1226–1270

Margaret of Provence 1221–1295

House of Bourbon

Philip III King of France 1245–1270–1285

Robert Ct. of Clermont 1256–1268–1317

Beatrice of Burgundy 1257-1310

House of Valois

Charles Count of Valois 1270–1284-1325

Louis I Duke of Bourbon 1279–1327–1341

Mary of Avesnes 1280–1354

Philip VI King of France 1293–1328–1350

Isabella of Valois 1313–1383

Peter I Duke of Bourbon 1311–1342-1356

James I Ct. of La Marche 1319–1356–1362

Jeanne of Châtillon 1315-?

John II King of France 1319–1350–1364

Peter II Ct. of La Marche 1342–1362

John I Ct. of La Marche 1344–1362–1393

Catherine of Vendôme 1354-1412

Charles V King of France 1338–1364–1380

Joanna of Bourbon 1338–1378

Louis II Duke of Bourbon 1337–1356-1410

James II Ct. of La Marche 1370–1393–1438

Louis Ct. of Vendôme 1376–1393–1446

Charles VI King of France 1368–1380–1422

John I Duke of Bourbon 1381–1410–1434

Eleanor of B.-La Marche 1407–aft.1464

John VIII Ct. of Vendôme 1425-1446–1477

Isabelle de Beauvau 1436-1475

Charles VII King of France 1403–1422-1461

Charles I Duke of Bourbon 1401–1434–1456

Louis I Ct. of Montpensier 1405–1428–1486

Dukes of Nemours

Francis Count of Vendôme 1470–1477–1495

Marie of Luxembourg ≈1472-1547

Louis Pr. of La Roche-sur-Yon 1473–1520

Joan of France 1435–1482

John II Duke of Bourbon 1426–1456-1488

Louis XI King of France 1423–1461−1483

Louis Bishop of Liège 1438–1456-1482

Charles II Duke of Bourbon 1434–1488

Charles Duke of Vendôme 1489–1514–1537

Françoise d'Alençon 1490-1550

Anne of France 1461–1522

Peter II Duke of Bourbon 1438–1488–1503

Gilbert Count of Montpensier 1443–1486–1496

Peter of Bourbon -Busset 1464-1529

Louis Prince of Condé 1530–1546–1569

Henry II King of France 1519–1547–1559

Antoine King of Navarre 1518–1555-1562

Jeanne III d'Albret Queen of Navarre 1528–1555–1572

Suzanne Dss of Bourbon 1491–1503–1521

Charles III Duke of Bourbon 1490–1521–1527

Philip of Bourbon -Busset 1494-1557

Henri I Prince of Condé 1552–1569-1588

Margaret of France 1553–1615

Henry IV of Bourbon King of France 1553–1589–1610

Marie de' Medici 1575–1642

Bourbon-Busset illegitimate male-line

Henri II Prince of Condé 1588–1588–1646

Louis XIII King of France 1601–1610–1643

Louis II Grand Condé Prince of Condé 1621–1646–1686

Armand Prince of Conti 1629–1629–1666

Louis XIV King of France 1638–1643–1715

Henri Jules Prince of Condé 1643–1686–1709

Louis III Prince of Condé 1668–1709–1710

Louise Françoise of Bourbon 1673–1743

Marie Thérèse de Bourbon 1666–1732

François Louis Grand Conti Prince of Conti 1664-1685–1709

Louis Armand I Prince of Conti 1661–1666-1685

Marie Anne de Bourbon 1666–1739

Louis IV Henri Prince de Condé 1692-1710–1740

Marie Anne de Bourbon 1689–1720

Louise Élisabeth de Bourbon 1693–1775

Louis Armand II Prince of Conti 1695–1709-1727

Louis V Joseph Prince of Condé 1736-1740-1818

Louis François Prince of Conti 1717–1727-1776

Louis VI Henri Prince of Condé 1756-1818–1830

Louis François Joseph Prince of Conti 1734–1776-1814

Louis Antoine Duke of Enghien 1772–1804

Descent from Henry IV[edit]

Henry IV King of France (1589–1610)

Louis XIII King of France (1610–43)

Louis XIV King of France (1643–1715)

Philippe I Duke of Orléans

Louis "Le Grand Dauphin" of France

Philippe II Duke of Orléans Regent of France

Louis "Le Petit Dauphin" of France

Philip V King of Spain (1700–46)

Louis Duke of Orléans

Louis XV King of France (1715–74)

Louis I King of Spain (1724)

Ferdinand VI King of Spain (1746–59)

Charles III King of Spain (1759–88)

Philip Duke of Parma (1748–65)

Louis Philippe I Duke of Orléans

Louis Dauphin of France

Charles IV King of Spain (1788–1808)

Ferdinand Duke of Parma (1765–1802)

Louis Philippe II (Philippe Égalité) Duke of Orléans

Louis XVI King of France (1774–91) King of the French (1791–92) Titular King of France (1792–93)

Louis XVIII Titular King of France (1795–1804) Legitimist pretender (1804–14) King of France (1814–24)

Charles X King of France (1824–30) Legitimist pretender (1830–36)

Ferdinand VII King of Spain (1808; 1813–33)

Francisco de Paula

Carlos Count of Molina as Carlos V Carlist pretender (1833–45)

Louis I King of Etruria (1801–03)

Louis-Philippe I King of the French (1830–48) Orléanist Pretender (1848-50)

Louis Dauphin of France

as Louis XVII Titular King of France (1793–95)

Louis-Antoine Duke of Angoulême Dauphin of France

as Louis XIX Legitimist pretender (1836–44)

Charles Ferdinand Duke of Berry

Isabella II Queen of Spain (1833–68)

Francis Duke of Cádiz King consort of Spain

Carlos Count of Montemolin as Carlos VI Carlist pretender (1845–61)

Juan Count of Montizón as Juan III Carlist pretender (1861–68)

as Jean III Legitimist pretender (1883–87)

Louis II King of Etruria (1803–07) as Charles I Duke of Lucca (1824–47) as Charles II Duke of Parma (1847–49)

Ferdinand Philippe Duke of Orléans

Henri Count of Chambord

as Henri V Legitimist pretender (1844–83)

Alfonso XII King of Spain (1874–85)

Carlos Duke of Madrid as Carlos VII Carlist pretender (1868–1909)

as Charles XI Legitimist pretender (1887–1909)

Alfonso Carlos Duke of San Jaime as Alfonso Carlos I Carlist pretender (1931–36)

as Charles XII Legitimist pretender (1931–36)

Charles III Duke of Parma (1849–54)

Philippe Count of Paris

as Philippe VII Orléanist pretender (1850–94)

Robert Duke of Chartres

Francisco Franco Caudillo of Spain (1936–75) Regent of the Kingdom (1947–75)

Alfonso XIII King of Spain (1886–1931)

as Alphonse I Legitimist pretender (1936–41)

Jaime Duke of Madrid as Jaime III Carlist pretender (1909–31)

as Jacques I Legitimist pretender (1909–31)

Robert I Duke of Parma (1854–59)

Philippe Duke of Orléans

as Philippe VIII Orléanist pretender (1894–1926)

Jean Duke of Guise

as Jean III Orléanist pretender (1926–40)

Carmen Franco y Polo 1st Duchess of Franco

Jaime Duke of Segovia as Jaime IV Legitimist pretender (1941-75)

as Jacques II or Henri VI Legitimist pretender (1941–75)

Juan Count of Barcelona

Xavier Duke of Parma Carlist
regent (1936-52) as Javier I Carlist pretender (1952-77)

Felix Prince of Luxembourg

Henri Count of Paris

as Henri VI Orléanist pretender (1940–99)

María del Carmen Martínez-Bordiú y Franco

Alfonso Duke of Anjou and Cádiz as Alfonso XIV Legitimist pretender (1975-89)

as Alphonse II Legitimist pretender (1975–89)

Juan Carlos I King of Spain (1975–2014)

Carlos Hugo Duke of Parma as Carlos Hugo I Carlist pretender (1977–79)

Sixtus Henry Prince of Parma as Enrique V Carlist pretender (1979–present)

Jean Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1964–2000)

Henri Count of Paris Duke of France

as Henri VII Orléanist pretender (1999–present)

Louis Duke of Anjou

as Louis XX Legitimist pretender (1989–present) as Luis II Legitimist pretender (1989-present)

Felipe VI King of Spain (2014–present)

Carlos Duke of Parma as Carlos Xavier II Carlist pretender (2011–present)

Henri Grand Duke of Luxembourg (2000–present)

Jean Duke of Vendome

Louis Duke of Burgundy, Dauphin of France

Leonor Princess of Asturias

Guillaume Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg

See also[edit]

Kingdom of France

List of living legitimate male Capetians Capetian Armorial Members of the House of Bourbon Bourbon County, Kentucky, USA, named after the royal family Bourbonnais Bourbons of India Balthazar Napoleon lV de Bourbon
Balthazar Napoleon lV de Bourbon
of India. List of heirs to the French throne French Wars of Religion Image:Habsburg-bourbon-parma-2siciliesX.png: A chart of the dynastic links among the royal houses of Habsburg, Bourbon, Bourbon-Parma and Bourbon-Two Sicilies Le Retour des Princes Français à Paris Legitimists List of Spanish monarchs List of monarchs of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies


^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Anselme, Père. ‘’Histoire de la Maison Royale de France’’, tome 4. Editions du Palais-Royal, 1967, Paris. pp. 144–146, 151–153, 175, 178, 180, 185, 187–189, 191, 295–298, 318–319, 322–329. (French). ^ Bourbon-Bhopal, The Royal "House of Bourbon" in India
Official Website ^ GENEALOGY: The Family Tree of the Bourbons of India
Bourbons of India
and the Bourbons of France ^ Marek, Miroslav. "Jean Philippe, a courtier of the khan, 1525". Genealogy.EU.  ^ Found in India
the last king of France, 2 March 2007, The Guardian ^ The next King of France? An Indian!, 21 August 2007, Manchester Evening News ^ Bourbon of Indian vintage, 10 Jan. 2008, Los Angeles Times ^ Michel de Grèce (March 2007). Le Rajah Bourbon. Jean-Claude Lattès. ISBN 978-2-7096-2922-5.  ^ Found in India
the last king of France, 2 March 2007, The Guardian ^ The next King of France? An Indian!, 21 August 2007, Manchester Evening News ^ Bourbon of Indian vintage, 10 Jan. 2008, Los Angeles Times ^ The lost Bourbon, in India, 4 March 2007, The Hindu ^ Frieda, Leonie, Catherine de Medici ^ Haine, Scott. The History of France
(1st ed.). Greenwood Press. p. 65. ISBN 0-313-30328-2.  ^ "The heart of Louis XVII, the son of Marie-Antoinette and Louis XVI who died in prison in 1795, has been laid to test in the crypt of Saint-Denis Basilica.(News)(Brief Article)." History Today. History Today Ltd. 2004. HighBeam Research. 18 September 2012;"Louis XVII officially died of TB at the age of ten in the Temple prison." ^ Durant, Will and Durant, Ariel. “The Story of Civilization, Part XI, The Age of Napoleon”. Simon & Schuster, New York, 1975. pp. 730–731, 774. ^ In French: Ils n'ont rien appris, ni rien oublié. There is no historic evidence linking the saying to Talleyrand. It may derive from a similar lamentation about the royalists, found in a letter by Charles Louis Etienne, chevalier de Panat, a French naval officer, dated January 1796 and sent from London to Mallet du Pan: personne n'a su ni rien oublier, ni rien apprendre ("nobody has been able to forget anything, nor to learn anything"), included in: A. Sayou, ed. (1852). Mémoires et correspondance de Mallet du Pan. II. p. 197.  ^ "Documents relating to the Spanish succession". 

Further reading[edit]

has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bourbon.

Bergamini, John D. The Spanish Bourbons: The History of a Tenacious Dynasty. Putnam, 1974. Ogg, David. Europe in the Seventeenth Century (6th ed. 1965). pp 227–80 Petrie, Sir Charles. The Spanish Royal House. Geoffrey Bles, 1958. Seward, Desmond. The Bourbon Kings of France. Barnes & Noble, 1976. J. H. Shennan, The Bourbons: The History of a Dynasty
(London, Hambledon Continuum, 2007).

Other languages[edit]

Van Kerrebrouck, Patrick. La Maison de Bourbon, 1256–1987. ___v. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France: The Author, 1987–2000. [only Vol. 2 & Vol. 4 have been published as of 2005]. Klaus Malettke, Die Bourbonen. Band I: Von Heinrich IV. bis Ludwig XV. 1589–1715 (Stuttgart, W. Kohlhammer, 2008); Band II: Von Ludwig XV. bis Ludwig XVI. 1715-1789/92 (Stuttgart, W. Kohlhammer, 2008); Band III: Von Ludwig XVIII. bis zu Louis Philippe 1814–1848 (Stuttgart, W. Kohlhammer, 2009).

External links[edit]

Bourbon-Bhopal, The Royal "House of Bourbon" in India
Official Website GENEALOGY: The Family Tree of the Bourbons of India
Bourbons of India
and the Bourbons of France Marek, Miroslav. "Jean Philippe, a courtier of the khan, 1525". Genealogy.EU. 

— Royal house — House of Bourbon Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty Founding year: 1272

Preceded by House of Valois Ruling House of France 1589–1792 Monarchy Abolished See French Revolution; eventually House of Bonaparte

Preceded by House of Bonaparte Ruled as French Emperor Ruling House of France 1814–1830 Succeeded by House of Orléans

Preceded by House of Habsburg Ruling House of the Duchy of Burgundy
Duchy of Burgundy
and the Burgundian Netherlands 1700–1713 Succeeded by House of Habsburg

Ruling House of Spain 1700–1808 Succeeded by House of Bonaparte

Vacant Title last held by House of Trastámara Ruling House of Naples and Sicily 1753–1806

Preceded by House of Bonaparte Ruling House of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 1815–1860 Kingdom Abolished Italian Unification
Italian Unification
under the House of Savoy

Ruling House of Spain 1813–1868 Interregnum Bourbon Monarchy overthrown in Glorious Revolution; eventually House of Savoy

Vacant Title last held by House of Savoy Ruling House of Spain 1885–1931 Second Republic Declared

Vacant Spanish State Title last held by House of Bourbon Ruling House of Spain 1975–present Incumbent

Preceded by House of Nassau-Weilburg Ruling House of Luxembourg 1964–present

v t e

House of Bourbon

Henry IV of France


Margaret of Valois Marie de' Medici


Louis XIII Elisabeth, Queen of Spain Christine Marie, Duchess of Savoy Nicolas Henri, Duke of Orléans Gaston, Duke of Orléans Henriette Marie, Queen of England, Ireland and Scotland


Henri, Duke of Beaumont (1551–1553) Louis, Count of Marle (1555–1557) Madeleine (1556) Catherine, Duchess of Lorraine

Illegitimate children

César, Duke of Vendôme Catherine Henriette, Duchess of Elbeuf Alexandre, Chevalier de Vendôme Henri, Duke of Verneuil Gabrielle Angelique, Duchess of La Valette and Epernon Antoine, Count of Moret Jeanne Baptiste, Abess of Fontevraud Marie Henriette, Abess of Chelles


Anne Marie Louise, Duchess of Montpensier Marguerite Louise, Grand Duchess of Tuscany Élisabeth Marguerite, Duchess of Alençon and Angoulême Françoise Madeleine, Duchess of Savoy Princess Marie Anne Jean Gaston, Duke of Valois Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France Philippe, Duke of Orléans

Louis XIII of France


Ana Maria Mauricia of Spain 3


Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France Philippe, Duke of Orléans


Louis, Dauphin of France Princess Anne Élisabeth Princess Marie Anne Princess Marie Therèse, Madame Royale Philippe Charles, Duke of Anjou Louis François, Duke of Anjou Marie Louise, Queen of Spain Philippe Charles, Duke of Valois Anne Marie, Queen of Sardinia Alexandre Louis, Duke of Valois Philippe Charles, Duke of Orléans Élisabeth Charlotte, Duchess of Lorraine

Great grandchildren

Louis, Duke of Burgundy King Felipe of Spain Charles, Duke of Berry Louis, Duke of Orléans

Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France


María Teresa of Spain 3 Françoise d'Aubigné, Marchioness of Maintenon


Louis, Dauphin of France Princess Anne Élisabeth Princess Marie Anne Princess Marie Therèse, Madame Royale Philippe Charles, Duke of Anjou Louis François, Duke of Anjou

Illegitimate children

Marie Anne, Princess of Conti Louis, Count of Vermandois Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine Louis César, Count of Vexin Louise Françoise, Duchess of Bourbon Louise Marie Anne, Mademoiselle de Tours Françoise Marie, Duchess of Orléans Louis Alexandre, Count of Toulouse Louise, Baroness of La Queue


Louis, Duke of Burgundy King Felipe V of Spain p Charles, Duke of Berry Louis Auguste, Prince of Dombes Louis Charles, Count of Eu Louise Françoise, Mademoiselle du Maine Louis Jean Marie, Duke of Penthièvre

Great grandchildren

Louis, Duke of Brittany Louis, Duke of Brittany Louis XV of France Louis I of Spain 1 Felipe of Spain 1 Felipe of Spain 1 Ferdinand VI
Ferdinand VI
of Spain 1 Charles III of Spain 1 Francisco of Spain 1 Mariana Víctoria, Queen of Portugal 1 Philip, Duke of Parma 1 Maria Teresa Rafaela, Dauphine of France 1 Luis, Count of Chinchón 1 Maria Antonietta, Queen of Sardinia 1 Charles, Duke of Alençon Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Alençon Louis Alexandre, Prince of Lamballe

Louis XV of France


Maria Carolina Sophia Felicity Leszczyńska


Louise Élisabeth, Duchess of Parma Princess Henriette Princess Louise (1728–1733) Louis, Dauphin of France Philippe, Duke of Anjou Marie Adélaïde, Duchess of Louvois Princess Victoire Sophie, Duchess of Louvois Princess Thérèse Princess Louise (1737–1787)


Princess Marie Therèse, Madame Royale Princess Marie Zéphyrine Louis, Duke of Burgundy Xavier, Duke of Aquitaine Louis XVI
Louis XVI
of France Louis XVIII of France Charles X of France Clothilde, Queen of Sardinia Princess Élisabeth

Illegitimate children included

Charles de Vintimille Agathe Louise de Saint-Antoine Philippe, Duke of Narbonne-Lara Louis, comte de Narbonne-Lara

Louis XVI
Louis XVI
of France


Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria 2


Marie Thérèse, Duchess of Angoulême Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France Louis XVII of France Princess Sophie Hélène

Louis XVII of France


Louis had no children; he died aged 10 in 1795. His uncle, the future Louis XVIII of France, proclaimed himself regent but both titles were disputed.

See Bourbon Restoration.

Louis XVIII of France


Princess Marie Joséphine of Savoy

Charles X of France


Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy


Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême Sophie, Mademoiselle Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry Marie Thérèse, Mademoiselle d'Angoulême


Princess Louise Élisabeth Prince Louis Louise Marie Thérèse, Duchess of Parma Henri, Count of Chambord

Notes 1 also an Infante
or Infanta
of Spain 2 also an Archduchess of Austria 3 both p Philip was the first Bourbon king of Spain, the country's present ruling house.

v t e

Royal houses of Europe

Nordic countries


Knýtlinga Fairhair Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg


Bjelbo Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov


Fairhair Knýtlinga Hardrada Gille Sverre Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg


Munsö Stenkil Sverker Eric Bjelbo Estridsen Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse-Kassel Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte


Fairhair Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Britain and Ireland


Mercia Wuffing Kent Sussex Essex Bernicia Deira Northumbria Uí Ímair Wessex Knýtlinga Normandy Angevin Plantagenet Lancaster York Tudor


Fergus Óengus Strathclyde Mann and the Isles Alpin Northumbria Bernicia Uí Ímair Galloway Dunkeld Sverre Balliol Bruce Stuart


Dinefwr Aberffraw Gwynedd Mathrafal Cunedda Tudor


Ulaid Dál Riata Érainn Corcu Loígde Laigin Connachta Uí Néill Ó Gallchobhair Ó Domhnail Ó Néill Ó Máel Sechlainn Mac Murchada Ó Briain Mac Lochlainn Ó Conchobhair

Gaelic Ireland

Laigin Síl Conairi Ulaid Dáirine Osraige Cruthin Dál nAraidi Connachta Uí Fiachrach Uí Briúin Uí Néill Síl nÁedo Sláine Clann Cholmáin Eóganachta Chaisil Glendamnach Raithlind Uí Dúnlainge Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
(Norse) Uí Ceinnselaig Dál gCais Ó Briain Mac Carthaig Ó Conchobhair Ó Ruairc De Burgh (Norman) FitzGerald (Norman) Ó Domhnaill Ó Néill

Great Britain

Stuart Orange-Nassau Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Windsor

Eastern Europe


Angevin Progon Arianiti Thopia Kastrioti Dukagjini Wied Zogu Ottoman Savoy


Orontid Artaxiad Arsacid Bagratid Artsruni Rubenids Hethumids Lusignan Savoy


Boričević Kulinić Kotromanić Kosača Ottoman Habsburg-Lorraine


Dulo Krum Cometopuli Asen Smilets Terter Shishman Sratsimir Battenberg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Trpimirović Domagojević Svačić Ottoman Luxembourg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine Bonaparte Savoy (disputed)


Plantagenet Lusignan Ottoman Savoy


Pharnavazid Artaxiad Arsacid Ottoman Chosroid Bagrationi


Argead Macedonian Doukas Komnenos Angelos Laskaris Palaiologos Ottoman Wittelsbach Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg


Mindaugas Gediminids Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov


Dragoș (Drăgoșești) Rossetti Bogdan-Muşat Movilești Drăculeşti Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Racoviță Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Basarab


Vojislavljević Balšić Ottoman Crnojević Petrović-Njegoš


House of Basarab Rossetti Bogdan-Mușat Movilești Drăculești Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Romanov Racoviță Ottoman Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Romania/Royal family


Rurik Borjigin Godunov Shuysky Vasa Romanov


Vlastimirović Vukanović Nemanjić Lazarević Mrnjavčević Dejanović Branković Ottoman Obrenović Karađorđević




Rurikids Piast Gediminids Olshanski Olelkovich Giray Romanov Habsburg-Lorraine

1 Transcontinental country. 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia
but having socio-political connections with Europe.

Western Europe


Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Merovingian Carolingian Capet Valois Bourbon Bonaparte Orléans


Aleramici Appiani Bonaparte Bourbon-Parma Bourbon-Two Sicilies Carolingian Della Rovere Este Farnese Flavian Gonzaga Grimaldi Habsburg Julio-Claudian Malatesta Malaspina Medici Montefeltro Nerva–Antonine Ordelaffi Orsini Palaiologos Pallavicini Savoy Severan Sforza Visconti


Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Bourbon-Parma




Bonaparte Orange-Nassau (Mecklenburg) (Lippe) (Amsberg)


Vímara Peres Burgundy Aviz Habsburg
Spanish Braganza

Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Asturias Barcelona Jiménez Burgundy Champagne Capet Évreux Trastámara Habsburg Bourbon

Bonaparte Savoy

Central Europe


Babenberg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine


Přemyslid Piast Luxembourg Jagiellon Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine


Ascania Carolingian Conradines Ottonian Luitpolding Salian Süpplingenburg Hohenstaufen Welf Habsburg Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Nassau Luxembourg Wittelsbach Schwarzburg Brunswick-Lüneburg House of Pomerania Hohenzollern Württemberg Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Mecklenburg Vasa Palatine Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov Bonaparte Wettin Lippe Zähringen


Árpád Přemyslid Wittelsbach Angevin Luxembourg Hunyadi Jagiellon Szapolyai Ottoman Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine




Piast Přemyslid Samborides Griffins Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski

After partitions:

Kingdom of Poland Habsburg
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Wettin Duchy of Warsaw Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk Hohenzollern Duchy of Poznań

v t e

Heads of state of France

Styled President of the Republic after 1871, except from 1940 to 1944 (Chief of State) and 1944 to 1947 (Chairman of the Provisional Government). Detailed monarch family tree Simplified monarch family tree

Merovingians (486–751)

Clovis I Childebert I Chlothar I Charibert I Guntram Chilperic I Sigebert I Childebert II Chlothar II Dagobert I Sigebert II Clovis II Chlothar III Childeric II Theuderic III Clovis IV Childebert III Dagobert III Chilperic II Chlothar IV Theuderic IV Childeric III

Carolingians, Robertians and Bosonids (751–987)

Pepin the Short Carloman I Charlemagne
(Charles I) Louis I Charles II Louis II Louis III Carloman II Charles the Fat OdoR Charles III Robert IR RudolphB Louis IV Lothair Louis V

House of Capet
House of Capet

Hugh Capet Robert II Henry I Philip I Louis VI Louis VII Philip II Louis VIII Louis IX Philip III Philip IV Louis X John I Philip V Charles IV

House of Valois
House of Valois

Philip VI John II Charles V Charles VI Charles VII Louis XI Charles VIII Louis XII Francis I Henry II Francis II Charles IX Henry III

House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster

Henry VI of England

House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon

Henry IV Louis XIII Louis XIV Louis XV Louis XVI Louis XVII

First Republic (1792–1804)

National Convention Directory Consulate

First Empire (1804–1815)

I Napoleon

Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration

Louis XVIII Charles X Louis XIX Henry V

July Monarchy
July Monarchy

Louis Philippe I

Second Republic (1848–1852)

Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure Executive Commission Louis-Eugène Cavaignac Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte

Second Empire (1852–1870)


Government of National Defense (1870–1871)

Louis-Jules Trochu

Third Republic (1871–1940)

Adolphe Thiers Patrice de Mac-Mahon Jules Armand Dufaure* Jules Grévy Maurice Rouvier* Sadi Carnot Charles Dupuy* Jean Casimir-Perier Charles Dupuy* Félix Faure Charles Dupuy* Émile Loubet Armand Fallières Raymond Poincaré Paul Deschanel Alexandre Millerand Frédéric François-Marsal* Gaston Doumergue Paul Doumer André Tardieu* Albert Lebrun

Vichy France

Philippe Pétain

Provisional Government (1944–1947)

Charles de Gaulle Félix Gouin Georges Bidault Vincent Auriol Léon Blum

Fourth Republic (1947–1958)

Vincent Auriol René Coty

Fifth Republic (1958–present)

Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher* Georges Pompidou Alain Poher* Valéry Giscard d'Estaing François Mitterrand Jacques Chirac Nicolas Sarkozy François Hollande Emmanuel Macron

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk*. Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before being fully elected.

v t e

French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year


Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)


What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)


Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility
(19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)


Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)


declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)


Execution of Louis XVI
Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)


Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)


Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795


Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)


Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns


Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)


First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)


Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)


Peace of Basel


Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)


Naval Engagement off Brittany (13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)


French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)


Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)


Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)


Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)


Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois



József Alvinczi Archduke
Charles, Duke of Teschen Count of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc
(French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser


Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince of Orange


Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen


Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov


Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard


Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau


Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal


Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

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