The three dynasties of BourbonThe first were the lords of Bourbon, who died out by the males in 1171, then by the women in 1216. Their coat of arms are: D'or au lion de gueules, et à l'orle de huit coquilles d'azur Nicolas Louis Achaintre, ''Genealogical and chronological history of the royal house of Bourbon'' vol. 1, ed. Didot, 1825, page 45. The second family formed by the marriage of the last descendant of the first family, Mathilde of Bourbon with Guy II of Dampierre, this land passed to the house of Dampierre in 1196. The coat of arms of this family is: "De gueules à deux léopards d'or, avec couronne de baron", but they took the coat of arms of the previous ones. The son of Guy de Dampierre and Mahaut de Bourbon, Archambaud VIII, took the name and arms of his mother, "de Bourbon", the House of Bourbon-Dampierre. By the marriage of, Agnes of Dampierre (died around 1287), with John of Burgundy (1231–68), John of Burgundy, this important lordship passed to their daughter Beatrice of Burgundy, Lady of Bourbon, Béatrice de Bourgogne (1257–1310), lady of Bourbon, then to her husband* Robert, Count of Clermont (1256–1317), and penultimate child of Louis IX of France, Saint Louis, thus possessing the land of Bourbon by "the right of the woman (''de iure uxoris''). The third house of Bourbon acceded to the throne of Lower Navarre, Navarre in 1555, then to the throne of France in 1589 by Henry IV of France, Henri IV. His coat of arms are: "D'azur, fleurs-de-lys d'or sans nombre, l'écu brisé d'un bâton ou cotice de gueules, brochant sur le tout, avec couronne de fils de France. The name '' House of Bourbon '' was then used to describe the entire House of France, officially since 29 June 1768, date of death of Hélène de Courtenay (1689–1768), with which was extinguished the Capetian House of Courtenay, extinction which made the House of France the only branch dynasty resulting from the dukes of Bourbon.
First House of BourbonThe Lords of Bourbon, 9th century until 1196. *Knight Aymar of Bourbon, Aymar or Adhemar, († v. 953) **Aymon I of Bourbon, Aymon Ier, Lord of Bourbon († v. 959) ***Archambaud I of Bourbon, Archambaud I the Frank, Lord of Bourbon († v. 990) ****Archambaud II of Bourbon, Archambaud II the Old Man, Lord of Bourbon († v. 1031) *****Archambaud III of Bourbon, Archambaud III the Younger, Lord of Bourbon († 1064) ******Archambaud IV of Bourbon, Archambaud IV the Strong, Lord of Bourbon († 1078) *******Archambaud V of Bourbon, Archambaud V the Pious, Lord of Bourbon († 1096) ********Archambaud VI of Bourbon, Archambaud VI the Pupil, Lord of Bourbon († 1116) *********Aymon II of Bourbon, Aymon II Cow-Coward, Lord of Bourbon († 1120) **********Archambaud VII of Bourbon, Archambaud VII, Lord of Bourbon († 1171) ***********[Bourbon Archambaud] († 1169) ************Mathilde of Bourbon, Mathilde Ire, Lady of Bourbon († 1218) x Guy II of Dampierre, Marshal of Champagne († 1216) *************, → see below
Second House of Bourbon (Bourbon-Dampierre)Prince of Bourbon since 1196. Guy II of Dampierre, Marshal of Champagne († 1216) x Mathilde of Bourbon, Mathilde, Lady of Bourbon († 1218) , , →Archambaud VIII of Bourbon, Archambaud VIII The Big, Prince of Bourbon († 1242) , , →Archambaud IX of Bourbon, Archambaud IX The Young, Lord of Bourbon († 1249) x Yolande de Nevers, Yolande de Châtillon , , →Mathilde II de Bourbon, Mahaut II, Lady of Bourbon, Countess of Nevers, d'Auxerre and of Tonnerre († 1262) , x Eudes of Bourgogne (1230–1269), Eudes of Bourgogne († 1266) , , →House of Bourgogne , , →Agnes of Dampierre, Agnès († vers 1287) x John of Burgundy (1231–68), Jean of Bourgogne, Prince de Charolais († 1267) , → Beatrice of Burgundy, Lady of Bourbon, Béatrice of Bourgogne, Lady of Bourbon, Countess of Charolais x Robert, Count of Clermont, Robert (1256–1317), Count of Clermont, , see below
Third and current House of BourbonPrinces and Dukes of Bourbon from 1327 to 1830.
OriginsThe pre-Capetian House of Bourbonnais, Bourbon was a nobility, noble family, dating at least from the beginning of the 13th century, when the family seat, estate of Bourbon was ruled by the Sire de Bourbon who was a vassal of the King of France. The term House of Bourbon ("Maison de Bourbon") is sometimes used to refer to this :fr:Première maison de Bourbon, first house and the House of Bourbon-Dampierre, the second family to rule the Manorialism, seigneury. In 1272, Robert, Count of Clermont, sixth and youngest son of King Louis IX of France, married Beatrix of Burgundy, Dame de Bourbon, Beatrix of Bourbon, heiress to the lordship of Bourbon and member of the House of Bourbon-Dampierre. Their son Louis I, Duke of Bourbon, Louis was made Duke of Bourbon in 1327. His descendant, the Constable of France Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, Charles de Bourbon, was the last of the senior Bourbon line when he died in 1527. Because he chose to fight under the banner of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V and lived in exile from France, his title was discontinued after his death. The remaining line of Bourbons henceforth descended from James I, Count of La Marche, the younger son of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon. With the death of his grandson James II, Count of La Marche in 1438, the senior line of the Count of La Marche became extinct. All future Bourbons would descend from James II's younger brother, Louis, Count of Vendôme, Louis, who became the Count of Vendôme through his mother's inheritance. In 1525, at the death of Charles IV, Duke of Alençon, all of the prince du sang, princes of the blood royal were Bourbons; all remaining members of the House of Valois were members of the king's immediate family. In 1514, Charles, Duke of Vendôme, Charles, Count of Vendôme had his title raised to Duke of Vendôme. His son Antoine of Navarre, Antoine became King of Kingdom of Navarre, Navarre, on the northern side of the Pyrenees, by marriage in 1555. Two of Antoine's younger brothers were Cardinal Archbishop Charles de Bourbon (cardinal), Charles de Bourbon and the French and Huguenot general Louis, Prince of Condé (1530–1569), Louis de Bourbon, 1st Prince of Condé. Louis' male-line descendants, the Princes of Condé, Princes de Condé, survived until 1830. Finally, in 1589, the House of Valois died out and Antoine's son Henry IV of France, Henry III of Navarre became Henry IV of France.
List of Bourbons
Bourbon branches* House of Clermont, later called House of Bourbon ** Duke of Bourbon#Peerage, House of the Dukes of Bourbon (extinct 1521 in total; extinct 1503 in the male line) *** ''House of Bourbon-Lavedan (illegitimate)'', extinct 1744 *** ''House of Bourbon-Busset (illegitimate)'' *** ''House of Bourbon-Roussillon (illegitimate)'', extinct 1510 *** Duchy of Montpensier#Counts of Montpensier (1384), House of Bourbon-Montpensier, Counts of Montpensier (extinct 1527) ** County of La Marche#Capetian-Bourbon dynasty, House of Bourbon-La Marche (extinct 1438) *** List of counts and dukes of Vendôme#House of Bourbon, House of Bourbon-Vendôme **** List of French monarchs#House of Bourbon (1589–1792), House of Bourbon, Kings of France ***** Henri, Count of Chambord, House of Artois (extinct 1883) ***** List of heads of state of Spain#House of Bourbon (1700–1808), House of Bourbon, Kings of Spain ****** Carlism#Carlist claimants to the throne, Carlists (extinct 1936) ****** Alfonso XII of Spain, Alfonsines ******* Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia, House of Bourbon-Anjou ******* Spanish royal family, House of Bourbon, Kings of Spain ****** Duke of Seville, House of Bourbon-Seville ****** House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies ****** House of Bourbon-Braganza (extinct 1979) ****** House of Bourbon-Parma ******* Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg, House of Luxembourg-Nassau ***** ''House of Bourbon-Maine (illegitimate)'', extinct 1775 ***** ''Bourbon-Penthièvre, House of Bourbon-Penthièvre (illegitimate)'', extinct 1793 ***** House of Orléans ****** House of Orléans-Braganza ****** Duke of Galliera#Orléans dukes, House of Orléans-Galliera ***** ''Bourbon-Vendôme, House of Bourbon-Vendôme (illegitimate)'', extinct 1727 **** Princes of Condé, House of Bourbon-Condé (extinct 1830) ***** Princes of Conti, House of Bourbon-Conti (extinct 1814) ***** Count of Soissons, House of Bourbon-Soissons (extinct 1692 in total; extinct 1641 in the male line) **** Francis de Bourbon, Count of St. Pol, House of Bourbon-Saint Pol (extinct 1601 in total; extinct 1546 in the male line) **** Duchy of Montpensier#Dukes of Montpensier (1539), House of Bourbon-Montpensier, Dukes of Montpensier (extinct 1693 in total; extinct 1608 in the male line) *** House of Bourbon-Carency (extinct 1520) **** House of Bourbon-Duisant (extinct 1530) *** House of Bourbon-Préaux (extinct 1442) Family from India's claim to be a branch and their claim to The "Throne of France" * Bourbons of India, claim to be descendants of , of the first House of Bourbon-Montpensier.Found in India the last king of France
Rise of Henry IVThe first Bourbon king of France was Henry IV of France, Henry IV. He was born on 13 December 1553 in the Kingdom of Navarre. Antoine de Bourbon, his father, was a ninth-generation descendant of King Louis IX of France. Jeanne d'Albret, his mother was the Queen of Navarre and niece of King Francis I of France. He was baptized Catholicism, Catholic, but raised Calvinism, Calvinist. After his father was killed in 1562, he became Duke of Vendôme at the age of 10, with Admiral Gaspard II de Coligny, Gaspard de Coligny (1519–1572) as his regent. Seven years later, the young duke became the nominal leader of the Huguenots after the death of his uncle the Louis I, Prince of Condé, Prince de Condé in 1569. Henry succeeded to Navarre as Henry III when his mother died in 1572. That same year Catherine de' Medici, mother of King Charles IX of France, arranged for the marriage of her daughter, Margaret of Valois, to Henry, ostensibly to advance peace between Catholics and Huguenots. Many Huguenots gathered in Paris for the wedding on 24 August, but were ambushed and slaughtered by Catholics in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Henry saved his own life by converting to Catholicism. He repudiated his conversion in 1576 and resumed his leadership of the Huguenots. The period from 1576 to 1584 was relatively calm in France, with the Huguenots consolidating control of much of the south with only occasional interference from the royal government. Extended civil war erupted again in 1584, when François, Duke of Anjou, younger brother of King Henry III of France, died, leaving Navarre next in line for the throne. Thus began the War of the Three Henrys, as Henry of Navarre, Henry III, and the ultra-Catholic leader, Henry I, Duke of Guise, Henry of Guise, fought a confusing three-cornered struggle for dominance. After Henry III was assassinated on 31 July 1589, Navarre claimed the throne as the first Bourbon king of France, Henry IV. Much of Catholic France, organized into the Catholic League (French), Catholic League, refused to recognize a Protestant monarch and instead recognized Henry IV's uncle, Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon, as rightful king, and the civil war continued. Henry won a crucial victory at Battle of Ivry, Ivry on 14 March 1590 and, following the death of the Cardinal the same year, the forces of the League lacked an obvious Catholic candidate for the throne and divided into various factions. Nevertheless, as a Protestant, Henry IV was unable to take Paris, a Catholic stronghold, or to decisively defeat his enemies, now supported by the Spanish. He reconverted to Catholicism in 1593—he is said to have remarked, "Paris is well worth a mass"—and was crowned king retroactively to 1589 at the Cathedral of Chartres on 27 February 1594.
Early Bourbons in FranceHenry granted the Edict of Nantes on 13 April 1598, establishing Catholicism as an official state religion but also granting the Huguenots a measure of religious tolerance and political freedom short of full equality with the practice of Catholicism. This compromise ended the religious wars in France. That same year the Treaty of Vervins ended the war with Spain, adjusted the Spanish-French border, and resulted in a belated recognition by Spain of Henry as king of France. Ably assisted by Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully, Henry reduced the land tax known as the ''taille''; promoted agriculture, public works, construction of highways, and the first French canal; started such important industries as the tapestry works of the Gobelins manufactory, Gobelins; and intervened in favor of Protestants in the duchies and earldoms along the German frontier. This last was to be the cause of his assassination. Henry's marriage to Margaret, which had produced no heir, was annulled in 1599 and he married Marie de Medici, niece of the grand duke of Tuscany. A son, Louis, was born to them in 1601. Henry IV was assassinated on 14 May 1610 in Paris. Louis XIII of France, Louis XIII was only nine years old when he succeeded his father. He was to prove a weak ruler; his reign was effectively a series of distinct regimes, depending who held the effective reins of power. At first, Marie de Medici, his mother, served as regent and advanced a pro-Spanish policy. To deal with the financial troubles of France, Louis summoned the Estates General (France), Estates General in 1614; this would be the last time that body met until the eve of the French Revolution. Marie arranged the 1615 marriage of Louis to Anne of Austria, the daughter of King Philip III of Spain. In 1617, however, Louis conspired with Charles de Luynes, Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes to dispense with her influence, having her favorite Concino Concini assassinated on 26 April of that year. After some years of weak government by Louis's favorites, the King made Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, a former protégé of his mother, the chief minister of France in 1624. Richelieu advanced an anti-Habsburg policy. He arranged for Louis' sister, Henrietta Maria, to marry King Charles I of England, on 11 May 1625. Her pro-Catholic propaganda in England was one of the contributing factors to the English Civil War. Richelieu, as ambitious for France and the French monarchy as for himself, laid the ground for the absolute monarchy that would last in France until the Revolution. He wanted to establish a dominating position for France in Europe, and he wanted to unify France under the monarchy. He established the role of ''intendants'', non-noble men whose arbitrary powers of administration were granted (and revocable) by the monarch, superseding many of the traditional duties and privileges of the noble governors. Although it required a succession of internal military campaigns, he disarmed the fortified Huguenot towns that Henry had allowed. He involved France in the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) against the Habsburgs by Treaty of Bärwalde, concluding an alliance with Sweden in 1631 and, actively, in 1635. He died in 1642 before the conclusion of that conflict, having groomed Cardinal Jules Mazarin as a successor. Louis XIII outlived him but by one year, dying in 1643 at the age of forty-two. After a childless marriage for twenty-three years his queen, Anne, delivered a son on 5 September 1638, whom he named Louis after himself. In the mid eighteenth century, the Bourbon monarchy had a faulty system for finance and taxation. Their lacking a national bank lead to them taking short-term loans, and ordering financial agents to make payments in advance or in excess of tax revenues collected.
Louis XIV and Louis XVLouis XIV of France, Louis XIV succeeded his father at four years of age; he would go on to become the most powerful king in French history. His mother Anne served as his regent with her favorite Jules, Cardinal Mazarin, as chief minister. At age 7 Nicolas de Neufville de Villeroy, Nicolas V de Villeroy became the teacher of the young king. The main childhood places of Louis XIV were the Palais-Royal and the nearby Hôtel de Villeroy (Paris, 1st arrondissement), Hôtel de Villeroy. Mazarin continued the policies of Richelieu, bringing the Thirty Years' War to a successful conclusion in 1648 and defeating the nobility's challenge to royal absolutism in a series of civil wars known as the Frondes. He continued to war with Spain until 1659. In that year the Treaty of the Pyrenees was signed signifying a major shift in power, France had replaced Spain as the dominant state in Europe. The treaty called for an arranged marriage between Louis and his cousin Maria Theresa of Spain, Maria Theresa, a daughter of King Philip IV of Spain by his first wife Elisabeth, the sister of Louis XIII. They were married in 1660 and had a son, Louis, in 1661. Mazarin died on 9 March 1661 and it was expected that Louis would appoint another chief minister, as had become the tradition, but instead he shocked the country by announcing he would rule alone. For six years Louis reformed the finances of his state and built formidable armed forces. France fought a series of wars from 1667 onward and gained some territory on its northern and eastern borders. Maria Theresa died in 1683 and the next year he secretly married the devoutly Catholic Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon. Louis XIV began to persecute Protestants, undoing the religious tolerance established by his grandfather Henry IV, culminating in his revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. The last war waged by Louis XIV proved to be one of the most important to dynastic Europe. In 1700, King Charles II of Spain, a Habsburg, died without a son. Louis's son the ''Grand Dauphin'', as the late king's nephew, was the closest heir, and Charles willed the kingdom to the Dauphin's second son, the Duke of Anjou. Other powers, particularly the Austrian Habsburgs, who had the next closest claims, objected to such a vast increase in French power. Initially, most of the other powers were willing to accept Anjou's reign as Philip V of Spain, Philip V, but Louis's mishandling of their concerns soon drove the English, Dutch and other powers to join the Austrians in a coalition against France. The War of the Spanish Succession began in 1701 and raged for 12 years. In the end Louis's grandson was recognized as king of Spain, but he was obliged to agree to the forfeiture of succession rights in France, the Habsburg Spain, Spanish Habsburgs' other European territories were largely ceded to Austria, and France was nearly bankrupted by the cost of the struggle. Louis died on 1 September 1715 ending his seventy-two-year reign, the longest in European history. The reign of Louis XIV was so long that he outlived both his son and eldest grandson. He was succeeded by his great-grandson Louis XV of France, Louis XV. Louis XV was born on 15 February 1710 and was thus aged only five at his ascension, the third Louis in a row to become king of France before the age of thirteen (Louis XIII became king at 9, Louis XIV at almost 5 and himself at 5). Initially, the regency was held by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Philippe, Duke of Orléans, Louis XIV's nephew, as nearest adult male to the throne. This ''Régence'' was seen as a period of greater individual expression, manifested in secular, artistic, literary and colonial activity, in contrast to the austere latter years of Louis XIV's reign. Following Orléans' death in 1723, the Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon, Duke of Bourbon, representative of the Bourbon-Condé cadet line, became prime minister. It was expected that Louis would marry his cousin, the daughter of King Philip V of Spain, but this engagement was broken by the duke in 1725 so that Louis could marry Maria Leszczynska, the daughter of Stanislas, former king of Poland. Bourbon's motive appears to have been a desire to produce an heir as soon as possible so as to reduce the chances of a succession dispute between Philip V and the Duke of Orléans in the event of the sickly king's death. Maria was already an adult woman at the time of the marriage, while the infanta was still a young girl. Nevertheless, Bourbon's action brought a very negative response from Spain, and for his incompetence Bourbon was soon replaced by Cardinal André-Hercule de Fleury, the young king's tutor, in 1726. Fleury was a peace-loving man who intended to keep France out of war, but circumstances presented themselves that made this impossible. The first cause of these wars came in 1733 when Augustus II of Poland, Augustus II, the elector of Saxony and king of Poland died. With French support, Stanislas was again elected king. This brought France into conflict with Russia and Austria who supported Augustus III, Elector of Saxony and son of Augustus II. Stanislas lost the Polish crown, but he was given the Duchy of Lorraine as compensation, which would pass to France after his death. Next came the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740 in which France supported King Frederick II of Prussia against Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary. Fleury died in 1743 before the conclusion of the war. Shortly after Fleury's death in 1745 Louis was influenced by his mistress the Marquise de Pompadour to reverse the policy of France in 1756 by creating an alliance with Austria against Prussia in the Seven Years' War. The war was a disaster for France, which lost most of her overseas possessions to the British in the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Maria, his wife, died in 1768 and Louis himself died on 10 May 1774.
French RevolutionLouis XVI of France, Louis XVI had become the Dauphin of France upon the death of his father Louis, Dauphin of France (1729–1765), Louis, the son of Louis XV, in 1765. He married Marie Antoinette of Austria, a daughter of Holy Roman Empress Maria Theresa, in 1770. Louis intervened in the American Revolution against Britain in 1778, but he is most remembered for his role in the French Revolution. France was in financial turmoil and Louis was forced to convene the Estates-General of 1789, Estates-General on 5 May 1789. They formed the National Assembly (French Revolution), National Assembly and forced Louis to accept a constitution that limited his powers on 14 July 1789. He Flight to Varennes, tried to flee France in June 1791, but was captured. The French monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792 and French First Republic, a republic was proclaimed. The chain of Bourbon monarchs begun in 1589 was broken. Louis XVI was executed on 21 January 1793. Marie Antoinette and her son, Louis, were held as prisoners. Many French royalists proclaimed him Louis XVII of France, Louis XVII, but he never reigned. She was executed on 16 October 1793. He died of tuberculosis on 8 June 1795 at the age of ten while in captivity. The French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars spread nationalism and anti-absolutism throughout Europe, and the other Bourbon monarchs were threatened. Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, Ferdinand was forced to flee from Naples in 1806 when Napoleon Bonaparte deposed him and installed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, Joseph, as king. Ferdinand continued to rule from Sicily until 1815. Napoleon conquered Parma in 1800 and compensated the Bourbon duke with Kingdom of Etruria, Etruria, a new kingdom he created from the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. It was short-lived, counting only two monarchs, Louis I of Etruria, Louis and Charles II, Duke of Parma, Charles, as Napoleon annexed Etruria in 1807. King Charles IV of Spain had been an ally of France. He succeeded his father, Charles III of Spain, Charles III, in 1788. At first he declared war on France on 7 March 1793, but he made peace on 22 June 1795. This peace became an alliance on 19 August 1796. His chief minister, Manuel de Godoy convinced Charles that his son, Ferdinand, was plotting to overthrow him. Napoleon exploited the situation and invaded Spain in March 1808. This led to an uprising that forced Charles to abdicate on 19 March in favor of his son, Ferdinand VII. Napoleon forced Ferdinand to return the crown to Charles on 30 April and then convinced Charles to relinquish it to him on 10 May. In turn, he gave it to his brother, Joseph, king of Naples on 6 June. Joseph abandoned Naples to Joachim Murat, the husband of Napoleon's sister. This was very unpopular in Spain and resulted in the Peninsular War, a struggle that would contribute to the downfall of Napoleon.
Bourbon RestorationWith the abdication of Napoleon on 11 April 1814 the Bourbon dynasty was restored to the kingdom of France in the person of Louis XVIII of France, Louis XVIII, brother of Louis XVI. Napoleon escaped from exile and Louis fled in March 1815. Louis was again restored after the Battle of Waterloo on 7 July. The conservative elements of Europe dominated the post-Napoleonic age, but the values of the French Revolution could not be easily swept aside. Louis granted a constitution on 14 June 1814 to appease the liberals, but the ultra-royalist party, led by his brother, Charles, continued to influence his reign.Will Durant, Durant, Will and Ariel Durant, Durant, Ariel. ''The Story of Civilization'', Part XI, The Age of Napoleon". Simon & Schuster, New York, 1975. pp. 730–731, 774. When he died in 1824 his brother became king as Charles X of France, Charles X much to the dismay of French liberals. In a saying ascribed to Talleyrand, "they had learned nothing and forgotten nothing".
AftermathCharles passed several laws that appealed to the upper class, but angered the middle class. The situation came to a head when he appointed a new minister on 8 August 1829 who did not have the confidence of the chamber. The chamber censured the king on 18 March 1830 and in response Charles proclaimed five ordinances on 26 July intended to silence criticism against him. This almost resulted in another revolution as dramatic as the one in 1789, but moderates were able to control the situation. As a compromise the crown was offered to Louis Philippe I, Louis Philippe, duke of Orléans, a descendant of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, the brother of Louis XIV, and the head of the Orléanist cadet branch of the Bourbons. Agreeing to reign constitutionally and under the Tricolour (flag), tricolour, he was proclaimed King of the French on 7 August. The resulting regime, known as the July Monarchy, lasted until the French Revolution of 1848, Revolution of 1848. The Bourbon monarchy in France ended on 24 February 1848, when Louis Philippe was forced to abdicate and the short-lived French Second Republic, Second Republic was established. Some Legitimists refused to recognize the Orléanist monarchy. After the death of Charles in 1836 his son was proclaimed Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême, Louis XIX, though this title was never formally recognized. Charles' grandson Henri, Count of Chambord, the last Bourbon claimant of the French crown, was proclaimed by some Henry V, but the French monarchy was never restored. Following the 1870 collapse of the empire of Emperor Napoleon III, Henri was offered a restored throne. However Chambord refused to accept the throne unless France abandoned the revolution-inspired Flag of France, tricolour and accepted what he regarded as the true Bourbon flag of France, featuring the fleur-de-lis. The tricolour, originally associated with the French Revolution and the French First Republic, First Republic, had been used by the July Monarchy, the Second Republic and both Empires; the French National Assembly could not possibly agree. A ''temporary'' French Third Republic, Third Republic was established, while monarchists waited for the comte de Chambord to die and for the succession to pass to Prince Philippe, Count of Paris, who was willing to accept the tricolour. Henri lived until 1883, by which time public opinion had come to accept the republic as the "form of government that divides us least." His death without issue marked the extinction of the French Bourbons. Thus the head of the House of Bourbon became Juan, Count of Montizón of the Spanish line of the house who was also Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain, and had become the senior male of the dynasty by primogeniture. His heir as eldest Bourbon and head of the house is today Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou. By an ordinance of Louis Philippe I of 13 August 1830, it was decided that the king's children (and his sister) would continue to bear the arms of Orléans, that Louis-Philippe's eldest son, as Prince Royal, would bear the title of Duke of Orléans, that the younger sons would continue to have their existing titles, and that the sister and daughters of the king would be styled ''Royal Highness'' and "d'Orléans", but the Orléans dynasts did not take the name "of France".
Bourbons of Spain and Italy
Philip VFile:Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg, upright=0.7, Arms of the present King of Spain of the House of Bourbon The Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon was founded by Philip V. He was born in 1683 in Versailles, the second son of the Grand Dauphin, son of Louis XIV. He was Duke of Anjou and probably never expected to be raised to a rank higher than that. However King Charles II of Spain, dying without issue, willed the throne to his grand-nephew the Duke of Anjou, younger grandson of his eldest sister Maria Theresa of Spain, Marie-Thérèse, daughter of King Philip IV of Spain who had married Louis XIV of France. The prospect of Bourbons on both the French and Spanish thrones was resisted as creating an European balance of power, imbalance of power in Europe by its historical powers, dominant regimes and, upon Charles II's death on 1 November 1700, a Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg), Grand Alliance of European nations united against Philip. This was known as the War of Spanish Succession. In the Treaty of Utrecht, signed on 11 April 1713, Philip was recognized as king of Spain but his renunciation of succession rights to France was affirmed and, of the Spanish Empire's other European territories, Sicily was ceded to Savoy, and the Spanish Netherlands, Milan and Naples were allotted to the House of Habsburg, Austrian Habsburgs. Philip had two sons by his first wife. After her death he married Elisabeth Farnese, niece of Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma, in 1714. She presented Philip with three sons, for whom she had ambitions of securing Italian crowns. Thus she induced Philip to occupy Sardinia and Sicily in 1717. A Quadruple Alliance (1718), Quadruple Alliance of Britain, France, Austria and the Netherlands was organized on 2 August 1718 to stop him. In the Treaty of The Hague (1720), Treaty of The Hague, signed on 17 February 1720, Philip renounced his conquests of Sardinia and Sicily, but assured the ascension of his eldest son by Elisabeth to the Duchy of Parma upon the reigning duke's death. Philip abdicated in January 1724 in favor of Louis of Spain, Louis I, his eldest son with his first wife, but Louis died in August and Philip resumed the crown. When the War of the Polish Succession began in 1733, Philip and Elisabeth saw another opportunity to advance the claims of their sons and recover at least part of the former possessions of the Spanish crown on the Italian peninsula. Philip signed the Pacte de Famille, Family Compact with Louis XV, his nephew and king of France. Charles, Duke of Parma since 1731, invaded Naples. At the conclusion of peace on 13 November 1738, control of Parma and Piacenza was ceded to Austria, which had occupied the duchies but was now forced to recognise Charles as King of Naples and Sicily. Philip also used the War of the Austrian Succession to win more territory in Italy. He did not live to see it to its conclusion, however, dying in 1746.
Ferdinand VI and Charles IIIFerdinand VI, second son of Philip V and his first wife, succeeded his father. He was a peace-loving monarch who kept Spain out of the Seven Years' War. He died in 1759 in the midst of that conflict and was succeeded by his half-brother Charles III of Spain, Charles III. Charles was the eldest son of Philip and Elisabeth Farnese. He was born in 1716 and had become Duke of Parma when the last Farnese duke died in 1731. Following Spain's victory over the Austrians at the battle of Bitonto, it proved inexpedient to reunite Naples and Sicily to Spain, so as a compromise Charles became King of Naples, as Charles IV and VII of Sicily. Following Charles' accession to the Spanish throne in 1759 he was required, by the Treaty of Naples of 3 October 1759, to abdicate Naples and Sicily to his third son, Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, Ferdinand, thus initiating the branch known as the Neapolitan Bourbons. Charles revived the Family Compact with France on 15 August 1761 and joined in the Seven Years' War against Britain in 1762; the reformist policies he had espoused in Naples were pursued with similar energy in Spain, where he completely overhauled the cumbersome bureaucracy of the state. As a French ally he opposed Britain during the American Revolution in June 1779, supplying large quantities of weapons and munitions to the rebels and keeping one third of all the British forces in the Americas occupied defending Florida and what is now Alabama, which were ultimately recaptured by Spain. Charles died in 1788.
Bourbons of ParmaElisabeth Farnese's ambitions were realized at the conclusion of the War of the Austrian Succession in 1748 when the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza, already occupied by Spanish troops, were ceded by Austria to her second son, Philip of Parma, Philip, and combined with the former House of Gonzaga, Gonzaga duchy of Guastalla. Elisabeth died in 1766.
Later Bourbon monarchs outside FranceUpon the fall of the French Empire, Ferdinand I was restored to the throne of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1815, founding the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. His subjects revolted in 1820 and he was forced to grant a constitution; Austria invaded in March 1821 and revoked the constitution. He was succeeded by his son, Francis I of the Two Sicilies, Francis I, in 1825 and by his grandson, Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies, Ferdinand II, in 1830. Another revolution erupted in January 1848 and Ferdinand was also forced to grant a constitution. This constitution was revoked in 1849. Ferdinand was succeeded by his son, Francis II of the Two Sicilies, Francis II, in May 1859. When Giuseppe Garibaldi captured Naples in 1860, Francis restored the constitution in an attempt to save his sovereignty. He fled to the fortress of Gaeta, which was siege of Gaeta (1861), captured by the Piedmontese troops in February 1861; his kingdom was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy on 17 March 1861, after the fall the fortress of Messina (surrendered on 12 March), although the Neapolitan troops in Civitella del Tronto resisted three days longer. After the fall of Napoleon, Napoleon's wife, Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, Maria Louisa, was made Duchess of Parma. As compensation, Charles Louis, the former king of Etruria, was made the Duke of Lucca. When Maria Louisa died in 1847 he was restored to Parma as Charles II of Parma, Charles II. Lucca was incorporated into Tuscany. He was succeeded by his son, Charles III of Parma, Charles III, and grandson, Robert I of Parma, Robert I, in 1854. The people of Parma voted for a union with the kingdom of Sardinia in 1860. After Italian unification the next year, the Bourbon dynasty in Italy was no more. Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne of Spain in March 1814. Like his Italian Bourbon counterpart, his subjects revolted against him in January 1820 and he was forced to grant a constitution. A French army invaded in 1823 and the constitution was revoked. Ferdinand married his fourth wife, Maria Christina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Maria Christina, the daughter of Francis I, the Bourbon king of Sicily, in 1829. Despite his many marriages he did not have a son, so in 1833 he was influenced by his wife to abolish the Salic Law so that their daughter, Isabella, could become queen depriving his brother, Infante Carlos, Count of Molina, Don Carlos, of the throne. Isabella II of Spain, Isabella II succeeded her father when he died in 1833. She was only three years old and Maria Cristina, her mother, served as regent. Maria knew that she needed the support of the liberals to oppose Don Carlos so she granted a constitution in 1834. Don Carlos found his Carlism, greatest support in Catalonia and the Basques country because the constitution centralized the provinces thus denying them the autonomy they sought. He was defeated and fled the country in 1839. Isabella was declared of age in 1843 and she married her cousin Francisco de Asis, the son of her father's brother, on 10 October 1846. A military revolution broke out against Isabella in 1868 and she was deposed on 29 September. She abdicated in favor of her son, Alfonso, in 1870, but Spain was proclaimed a republic for a brief time. When the First Spanish Republic failed the crown was offered to Isabella's son who accepted on 1 January 1875 as Alfonso XII of Spain, Alfonso XII. Carlos, Duke of Madrid, Don Carlos, who returned to Spain, was again defeated and resumed his exile in February 1876. Alfonso granted a new constitution in July 1876 that was more liberal than the one granted by his grandmother. His reign was cut short when he died in 1885 at the age of twenty-eight. Alfonso XIII of Spain, Alfonso XIII was born on 17 May 1886 after the death of his father. His mother, Maria Christina of Austria, Maria Christina, the second wife of Alfonso XII served as regent. Alfonso XIII was declared of age in 1902 and he married Victoria Eugénie Julia Ena of Battenberg, the granddaughter of the British queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, Victoria, on 31 May 1906. He remained neutral during World War I, but supported the military coup of Miguel Primo de Rivera on 13 September 1923. A movement towards the establishment of a republic began in 1930 and Alfonso fled the country on 14 April 1931. He never formally abdicated, but lived the rest of his life in exile. He died in 1941. The Bourbon dynasty seemed finished in Spain as in the rest of the world, but it would be resurrected. The Second Spanish Republic was overthrown in the Spanish Civil War, leading to the dictatorship of Francisco Franco. He named Juan Carlos I of Spain, Juan Carlos de Borbón, a grandson of Alfonso XIII, his successor in 1969. When Franco died six years later, Juan Carlos I took the throne to restore the Bourbon dynasty. The new king oversaw the Spanish transition to democracy; the Spanish Constitution of 1978 recognized the monarchy. Since 1964 the Bourbon-Parma line has reigned agnatically in Luxembourg through Grand Dukes Jean of Luxembourg, Jean and his son Henri of Luxembourg, Henri. In June 2011, Luxembourg adopted absolute primogeniture, replacing the old Semi-Salic law that might have guaranteed the survival of Bourbon rule for generations. Though it is not as powerful as it once was and no longer reigns in its native country of France, the House of Bourbon is by no means extinct and has survived to the present-day world, predominantly composed of republics. The House of Bourbon, in its surviving branches, is believed to be the oldest royal dynasty of Europe (and the oldest documented European family altogether) that is still existing in the direct male line today: The House of Capet's male ancestors, the Robertians, go back to Robert of Hesbaye (d. 807) as their first secured ancestor and he is believed to be a direct male descendant of Charibert de Haspengau (c. 555–636). Should this be true, only the Imperial House of Japan would outmatch the Bourbon's age, being reliably documented – as a ruling house already – from about 540. The House of Hesse traces its line back to 841, the House of Welf, House of Welf-Este and the House of Wettin are both emerging in the 10th century (and so do some Italian non-ruling houses like the Caetani or the Massimo family), whereas most of the other ruling families of Europe only turn up to the light of history after the year 1000.
List of Bourbon rulers
Monarchs of FranceDates indicate reigns, not lifetimes. * Henry IV of France, Henry IV, the Great (1589–1610) * Louis XIII of France, Louis XIII, the Just (1610–1643) * Louis XIV of France, Louis XIV, the Sun King (1643–1715) * Louis XV of France, Louis XV, the Well-Beloved (1715–1774) * Louis XVI of France, Louis XVI (1774–1792)
Claimants to the throne of FranceDates indicate claims, not lifetimes. * Louis XVI of France, Louis XVI (1792–1793) * Louis XVII of France, Louis XVII (1793–1795) * Louis XVIII of France, Louis XVIII (1795–1814)
Monarchs of FranceDates indicate reigns, not lifetimes. * Louis XVIII of France, Louis XVIII (1814–1824) * Charles X of France, Charles X (1824–1830) * Louis-Philippe of France, Louis-Philippe (House of Bourbon-Orléans) (1830–1848)
Legitimist claimants in FranceDates indicate claims, not lifetimes. * Charles X of France, Charles X (1830–1836) * Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême (Louis XIX) (1836–1844) * Henri, Count of Chambord (Henri V) (1844–1883)
Legitimist claimants in France (Spanish branch)Dates indicate claims, not lifetimes. * Juan, Count of Montizón (Jean III) (1883–1887) * Carlos, Duke of Madrid (Charles XI) (1887–1909) * Jaime, Duke of Madrid, Jaime, Duke of Anjou and Madrid (Jacques I) (1909–1931) * Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime (Charles XII)(1931–1936) * Alfonso XIII of Spain (Alphonse I) (1936–1941) (did not claim the Throne of France) * Jaime, Duke of Segovia (Jacques II / Henri VI) (1941–1975) * Alfonso, Duke of Anjou and Cádiz (Alphonse II) (1975–1989) * Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou (Louis XX) (1989–present)
Orléanist and Unionist claimants in FranceDates indicate claims, not lifetimes. * Prince Philippe, Count of Paris (Philippe VII) (1883–1894) * Prince Philippe, Duke of Orléans (1869–1926), Prince Philippe, Duke of Orléans (Philippe VIII) (1894–1926) * Prince Jean, Duke of Guise (Jean III) (1926–1940) * Henri, Count of Paris (1908–1999), Prince Henri, Count of Paris (Henry VI) (1940–1999) * Henri, Count of Paris (1933–2019), Prince Henri, Count of Paris (Henry VII) (1999–2019) * Jean, Count of Paris, Prince Jean, Count of Paris (Jean IV) (2019–present)
Kingdom of Spain
Monarchs of SpainDates indicate seniority, not lifetimes. Where reign as king or queen of Spain is different, this is noted. * Philip V of Spain, Philip V (1700–1746) [abdicated 1724, resumed throne on death of son] * Louis of Spain, Louis I [King 1724; ruled less than one year] * Ferdinand VI of Spain, Ferdinand VI (1746–1759) * Charles III of Spain, Charles III (1759–1788) * Charles IV of Spain, Charles IV (1788–1808) * Ferdinand VII of Spain, Ferdinand VII (1808–1833) [King 1808, 1813–1833] * Isabella II of Spain, Isabella II (1833–1870) [Queen 1833–1868] * Alfonso XII of Spain, Alfonso XII (1870–1885) [King 1874–1885] * Alfonso XIII of Spain, Alfonso XIII (1886–1941) [King 1886–1931] * Juan, Count of Barcelona (1941–1977) [did not become King] * Juan Carlos of Spain, Juan Carlos I (1977–2014) [King 1975–2014] * Felipe VI of Spain, Felipe VI (2014–present) [King 2014–present]
"Carlist" claimants in SpainDates indicate claims, not lifetimes. * Infante Carlos, Count of Molina (Carlos V) (1833–1845) * Infante Carlos, Count of Montemolin (Carlos VI) (1845–1861) * Juan, Count of Montizón (Juan III) (1861–1868) * Carlos, Duke of Madrid (Carlos VII) (1868–1909) * Jaime, Duke of Madrid (Jaime III) (1909–1931) * Alfonso Carlos of Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime (Alfonso Carlos I) (1931–1936) * Xavier, Duke of Parma (Xavier I) (1936–1952–1977) * Carlos Hugo of Bourbon, Duke of Parma (Carlos Hugo I) (1977–1979) * Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma (Sixto Enrique I) (1979–present)
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Grand Dukes of LuxembourgDates indicate reigns, not lifetimes. * Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Jean (1964–2000) * Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Henri (2000–present)
Other significant Bourbon titles* Duke of Bourbon, Dukes of Bourbon, Duke of Montpensier, Montpensier, Duke of Vendôme, Vendôme, Duke of Anjou, Anjou, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Kings of the Two Sicilies, Duke of Parma, Dukes of Parma, Duke of Orléans, Dukes of Orléans, List of heads of state of Brazil, Princes of Orléans and Braganza * Princes of Condé * Princes of Conti
Surnames usedOfficially, the King of France had no family name. A prince with the rank of ''fils de France'' (Son of France) is surnamed "''de France''"; all the male-line descendants of each ''fils de France'', however, took his main title (whether an appanage or a courtesy title) as their family or last name. However, when Louis XVI was put on trial and later "guillotined" (executed) by the revolutionaries National Convention in France in 1793, they somewhat contemptuously referred to him in written documents and spoken address as "Citizen Louis Capet" as if a "commoner" (referring back to the Medieval origins of the Bourbon Dynasty's name and referring to Hugh Capet, founder of the Capetian dynasty). Members of the House of Bourbon-Condé and its cadet branches, which never ascended to the throne, used the surname "de Bourbon" until their extinction in 1830. The daughters of Gaston, Duke of Orléans, were the first members of the House of Bourbon since the accession of Henry IV to take their surname from the appanage of their father (d'Orléans). Gaston died without a male heir; his titles reverted to the crown. It was given to his nephew, Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, brother of Louis XIV, whose descendants still bear the surname. When Philippe, grandson of Louis XIV, became King of Spain as Philip V of Spain, Philip V, he gave up his French titles. As a Son of France, his actual surname was "de France". However, since that surname was not heritable for descendants of rank lower than Son of France, and since Philippe had already given up his French titles, his descendants simply took the name of their royal house as their surname ("de Bourbon", rendered in Spanish as "de Borbón"). The children of Philippe's brother, Charles, Duke of Berry (1686–1714), Charles, Duke of Berry (all of whom died in infancy), were given the surname "d'Alencon". He was Duke of Berry only courtesy title, in name, so the surname of his children was taken from his first substantial duchy. The children of Charles Philippe, Count of Artois, brother of Louis XVI, were surnamed "d'Artois". When Charles succeeded to the throne as Charles X of France, Charles X, his son Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême, Louis Antoine became a Son of France, with the corresponding change in surname. His grandson, Henry, Count of Chambord, Henri d'Artois, being merely a Grandson of France, would use the surname until his death.
Family treesSimplified family trees showing the relationships between the Bourbons and the other branches of the Royal House of France.
See also* List of living legitimate male Capetians * Armorial of the Capetian dynasty * :House of Bourbon, Members of the House of Bourbon * Bourbon County, Kentucky, USA, named after the royal family * Bourbonnais * Bourbons of India * Balthazar Napoleon IV de Bourbon of India. * List of heirs to the French throne * French Wars of Religion * :File:Habsburg-bourbon-parma-2siciliesX.png: A chart of the dynastic links among the royal houses of Habsburg, Bourbon, Bourbon-Parma and Bourbon-Two Sicilies * Le Retour des Princes français à Paris * Legitimists * List of Spanish monarchs * List of monarchs of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Further reading* Bergamini, John D. ''The Spanish Bourbons: The History of a Tenacious Dynasty''. Putnam, 1974. * Ogg, David. ''Europe in the Seventeenth Century'' (6th ed. 1965). pp 227–80 * Petrie, Sir Charles. ''The Spanish Royal House''. Geoffrey Bles, 1958. * Seward, Desmond. ''The Bourbon Kings of France''. Barnes & Noble, 1976. * Shennan, J. H. ''The Bourbons: The History of a Dynasty'' (London, Hambledon Continuum, 2007). * Treasure, G.R.R. ''Seventeenth Century France'' (2nd ed. 1981), a leading scholarly survey * Treasure, G.R.R. ''Louis XIV'' (2001) short scholarly biography
Other languages* Van Kerrebrouck, Patrick. ''La Maison de Bourbon, 1256–1987''. ___v. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France: The Author, 1987–2000. [only Vol. 2 & Vol. 4 have been published as of 2005]. * Klaus Malettke, ''Die Bourbonen. Band I: Von Heinrich IV. bis Ludwig XV. 1589–1715'' (Stuttgart, Kohlhammer Verlag, 2008); ''Band II: Von Ludwig XV. bis Ludwig XVI. 1715-1789/92'' (Stuttgart, W. Kohlhammer, 2008); ''Band III: Von Ludwig XVIII. bis zu Louis Philippe 1814–1848'' (Stuttgart, W. Kohlhammer, 2009).