The Info List - House Of Medici

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The House of Medici
(/ˈmɛdɪtʃi/ MED-i-chee; Italian pronunciation: [ˈmɛːditʃi]) was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici
in the Republic of Florence
Republic of Florence
during the first half of the 15th century. The family originated in the Mugello
region of Tuscany and prospered gradually until it was able to fund the Medici
Bank. This bank was the largest in Europe
during the 15th century, and it facilitated the Medicis' rise to political power in Florence
— though officially they remained citizens rather than monarchs until the 16th century. The Medici
produced three Popes of the Catholic Church— Pope
Leo X (1513–1521), Pope
Clement VII
Clement VII
(1523–1534), and Pope
Leo XI (1605)[3]—and two regent queens of France—Catherine de' Medici (1547–1559) and Marie de' Medici
Marie de' Medici
(1600–1610). In 1532, the family acquired the hereditary title Dukes of Florence. In 1569, the duchy was elevated to a grand duchy after territorial expansion. The Medicis ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
from its inception until 1737, with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici. The grand duchy witnessed degrees of economic growth under the earlier grand dukes, but by the time of Cosimo III de' Medici
(r. 1670-1723), Tuscany
was fiscally bankrupt. The Medicis' wealth and influence initially derived from the textile trade guided by the wool guild of Florence: the Arte della Lana. Like other families ruling in Italian signorie, the Medicis dominated their city's government, were able to bring Florence
under their family's power, and created an environment in which art and humanism could flourish. They, along with other families of Italy—such as the Visconti and Sforza in Milan, the Este in Ferrara, and the Gonzaga in Mantua—inspired and fostered the birth of the Italian Renaissance. The Medici Bank
Medici Bank
was one of the most prosperous and respected institutions in Europe. By some estimates, the Medici
family was the wealthiest in Europe
for a time. From this base, they acquired political power initially in Florence
and later in wider Italy and Europe. They were among the earliest businesses to use the general ledger system of accounting, through the development of the double-entry bookkeeping system for tracking credits and debits.


1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 Rise to power 1.3 15th century 1.4 16th century

1.4.1 Medici
Popes 1.4.2 Medici

1.5 17th century 1.6 18th century: the fall of the dynasty

2 Legacy 3 Main genealogical table 4 Titles

4.1 List of heads of the Medici

4.1.1 Signore in the Republic of Florence 4.1.2 Dukes of Florence 4.1.3 Grand Dukes of Tuscany

5 Coats of arms 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit] Origins[edit] The Medici
family came from the agricultural Mugello
region,[4] north of Florence
and is mentioned for the first time in a document of 1230.[5] The origin of the name is uncertain. Medici
is the plural of medico, meaning "medical doctor".[6] It has been suggested that the name derived from one Medico di Potrone, a castellan of Potrone in the late 11th century, who may have been the family's ancestor.[citation needed] The dynasty began with the founding of the Medici Bank
Medici Bank
in Florence
in 1397. Rise to power[edit]

Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, founder of the Medici

The Confirmation of the Rule, by Domenico Ghirlandaio

For most of the 13th century, the leading banking center in Italy was Siena. But in 1298, one of the leading banking families of Europe, the Bonsignoris, went bankrupt, and the city of Siena
lost its status as the banking center of Italy to Florence.[7] Until the late 14th century, prior to the Medici, the leading family of Florence
was the House of Albizzi. In 1293, the Ordinances of Justice were enacted; effectively, they became the constitution of the Republic of Florence throughout the Italian Renaissance.[8] The city's numerous luxurious palazzi were becoming surrounded by townhouses built by the prospering merchant class.[9] The main challengers to the Albizzi
family were the Medicis, first under Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, later under his son Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici
and great-grandson, Lorenzo de' Medici. The Medici controlled the Medici
Bank—then Europe's largest bank—and an array of other enterprises in Florence
and elsewhere. In 1433, the Albizzi managed to have Cosimo exiled.[10] The next year, however, a pro- Medici
Signoria (civic government) led by Tommaso Soderini, Stoldo Altoviti and Lucca Pitti was elected and Cosimo returned. The Medici became the city's leading family, a position they would hold for the next three centuries. Florence
remained a republic until 1537, traditionally marking the end of the High Renaissance
High Renaissance
in Florence, but the instruments of republican government were firmly under the control of the Medici
and their allies, save during intervals after 1494 and 1527. Cosimo and Lorenzo rarely held official posts but were the unquestioned leaders. The Medici
family was connected to most other elite families of the time through marriages of convenience, partnerships, or employment, so the family had a central position in the social network: several families had systematic access to the rest of the elite families only through the Medici, perhaps similar to banking relationships. Some examples of these families include the Bardi, Altoviti, Ridolfi, Cavalcanti and the Tornabuoni. This has been suggested as a reason for the rise of the Medici
family.[11] Members of the family rose to some prominence in the early 14th century in the wool trade, especially with France
and Spain. Despite the presence of some Medici
in the city's government institutions, they were still far less notable than other outstanding families such as the Albizzi
or the Strozzi. One Salvestro de' Medici
was speaker of the woolmakers' guild during the Ciompi
revolt of 1378-82, and one Antonio de' Medici
was exiled from Florence
in 1396.[12] Involvement in another plot in 1400 caused all branches of the family to be banned from Florentine politics for twenty years, with the exception of two. 15th century[edit] Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici
Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici
(c. 1360–1429), son of Averardo de' Medici
(1320-1363), increased the wealth of the family through his creation of the Medici
Bank, and became one of the richest men in the city of Florence. Although he never held any political office, he gained strong popular support for the family through his support for the introduction of a proportional system of taxation. Giovanni's son Cosimo the Elder, Pater Patriae (father of the country), took over in 1434 as gran maestro (the unofficial head of the Florentine Republic).[13]

Cosimo Pater patriae, Uffizi
Gallery, Florence

Three successive generations of the Medici
— Cosimo, Piero, and Lorenzo — ruled over Florence
through the greater part of the 15th century. They clearly dominated Florentine representative government without abolishing it altogether.[14] These three members of the Medici
family had great skills in the management of so "restive and independent a city" as Florence. When Lorenzo died in 1492, however, his son Piero proved quite incapable of responding successfully to challenges caused by the French invasion of Italy in 1492, and within two years, he and his supporters were forced into exile and replaced with a republican government.[14] Piero de' Medici
(1416–1469), Cosimo's son, stayed in power for only five years (1464–1469). He was called "Piero the Gouty" because of the gout that afflicted his foot and eventually led to his death. Unlike his father, Piero had little interest in the arts. Due to his illness, he mostly stayed at home bedridden, and therefore did little to further the Medici
control of Florence
while in power. As such, Medici
rule stagnated until the next generation, when Piero's son Lorenzo took over.[citation needed] Lorenzo de' Medici
Lorenzo de' Medici
(1449–1492), called "the Magnificent", was more capable of leading and ruling a city, but he neglected the family banking business, which led to its ultimate ruin. To ensure the continuance of his family's success, Lorenzo planned his children's future careers for them. He groomed the headstrong Piero II to follow as his successor in civil leadership; Giovanni[15] (future Pope
Leo X) was placed in the church at an early age; and his daughter Maddalena was provided with a sumptuous dowry to make a politically advantageous marriage to a son of Pope
Innocent VIII that cemented the alliance between the Medici
and the Roman branches of the Cybo
and Altoviti families.[16] The Pazzi conspiracy
Pazzi conspiracy
of 1478 was an attempt to depose the Medici family by killing Lorenzo with his younger brother Giuliano during Easter services; the assassination attempt ended with the death of Giuliano and an injured Lorenzo. The conspiracy involved the Pazzi
and Salviati families, both rival banking families seeking to end the influence of the Medici, as well as the priest presiding over the church services, the Archbishop of Pisa, and even Pope
Sixtus IV to a degree. The conspirators approached Sixtus IV in the hopes of gaining his approval, as he and the Medici
had a long rivalry themselves, but the pope gave no official sanction to the plan. Despite his refusal of official approval, the pope nonetheless allowed the plot to proceed without interfering, and, after the failed assassination of Lorenzo, also gave dispensation for crimes done in the service of the church. After this, Lorenzo adopted his brother's illegitimate son Giulio de' Medici
(1478–1535), the future Pope
Clement VII. Unfortunately, all of Lorenzo's careful planning fell apart to some degree under his incompetent son Piero II, who took over as the head of Florence
after his father's death. Piero was responsible for the expulsion of the Medici
from 1494 to 1512. The Medici
additionally benefited from the discovery of vast deposits of alum in Tolfa
in 1461. Alum
is essential as a mordant in the dyeing of certain cloths and was used extensively in Florence, where the main industry was textile manufacturing. Before the Medicis', the Turks were the only exporters of alum, so Europe
was forced to buy from them until the discovery in Tolfa. Pius II granted the Medici
family a monopoly on the mining there, making them the primary producers of alum in Europe.[citation needed]

In the dangerous circumstances in which our city is placed, the time for deliberation is past. Action must be taken... I have decided, with your approval, to sail for Naples immediately, believing that as I am the person against whom the activities of our enemies are chiefly directed, I may, perhaps, by delivering myself into their hands, be the means of restoring peace to our fellow-citizens. As I have had more honour and responsibility among you than any private citizen has had in our day, I am more bound than any other person to serve our country, even at the risk of my life. With this intention I now go. Perhaps God wills that this war, which began in the blood of my brother and of myself, should be ended by any means. My desire is that by my life or my death, my misfortune or my prosperity, I may contribute to the welfare of our city... I go full of hope, praying to God to give me grace to perform what every citizen should at all times be ready to perform for his country.

Lorenzo de' Medici, 1479.[17]

16th century[edit] The exile of the Medici
lasted until 1512, after which the "senior" branch of the family — those descended from Cosimo the Elder — were able to rule until the assassination of Alessandro de' Medici, first Duke of Florence, in 1537. This century-long rule was interrupted only on two occasions (between 1494–1512 and 1527–1530), when anti- Medici
factions took control of Florence. Following the assassination of Duke Alessandro, power passed to the "junior" Medici
branch — those descended from Lorenzo the Elder, the youngest son of Giovanni di Bicci, starting with his great-great-grandson Cosimo I "the Great." Cosimo and his father started the Medici
foundations in banking and manufacturing – including a form of franchises. The family's influence grew with its patronage of wealth, art, and culture. Ultimately, it reached its zenith in the papacy and continued to flourish for centuries afterward as Dukes of Florence
and Tuscany. At least half, probably more, of Florence's people were employed by the Medici
and their foundational branches in business.

The Medici
Wedding Tapestry of 1589

Cosimo I the Great, founder of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany

Popes[edit] The Medici
became leaders of Christendom through their two famous 16th century popes, Leo X
Leo X
and Clement VII. Both also served as de facto political rulers of Rome, Florence, and large swaths of Italy known as the Papal States. They were generous patrons of the arts who commissioned masterpieces such as Raphael's Transfiguration and Michelangelo's The Last Judgment; however, their reigns coincided with troubles for the Vatican, including Martin Luther's Protestant Reformation and the infamous sack of Rome in 1527. Leo X's fun-loving pontificate bankrupted Vatican coffers and accrued massive debts. At this time, the Salviati, Altoviti and Strozzi
became the leading bankers of the Roman Curie. From Leo's election as pope in 1513 to his death in 1521, Florence
was overseen, in turn, by Giuliano de' Medici, Duke of Nemours, Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, and Giulio de' Medici, the latter of whom became Pope
Clement VII. Clement VII's tumultuous pontificate was dominated by a rapid succession of political crises - many long in the making - that resulted in the sack of Rome by the armies of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1527. From the time of Clement's election as pope in 1523 until the sack of Rome, Florence
was governed by the young Ippolito de' Medici
(future cardinal and vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church), Alessandro de' Medici
(future duke of Florence), and their guardians. In 1530, after allying himself with Charles V, Pope
Clement VII succeeded in securing the engagement of Charles V's daughter Margeret of Austria
to his illegitimate nephew (reputedly his son) Alessandro de' Medici. Clement also convinced Charles V to name Alessandro as duke of Florence. Thus began the reign of Medici monarchs in Florence, which lasted two centuries. After securing Alessandro de' Medici's dukedom, Pope
Clement VII married off his first cousin, twice removed, Catherine de' Medici, to the son of Emperor Charles V's arch-enemy, King Francis I of France
- the future King Henry II. This led to the to the transfer of Medici blood, through Catherine's daughters, to the royal family of Spain through Elisabeth of Valois, and the House of Lorraine
House of Lorraine
through Claude of Valois. In 1534, following a lengthy illness, Pope
Clement VII
Clement VII
died - and with him the stability of the Medici's "senior" branch. In 1535, Ippolito Cardinal de' Medici
died under mysterious circumstances. In 1536, Alessandro de' Medici
married Charles V's daughter, Margaret of Austria; however, the following year he was assassinated by a resentful cousin, Lorenzino de' Medici. The deaths of Alessandro and Ippolito enabled the Medici's "junior" branch to lead Florence. Medici
Dukes[edit] The outstanding figure of the 16th-century Medici
family was Cosimo I, who rose from relatively modest beginnings in the Mugello
to attain supremacy over the whole of Tuscany. Against the opposition of Catherine de' Medici, Paul III and their allies, he prevailed in various battles to conquer Florence's hated rival Siena
and found the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Cosimo purchased a portion of the island of Elba
from the Republic of Genoa
Republic of Genoa
and based the Tuscan navy there. He died in 1574, succeeded by his eldest surviving son Francesco, whose inability to produce male heirs led to the succession of his younger brother, Ferdinando, upon his death in 1587. Francesco married Johanna of Austria, and with his consort produced Eleonora de' Medici, Duchess of Mantua, and Marie de' Medici, Queen of France
and Navarre. Through Marie, all succeeding French monarchs (bar the Napoleons) were descended from Francesco. Ferdinando eagerly assumed the government of Tuscany. He commanded the draining of the Tuscan marshlands, built a road network in southern Tuscany
and cultivated trade in Livorno.[18] To augment the Tuscan silk industry, he oversaw the planting of mulberry trees along the major roads (silk worms feed on mulberry leaves).[19] In foreign affairs, he shifted Tuscany
away from Habsburg[20] hegemony by marrying the first non-Habsburg marriage candidate since Alessandro, Christina of Lorraine, a granddaughter of Catherine de' Medici. The Spanish reaction was to construct a citadel on their portion of the island of Elba.[18] To strengthen the new Franco-Tuscan alliance, he married his niece, Marie, to Henry IV of France. Henry explicitly stated that he would defend Tuscany
from Spanish aggression, but later reneged, after which Ferdinando was forced to marry his heir, Cosimo, to Maria Maddalena of Austria
Maria Maddalena of Austria
to assuage Spain
(where Maria Maddalena's sister Margaret was the incumbent Queen consort). Ferdinando also sponsored a Tuscan expedition to the New World
New World
with the intention of establishing a Tuscan colony, an enterprise that brought no result for permanent colonial acquisitions. Despite all of these incentives for economic growth and prosperity, the population of Florence
at the dawn of the 17th century was a mere 75,000, far smaller than the other capitals of Italy: Rome, Milan, Venice, Palermo and Naples.[21] Francesco and Ferdinando, due to lax distinction between Medici
and Tuscan state property, are thought to have been wealthier than their ancestor, Cosimo de' Medici, the founder of the dynasty.[22] The Grand Duke alone had the prerogative to exploit the state's mineral and salt resources, and the fortunes of the Medici
were directly tied to the Tuscan economy.[22] 17th century[edit]

From left to right: The Grand Duchess Maria Maddalena, The Grand Duke Cosimo II, and their elder son, the future Ferdinando II

Ferdinando, although no longer a cardinal, exercised much influence at successive conclaves. In 1605, Ferdinando succeeded in getting his candidate, Alessandro de' Medici, elected Pope
Leo XI. He died the same month, but his successor, Pope
Paul V, was also pro-Medici.[23] Ferdinando's pro-papal foreign policy, however, had drawbacks. Tuscany was overrun with religious orders, not all of whom were obliged to pay taxes. Ferdinando died in 1609, leaving an affluent realm; his inaction in international affairs, however, would have long-reaching consequences down the line. In France, Marie de' Medici
Marie de' Medici
was acting as regent for her son, Louis XIII. Louis repudiated her pro-Habsburg policy in 1617. She lived the rest of her life deprived of any political influence. Ferdinando's successor, Cosimo II, reigned for less than 12 years. He married Maria Maddalena of Austria, with whom he had his eight children, including Margherita de' Medici, Ferdinando II de' Medici, and an Anna de' Medici. He is most remembered as the patron of astronomer Galileo Galilei, whose 1610 treatise, Sidereus Nuncius, was dedicated to him.[24] Cosimo died of consumption (tuberculosis) in 1621.[25] Cosimo's elder son, Ferdinando, was not yet of legal maturity to succeed him, thus Maria Maddalena and his grandmother, Christina of Lorraine, acted as regents. Their collective regency is known as the Turtici. Maria Maddelana's temperament was analogous to Christina's, and together they aligned Tuscany
with the papacy, re-doubled the Tuscan clergy, and allowed the heresy trial of Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
to occur.[26] Upon the death of the last Duke of Urbino
Duke of Urbino
(Francesco Maria II), instead of claiming the duchy for Ferdinando, who was married to the Duke of Urbino's granddaughter and heiress, Vittoria della Rovere, they permitted it to be annexed by Pope
Urban VIII. In 1626, they banned any Tuscan subject from being educated outside the Grand Duchy, a law later overturned, but resurrected by Maria Maddalena's grandson, Cosimo III.[27] Harold Acton, an Anglo-Italian historian, ascribed the decline of Tuscany
to the Turtici regency.[27] Grand Duke Ferdinado was obsessed with new technology, and had a variety of hygrometers, barometers, thermometers, and telescopes installed in the Palazzo
Pitti.[28] In 1657, Leopoldo de' Medici, the Grand Duke’s youngest brother, established the Accademia del Cimento, organized to attract scientists to Florence
from all over Tuscany
for mutual study.[29] Tuscany
participated in the Wars of Castro
Wars of Castro
(the last time Medicean Tuscany
proper was involved in a conflict) and inflicted a defeat on the forces of Pope
Urban VIII in 1643.[30] The war effort was costly and the treasury so empty because of it that when the Castro mercenaries were paid for, the state could no longer afford to pay interest on government bonds, with the result that the interest rate was lowered by 0.75%.[31] At that time, the economy was so decrepit that barter trade became prevalent in rural market places.[30] Ferdinando died on 23 May 1670 afflicted by apoplexy and dropsy. He was interred in the Basilica of San Lorenzo, the Medici's necropolis.[32] At the time of his death, the population of the grand duchy was 730,594; the streets were lined with grass and the buildings on the verge of collapse in Pisa.[33] Ferdinando's marriage to Vittoria della Rovere
Vittoria della Rovere
produced two children: Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro. Upon Vittoria's death in 1694, her allodial possessions, the Duchies of Rovere and Montefeltro, passed to her younger son. 18th century: the fall of the dynasty[edit]

Cosimo III, the Medicean grand duke, in Grand Ducal regalia

Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, the last of the Grand Ducal line, in Minerva, Merkur und Plutus huldigen der Kurfürstin Anna Maria Luisa de’ Medici
(English: Minerva, Mercury and Pluto pay homage to the Electress Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici) after Antonio Bellucci, 1706

Cosimo III married Marguerite Louise d'Orléans, a granddaughter of Henry IV of France
and Marie de' Medici. An exceedingly discontented pairing, this union produced three children, notably Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, Electress Palatine, and the last Medicean Grand Duke of Tuscany, Gian Gastone de' Medici. Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine, Anna Maria Luisa's spouse, successfully requisitioned the dignity Royal Highness for the Grand Duke and his family in 1691, despite the fact that they had no claim to any kingdom.[34] Cosimo frequently paid the Holy Roman Emperor, his nominal feudal overlord, exorbitant dues,[35] and he sent munitions to the emperor during the Battle of Vienna. The Medici
lacked male heirs, and by 1705, the grand ducal treasury was virtually bankrupt. In comparison to the 17th century, the population of Florence
declined by 50%, and the population of the grand duchy as a whole declined by an estimated 40%.[36] Cosimo desperately tried to reach a settlement with the European powers, but Tuscany’s legal status was very complicated: the area of the grand duchy formerly comprising the Republic of Siena
was technically a Spanish fief, while the territory of the old Republic of Florence
Republic of Florence
was thought to be under imperial suzerainty. Upon the death of his first son, Cosimo contemplated restoring the Florentine republic, either upon Anna Maria Luisa's death, or on his own, if he predeceased her. The restoration of the republic would entail resigning Siena
to the Holy Roman Empire, but, regardless, it was vehemently endorsed by his government. Europe
largely ignored Cosimo’s plan. Only Great Britain and the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
gave any credence to it, and the plan ultimately died with Cosimo III in 1723.[37] On 4 April 1718, Great Britain, France
and the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
(also later, Austria) selected Don Carlos of Spain, the elder child of Elisabeth Farnese
Elisabeth Farnese
and Philip V of Spain, as the Tuscan heir. By 1722, the electress was not even acknowledged as heiress, and Cosimo was reduced to spectator at the conferences for Tuscany's future.[38] On 25 October 1723, six days before his death, Grand Duke Cosimo disseminated a final proclamation commanding that Tuscany
stay independent: Anna Maria Luisa would succeed uninhibited to Tuscany after Gian Gastone, and the grand duke reserved the right to choose his successor. However, these portions of his proclamation were completely ignored, and he died a few days later. Gian Gastone despised the electress for engineering his catastrophic marriage to Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg; while she abhorred her brother's liberal policies, he repealed all of his father's anti-Semitic statutes. Gian Gastone revelled in upsetting her.[39] On 25 October 1731, a Spanish detachment occupied Florence
on behalf of Don Carlos, who disembarked in Tuscany
in December of the same year. The Ruspanti, Gian Gastone's decrepit entourage, loathed the electress, and she them. Duchess Violante of Bavaria, Gian Gastone's sister-in-law, tried to withdraw the grand duke from the sphere of influence of the Ruspanti by organising banquets. His conduct at the banquets was less than regal; he often vomited repeatedly into his napkin, belched, and regaled those present with socially inappropriate jokes.[40] Following a sprained ankle in 1731, he remained confined to his bed for the rest of his life. The bed, often smelling of faeces, was occasionally cleaned by Violante. In 1736, following the War of the Polish Succession, Don Carlos was disbarred from Tuscany, and Francis III of Lorraine was made heir in his stead.[41] In January 1737, the Spanish troops withdrew from Tuscany, and were replaced by Austrians. Gian Gastone died on 9 July 1737, surrounded by prelates and his sister. Anna Maria Luisa was offered a nominal regency by the Prince de Craon until the new grand duke could peregrinate to Tuscany, but declined.[42] Upon her brother's death, she received all the House of Medici's allodial possessions. Anna Maria Luisa signed the Patto di Famiglia ("family pact") on 31 October 1737. In collaboration with the Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke Francis of Lorraine, she willed all the personal property of the Medici
to the Tuscan state, provided that nothing was ever removed from Florence.[43] The "Lorrainers", as the occupying forces were called, were popularly loathed, but the regent, the Prince de Craon, allowed the electress to live unperturbed in the Palazzo
Pitti. She occupied herself with financing and overseeing the construction of the Basilica of San Lorenzo, started in 1604 by Ferdinando I, at a cost to the state of 1,000 crowns per week.[44] The electress donated much of her fortune to charity: £4,000 a month.[45] On 19 February 1743, she died, and the grand ducal line of the House of Medici
died with her. The Florentines grieved her,[46] and she was interred in the crypt that she helped to complete, San Lorenzo. The extinction of the main Medici
dynasty and the accession in 1737 of Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine and husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, led to Tuscany's temporary inclusion in the territories of the Austrian crown. The line of the Princes of Ottajano, an extant branch of the House of Medici
who were eligible to inherit the grand duchy of Tuscany
when the last male of the senior branch died in 1737, could have carried on as Medici
sovereigns but for the intervention of Europe's major powers, which allocated the sovereignty of Florence elsewhere. As a consequence, the grand duchy expired and the territory became a secundogeniture of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. The first grand duke of the new dynasty, Francis I, was a great-great-great-grandson of Francesco I de' Medici, thus he continued the Medicean Dynasty
on the throne of Tuscany
through the female line. The Habsburgs were deposed in favor of the House of Bourbon-Parma
House of Bourbon-Parma
in 1801 (themselves deposed in 1807), but were later restored at the Congress of Vienna. Tuscany became a province of the United Kingdom of Italy in 1861. However, several extant branches of the House of Medici
currently continue to exist, including the Princes of Ottajano, the Medici
Tornaquinci, and the Verona Medici
Counts of Caprara and Gavardo.[47] Legacy[edit]

The family of Piero de' Medici
portrayed by Sandro Botticelli
Sandro Botticelli
in the Madonna del Magnificat.

The greatest accomplishments of the Medici
were in the sponsorship of art and architecture, mainly early and High Renaissance art
Renaissance art
and architecture. The Medici
were responsible for a high proportion of the major Florentine works of art created during their period of rule. Their support was critical, since artists generally only began work on their projects after they had received commissions. Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, the first patron of the arts in the family, aided Masaccio and commissioned Filippo Brunelleschi
Filippo Brunelleschi
for the reconstruction of the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence, in 1419. Cosimo the Elder's notable artistic associates were Donatello
and Fra Angelico. In later years, the most significant protégé of the Medici
family was Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564), who produced work for a number of family members, beginning with Lorenzo the Magnificent, who was said to be extremely fond of the young Michelangelo
and invited him to study the family collection of antique sculpture.[48] Lorenzo also served as patron to Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
(1452–1519) for seven years. Indeed, Lorenzo was an artist in his own right and an author of poetry and song; his support of the arts and letters is seen as a high point in Medici

family members placed allegorically in the entourage of a king from the Three Wise Men in the Tuscan countryside in a Benozzo Gozzoli fresco, c. 1459.

After Lorenzo's death, the puritanical Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola rose to prominence, warning Florentines against excessive luxury. Under Savonarola's fanatical leadership, many great works were "voluntarily" destroyed in the Bonfire of the Vanities
Bonfire of the Vanities
(February 7, 1497). The following year, on 23 May 1498, Savonarola and two young supporters were burned at the stake in the Piazza della Signoria, the same location as his bonfire. In addition to commissions for art and architecture, the Medici
were prolific collectors and today their acquisitions form the core of the Uffizi
museum in Florence. In architecture, the Medici
were responsible for some notable features of Florence, including the Uffizi
Gallery, the Boboli Gardens, the Belvedere, the Medici
Chapel and the Palazzo
Medici.[49] Later, in Rome, the Medici
popes continued in the family tradition of patronizing artists in Rome. Pope
Leo X
Leo X
would chiefly commission works from Raphael, whereas Pope
Clement VII
Clement VII
commissioned Michelangelo
to paint the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
just before the pontiff's death in 1534.[50] Eleanor of Toledo, a princess of Spain
and wife of Cosimo I the Great, purchased the Pitti Palace from Buonaccorso Pitti in 1550. Cosimo in turn patronized Vasari, who erected the Uffizi Gallery in 1560 and founded the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno
Accademia delle Arti del Disegno
– ("Academy of the Arts of Drawing") in 1563.[51] Marie de' Medici, widow of Henry IV of France
and mother of Louis XIII, is the subject of a commissioned cycle of paintings known as the Marie de' Medici cycle, painted for the Luxembourg Palace
Luxembourg Palace
by court painter Peter Paul Rubens in 1622–23. Although none of the Medici
themselves were scientists, the family is well known to have been the patrons of the famous Galileo Galilei, who tutored multiple generations of Medici
children and was an important figurehead for his patron's quest for power. Galileo's patronage was eventually abandoned by Ferdinando II, when the Inquisition accused Galileo of heresy. However, the Medici
family did afford the scientist a safe haven for many years. Galileo named the four largest moons of Jupiter
after four Medici
children he tutored, although the names Galileo used are not the names currently used.

Main genealogical table[edit] See also: Genealogical tables of the House of Medici Part of this section is transcluded from Medici
family tree. (edit history) The table below shows the origins of the Medici:

Family Tree: Origins

Medico di Potrone *1046 ? †1102

Bono *1069 ? †1123

Bernardo *1099 ? †1147

Giambuono de' Medici *1131 ? †1192

Chiarissimo *1167 ? †1210

Bonagiunta *? †1226

Filippo *? †?

Ugo *? †?

Galgano *? †?

Chiarissimo fl. 1253

Ranieri *? †?

Averardo I fl. 1280

Scolaio fl. 1269

Galgano fl. 1269

Filippo[52] *? †1290 Ugolino *? †1301

Giambuono *1260 †?

Averardo II[53] *1270 †1319

Arrigo *? †?

Bonagiunta fl. 1278

Arrigo[54] *? †1348 Bonino fl. 1312

Cambio[55] *? †~1356 Alamanno *? †1355 Bernardo fl. 1322

Lippo[56] fl. 1306 Giovenco *? †1320

Conte fl. 1330 Salvestro *? †1346 Guccio *1298 †1315

Ardingo[57] fl. 1343

Bonino di Filippo

Vieri *1323 †1395 Salvestro[58] *1331 ? †1388 Bernardo di Giambuono

Francesco *? †?

Giuliano I[59] *? †1377 Conte di Averardo

Salvestro di Averardo

Francesco *? †?

Vieri di Cambio

Salvestro di Alemanno

Francesco di Giovenco

Antonio *? †?

Giuliano II[60] *? †?


Giovenco *? †1447

Bernardetto *1393 †1465? Giuliano *? †? Pietro *? †? Giovanni *? †1475? Castellina Tornaquinci

Fantino fl. 1426

Pierangelo *? †1464

Giovenco *? †1464?

Antonio fl. 1493 Domenico *? †? Averardo fl. 1513

Francesco *? †?

Lorenzo fl. 1490 Giovenco *? †?

Francesco *? †? Bernardo *? †? Giovanni *? †? Raffaele *? †?

Bernardetto[61] *? †?

Galeotto *? †1528 Francesco *? †? Ottaviano *1482 †1546

Averardo *1518 †1601

Giulio *? †?

Nicolò[62] * †1562 Lorenzo * †1568

Francesco *1519 †1584


Ottaviano *1555 †1625

Giulio *? †? Leone * †1596

Galeotto *? †?

Cosimo *? †?

Giulio *? †1626

Raffaele *? †1624 Nicolò *? †?

Francesco *1585 †1664

Leone *? †1650 Averardo *? †1685 Giulio *? †1614

Filippo *? †1749 Francesco *? †1722 Pierpaolo fl. 1737 Francesco *? †1766 Nicolò Giuseppe *? †?

Leone fl. 1759 Averardo *? †1808 Filippo fl. 1775

Filippo *? †1821 Nicola *? †? Anna Maria Luisa *1756 †1797

Bindo Simone Peruzzi *1729 †1794 Pierpaolo *? †?

de' Medici

This extract shows the branch that gave rise to the celebrated branch of the Medici
descending from Giovanni "di Bicci", who founded the Medici













Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici (1360–1429) m. Piccarda Bueri
































































































































Antonio de' Medici (?–1398)


Damian de' Medici (1389–1390)









Cosimo de' Medici (the Elder) (1389–1464)




Contessina de' Bardi (ca.1390–1473)












Lorenzo de' Medici (the Elder) (1395–1440) m. Ginevra Cavalcanti


































































































































Piero I de' Medici (the Gouty) (1416–1469) Lord of Florence





Lucrezia Tornabuoni (1425–1482)






Carlo de' Medici (1430–1492)







Giovanni de' Medici (1421–1463) m. Ginevra degli Alessandrini







Francesco de' Medici (?–ca.1440)


Pierfrancesco de' Medici
(the Elder) (1431–1476) m. Laudomia Acciaioli









































































































































Giovanni de' Medici (ante 1444–1478)


Maria de' Medici (1445–1472) m. Leonetto de' Rossi


Bianca de' Medici (1446–1488) m. Guglielmo de' Pazzi


Lucrezia de' Medici (Nannina) (1448–1493) m. Bernardo Rucellai


Lorenzo de' Medici (the Magnificent) (1449–1492) Lord of Florence m.(1) Clarice Orsini


Giuliano de' Medici (1453–1478)


Cosimo de' Medici (1452–1461)







Lorenzo the Popolano (1463–1503) Lord of Piombino m. Semiramide Appiani






Giovanni the Popolano (1467–1498) m. Caterina Sforza















































































































































Lucrezia de' Medici (1470–1553) m. Jacopo Salviati




Maddalena de' Medici (1473–1528) m. Franceschetto Cybo



Luisa de' Medici (1477–1488)



Giulio de' Medici (1478–1534) Pope
Clement VII


Giuliano de' Medici (1479–1516) Duke of Nemours




Pierfrancesco de' Medici (the Younger) (1487–1525) m. Maria Soderini



Laudomia de' Medici m. Francesco Salviati



Vincenzo de' Medici




































































Piero II de' Medici
(the Unfortunate) (1471–1503) Lord of Florence m. Alfonsina Orsini


Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici (1475–1521) Pope
Leo X


Contessina de' Medici (1478–1515) m. Piero Ridolfi




Ippolito de' Medici (1511–1535) Cardinal)







Averardo de' Medici (1488–1495)


Ginevra de' Medici m. Giovanni degli Albizzi































































































































































Giovanni Salviati (1490–1553) Cardinal



Lorenzo Salviati (1492–1539)



Lorenzo II de' Medici (1492–1519) Duke of Urbino


Madeleine de La Tour (ca.1495–1519)


Clarissa de' Medici (1493–1528) m. Filippo Strozzi


Elena Salviati (1495–1552) m.(1) Pallavicino Pallavicino m.(2) Iacopo V Appiani



Battista Salviati (1498–1524)


Luisa Salviati m. Sigismund de Luna



Bernardo Salviati (1508–1568) Cardinal



Maria Salviati (1499–1543)


Lodovico de' Medici
(Giovanni dalle Bande Nere) (1498–1526)

























































































































































Francesca Salviati m. Ottaviano de' Medici


Piero Salviati







Piero Strozzi (1510–1558)


Laudomia de' Medici (?–1559)


Alamanno Salviati (1510–1571)


Lorenzino de' Medici (Lorenzaccio) (1514–1548)


Giuliano de' Medici (ca.1520–1588) Archbishop of Albi


Roberto Strozzi (ca.1512–1566)


Maddalena de' Medici (1523–1583)















































































Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici (1535–1605) Pope
Leo XI







Alessandro de' Medici (the Moor) (1510–1537) Duke of Florence



Caterina de' Medici (1519–1589)



Henry II of France


















Cosimo I de' Medici (1519–1574) Grand Duke of Tuscany
































































































































































Bernadetto de' Medici


Giulia de' Medici (ca.1535–ca.1588)


Porzia de' Medici (1538–1565)


Francis II of France (1544–r.1559–1560)



Charles IX of France (1550–r.1560–1574)



Henry III of France (1551–r.1574–1589)



Francis, Duke of Anjou (1555–1584)


Francesco I de' Medici (1541–1587) Grand Duke of Tuscany


Claude (1547–1575) m. Charles III of Lorraine

























































Giulio de' Medici (ca.1533–1600)


Alessandro de' Medici (1560–1606)






Philip II of Spain (1527–r.1556–1598)


Elisabeth of Valois (1545–1568)


Margaret of Valois (1553–1615)


Henry IV of France (1553–r.1589–1610)




Marie de' Medici (1575–1642)


Christina of Lorraine (1565–1637)


Ferdinando I de' Medici (1549–1609) Grand Duke of Tuscany



























































































Caterina de' Medici (?–1634)


Cosimo de' Medici (ca.1550–ca.1630)


Giuliano de' Medici



Philip III of Spain (1578–r.1598–1621)











Christine Marie (1606–1663) m. Victor Amadeus I of Savoy


Nicolas Henri, Duke of Orléans (1607–1611)


Gaston, Duke of Orléans (1608–1660)


Henrietta Maria of France (1609–1669) m. Charles I of England










































































Angela/Angelica de' Medici (1608–1636) m. Pietro Altemps







Philip IV of Spain (1605–r.1621–1665)


Elisabeth (1602–1644)


Louis XIII of France (1601–r.1610–1643)


Anne of Austria (1601–1666)


Charles II of England (1630–r.1660–1685)


Mary Henrietta Stuart (1631–1660) m. William II of Orange


James II of England (1633–r.1685-88 –1701)



This is the branch of Cosimo's brother, Lorenzo, called the "Popolano" Branch, which gave rise to the Grand-Dukes of Tuscany:

















Lodovico de' Medici (1498–1526)


Maria Salviati (1499–1543)





















































































Eleanor of Toledo (1522–1562)


Cosimo I (1519–1574) Grand Duke 1569–74


Camilla Martelli (ca.1545–1634)



Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1503–r.1558–1564)











































































































































































































































































Bia de' Medici (1537–1542)


Maria de' Medici (1540–1557)



Isabella de' Medici (1542–1576) m. Paolo Giordano I Orsini


Giovanni de' Medici (1543–1562) Bishop of Pisa, Cardinall


Lucrezia de' Medici (1545–1561) m. Alfonso II d'Este


Pietro de' Medici (1554–1604)


Garzia de' Medici (1547–1562)



Antonio de' Medici (1548 – 1548)



Anna de' Medici (1553–1553)


Pietro (Pedricco) de' Medici (1546 – 1547)



Virginia de' Medici (1568 – 1615) m. Cesare d'Este





























































































Johanna of Austria (1547–1578)



Francesco I (1541–1587) Grand Duke 1574–87



Bianca Cappello (1548–1587)













Christina of Lorraine (1565–1637)


Ferdinando I (1549–1609) Grand Duke 1587–1609





Don Giovanni de' Medici (1563–1621)


(Unnamed daughter) (1566–1566)


































































































Eleanor de' Medici (1566–1611) m. Vincenzo I Gonzaga



Anna de' Medici (1569–1584)



Lucrezia de' Medici



Antonio de' Medici (1576–1621)






Eleanor de' Medici (1591–1617)



Francesco de' Medici (1594–1614)



Filippino de' Medici (1599–1602)



Maria Maddalena de' Medici (1600–1633)



Charles II of Austria (1540–1590)


















































Romola de' Medici (1568–1568)


Isabella de' Medici (1571–1572)


Marie de' Medici (1575–1642) m. Henry IV of France


Philip de' Medici (1577–1582)





Caterina de' Medici (1593–1629) m. Ferdinando I Gonzaga


Carlo de' Medici (1595–1666) Cardinal Bishop of Ostia


Lorenzo de' Medici (1600–1648)




























































































Christine Marie of France (1606–1663) m. Victor Amadeus I of Savoy


Louis XIII of France (1601–r.1610–1643)


Gaston of Orléans (1608–1660)



Cosimo II (1590–1621) Grand Duke 1609–21




Maria Magdalena of Austria (1589–1631)



Federico della Rovere (1605–1625)


Claudia de' Medici (1604–1648)


Leopold V of Austria (1586–1632)


Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (1578–r.1619–1637)









































































































































































Maria Cristina de' Medici (1609–1632)



Ferdinando II (1610–1670) Grand Duke 1621–70


Vittoria della Rovere (1622–1694)



Gian Carlo de' Medici (1611–1663) Cardinal


Margherita de' Medici (1612–1679) m. Odoardo Farnese


Matteo de' Medici


Francesco de' Medici (1614–1634)


Anna de' Medici (1616–1676)


Ferdinand Charles of Austria (1628–1662)


Leopoldo de' Medici (1617–1675) Cardinal




















































































































Cosimo de' Medici (1639–1639)



Cosimo III (1642–1723) Grand Duke 1670–1723




Marguerite Louise d'Orléans (1645–1721)


Francesco Maria de' Medici (1660–1711) Cardinal


Philip William, Elector Palatine (1615–1690)






































































































































































































































Violante of Bavaria 1673–1731)


Ferdinando (III) de' Medici (1663–1713)




Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici (1667–1743)


Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine (1658–1716)


Philipp Wilhelm August (1668–1693)


Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenberg


Gian Gastone (1671–1737) Grand Duke 1723–37













































































































Titles[edit] List of heads of the Medici[edit] Signore in the Republic of Florence[edit]

Portrait Name From Until Relationship with predecessor

Cosimo de' Medici (Pater Patriae) 1434 1 August 1464 Son of Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici
Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici
who was not as prominently involved in Florentine politics, rather more involved in the financial area.

Piero I de' Medici (Piero the Gouty) 1 August 1464 2 December 1469 Eldest son of Cosimo de' Medici.

Lorenzo I de' Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent) 2 December 1469 9 April 1492 Eldest son of Piero I de' Medici.

Piero II de' Medici (Piero the Unfortunate) 9 April 1492 8 November 1494 Eldest son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Overthrown when Charles VIII of France
invaded as a full republic was restored, first under the theocracy of Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola
and then statesman Piero Soderini.

Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici 31 August 1512 9 March 1513 Brother of Piero the Unfortunate, second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Elected to the Papacy, becoming Pope
Leo X.

Giuliano de' Medici, Duke of Nemours 9 March 1513 17 March 1516 Brother of Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici, third son of Lorenzo the Magnificent.

Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino 17 March 1516 4 May 1519 Nephew of Giuliano de' Medici, Duke of Nemours, son of Piero the Unfortunate. Father of Catherine de' Medici, Queen consort
Queen consort
of France.

Cardinal Giulio de' Medici 4 May 1519 19 November 1523 Cousin of Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, son of Giuliano de' Medici
who was the brother of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Elected to the Papacy, becoming Pope
Clement VII.

Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici 19 November 1523 24 October 1529 Cousin of Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, illegitimate son of Giuliano de' Medici, Duke of Nemours.

Dukes of Florence[edit]

Portrait Name From Until Relationship with predecessor

Alessandro il Moro 24 October 1529 6 January 1537 Cousin of Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici, illegitimate son of Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino
Duke of Urbino
or Pope
Clement VII. Acting signore during imperial Siege of Florence, made Duke in 1531.

Cosimo I 6 January 1537 21 April 1574 Distant cousin of Alessandro de' Medici, Son of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere. dei Popolani line descended from Lorenzo the Elder, Brother of Cosimo de' Medici; also great-grandson of Lorenzo the Magnificent through his mother, Maria Salviati, and his grandmother, Lucrezia de' Medici. 1569, he was made Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Grand Dukes of Tuscany[edit]

Portrait Name From Until Relationship with predecessor

Cosimo I 6 January 1569 21 April 1574

Francesco I 21 April 1574 17 October 1587 Eldest son of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Ferdinando I 17 October 1587 17 February 1609 Brother of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, son of Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Cosimo II 17 February 1609 28 February 1621 Eldest son of Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Ferdinando II 28 February 1621 23 May 1670 Eldest son of Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Cosimo III 23 May 1670 31 October 1723 Eldest son of Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Gian Gastone 31 October 1723 9 July 1737 Second son of Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.

Coats of arms[edit] The origin of the Medici
coat of arms is not recorded. One unproven story traces their ancestry to a knight of Charlemagne's, Averardo, who defeated a giant, Mugello. In reward, Charlemagne is said to have rewarded Averardo with the shield mauled by the giant, with the dents in the shape of balls, and the giant's lands in Mugello. In Italian, "medici" is doctor. So, another fanciful story depicts the balls as pills or cupping glasses (a late-medieval medical instrument used to draw blood). The most likely theories, however, are that the balls originally represent coins copied from the coat of arms of the Guild
of Moneychangers (Arte del Cambio) to which the Medici
belonged. That shield was red strewn with Byzantine coins (bezants).[63][64] The number of balls also varied with time, as shown below.

Old coat of arms of the Medici
used by Giovanni di Bicci and Cosimo the Elder

The intermediate coat of arms of the Medici, Or, six balls in orle gules

The "augmented coat of arms of the Medici, Or, five balls in orle gules, in chief a larger one of the arms of France
(viz. Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or) was granted by Louis XI
Louis XI
in 1465.[65]

Great coat of arms of Medici
of Ottajano

Augmented Arms of Medici

Coat of arms of Medici

Achievement of the House of de' Medici

Coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany

See also[edit]

Book: Medici, a family

family tree List of popes from the Medici


^ Litta, Pompeo (1827). Famiglie celebri italiane. Medici
di Firenze.  ^ Luisa Greco (22 May 2015). "Cosimo de Medici
e l'amore per le tartarughe con la vela". Toctoc.  ^ " Medici
Family – - Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 September 2009.  ^ Silvia Malaguzzi, Botticelli. Artist's life, Giunti Editore, Florence
(Italy) 2004, p. 33. ^ The Medieval World – Europe
1100–1350 by Friedrich Heer, 1998 Germany ^ The name in Italian is pronounced with the stress on the first syllable /ˈmɛ .di.tʃi/ and not on the second vowel.How to say: Medici, BBC News Magazine Monitor. In American English, MED-uh-chee. ^ Strathern, p 18 ^ Kenneth Bartlett, The Italian Renaissance, Chapter 7, p.37, Volume II, 2005. ^ "History of Florence". Aboutflorence.com. Retrieved 2015-01-26.  ^ Crum, Roger J. Severing the Neck of Pride: Donatello's "Judith and Holofernes" and the Recollection of Albizzi
Shame in Medicean Florence . Artibus et Historiae, Volume 22, Edit 44, 2001. pp. 23–29. ^ Padgett, John F.; Ansell, Christopher K. (May 1993). "Robust Action and the Rise of the Medici, 1400–1434". The American Journal of Sociology. 98 (6): 1259–1319. doi:10.1086/230190. JSTOR 2781822. . This has led to much more analysis. ^ Machiavelli, Niccolò (1906). The Florentine history written by Niccolò Machiavelli, Volume 1. p. 221. . ^ Bradley, Richard (executive producer) (2003). The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance (Part I) (DVD). PBS Home Video.  ^ a b The Prince
The Prince
Niccolò Machiavelli. A Norton Critical Edition. Translated and edited by Rober M. Adams. New York. W.W. Norton and Company, 1977. p. viii (Historical Introduction). ^ 15th century Italy. ^ Hibbard, pp. 177, 202, 162. ^ Hibbert, The House of Medici: Its Rise and Fall, 153. ^ a b Hale, p. 150. ^ Hale, p. 151. ^ Austria
and Spain
were ruled by the House of Habsburg; the two are interchangeable terms for the Habsburg domains in the time period in question. ^ Hale, p. 158. ^ a b Hale, p. 160. ^ Hale, p. 165. ^ Strathen, p. 368. ^ Hale, p. 187. ^ Acton, p. 111. ^ a b Acton, p. 192. ^ Acton, p. 27. ^ Acton, p. 38. ^ a b Hale, p. 180. ^ Hale, p. 181. ^ Acton, p. 108. ^ Acton, p. 112. ^ Acton, p. 182. ^ Acton, p. 243. ^ Strathern, p. 392. ^ Hale, p. 191. ^ Acton, p. 175. ^ Acton, p. 280. ^ Acton, p. 188. ^ Acton, p. 301. ^ Acton, p. 304. ^ " Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici
Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici
– Electress Palatine". Retrieved 3 September 2009.  ^ Acton, p. 209. ^ Acton, p. 310. ^ Acton, p. 309. ^ Hibbert, p. 60. ^ Howard Hibbard, Michelangelo
(New York: Harper and Row, 1974), p. 21. ^ Peter Barenboim, Sergey Shiyan, Michelangelo: Mysteries of Medici Chapel, SLOVO, Moscow, 2006. ISBN 5-85050-825-2 ^ Hibbard, p. 240. ^ Official site of the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno
Accademia delle Arti del Disegno
of Florence, Brief History (it. leng.)"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-06-03. Retrieved 2009-06-01.  ^ Two more sons: Arrigo (?-?), Giovanni (?-?) ^ Three more sons: Talento (?-?), he had a son, Mario died in 1369, Mario had few unremarkable later generations; Jacopo (?-1340) who had a son, Averardo (fl. 1363); Francesco (?-?), who had a son, Malatesta died in 1367. ^ Four sons: Guccio (from which descended a line extinct in 1670 with Ottaviano), Filippo (?-?), Betto (fl. 1348), Ardinghello (fl. 1345). ^ One more son: Giovanni (fl. 1383). Giovanni had a son, Antonio (?-1396) and a nephew, Felice (?-?). ^ One son, Coppo, (?-?). Cfr. Mecatti, Giuseppe Maria; Muratori, Lodovico Antonio (1755). Storia cronologica della città di Firenze (in Italian). Parte prima. Naples: Stamperia Simoniana. p. 157. Retrieved March 28, 2016.  ^ Two more brothers unknown. ^ Two more brothers: Andrea (*? †?), Bartolomeo (*? †?). ^ One more brother: Pietro (*? †?), line extinct. ^ One more brother: Giovanni (*? †?) ^ One more son: Francesco (†1552?) ^ One more son Bernardo (†1592?) ^ de Roover, Raymond (July 31, 2017). The Medici
Bank: Its Organization, Management, Operations, and Decline. Pickle Partners Publishing. pp. note 1.  ^ Mackworth-Young, Rose (29 March 2012). "The Medici
balls: Origins of the family's coat of arms". The Florentine. Florence: B’Gruppo Srl (160). Retrieved 17 October 2017.  ^ John Woodward, A Treatise on Ecclesiastical Heraldry, 1894, p. 162


Hibbert, Christopher (1975). The House of Medici: Its Rise and Fall. Morrow. ISBN 0-688-00339-7.  Miles J. Unger, Magnifico: The Brilliant Life and Violent Times of Lorenzo de Medici, (Simon and Schuster 2008) is a vividly colorful new biography of this true "renaissance man", the uncrowned ruler of Florence
during its golden age Christopher Hibbert, The House of Medici: Its Rise and Fall (Morrow, 1975) is a highly readable, non-scholarly general history of the family Ferdinand Schevill, History of Florence: From the Founding of the City Through the Renaissance (Frederick Ungar, 1936) is the standard overall history of Florence Cecily Booth, Cosimo I, Duke of Florence, 1921, University Press Harold Acton, The Last Medici, Macmillan, London, 1980, ISBN 0-333-29315-0 Paul Strathern, The Medici—Godfathers of the Renaissance (Pimlico, 2005) is an informative and lively account of the Medici
family, their finesse and foibles—extremely readable, though with a few factual and typographical errors. Lauro Martines, April Blood— Florence
and the Plot Against the Medici (Oxford University Press 2003) a detailed account of the Pazzi Conspiracy, the players, the politics of the day, and the fallout of the assassination plot . Though accurate in historic details, Martines writes with a definite 'anti-Medici' tone. Accounting in Italy Herbert Millingchamp Vaughan, The Medici
Popes. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1908. Jonathan Zophy, A Short History of Renaissance and Reformation Europe, Dances over Fire and Water. 1996. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2003. Villa Niccolini (Camugliano), Villa Niccolini, is one of the Medici's tuscany villa previously called Villa Medicea di Camugliano, Villa Niccolini is located east from Ponsacco, near a little feudal village, Camugliano.

Further reading[edit]

Jean Lucas-Dubreton, Daily Life in Florence
in the Time of the Medici.

Danny Chaplin, "The Medici: Rise of a Parvenu Dynasty, 1360-1537."

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to House of Medici.

The Medici
Archive Project Prince Ottaviano de' Medici: Solving a 417-year-old murder mystery (May 4, 2004) The Moscow Florentine Society Medici
Family Tree, featuring portraits and bios of key members of the Medici
Dynasty, 1400–1737 The Medici
Family, History Channel. Retrieved 8 April 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/medici-family

Royal house House of Medici

New title Ruling house of the Duchy of Florence 1533–69 Elevated to Grand Dukes of Tuscany

New title Elevated from Duchy of Florence

Ruling house of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany 1569–1737 Succeeded by House of Lorraine

v t e

House of Medici


Lords of Florence

Cosimo il Vecchio Piero "The Gouty" Lorenzo il Magnifico Giuliano Piero il Fatuo Giovanni (Leo X) Giuliano Lorenzo II Giulio (Clement VII) Ippolito Alessandro "The Moor"

Dukes of Florence

Alessandro "The Moor" Cosimo I

Grand Dukes of Tuscany

Cosimo I Francesco I Ferdinando I Cosimo II Ferdinando II Cosimo III Gian Gastone


Caterina Maria


Leo X Clement VII Leo XI


male line: Giovanni (Leo X) Giulio (Clement VII) Ippolito Alessandro (Leo XI) Giovanni Ferdinando I Carlo Giovan Carlo Leopoldo Francesco Maria Francesco female line: Luigi de' Rossi Giovanni Salviati Innocenzo Cybo Bernardo Salviati Niccolò Ridolfi Lorenzo Strozzi Ferrante Gonzaga Vincenzo II Gonzaga

Bishops and archbishops

Filippo Bernardo Antonio Giuliano Zanobi


Giovanni dalle Bande Nere Don Giovanni Mattias


Genealogical tables of the House of Medici

Festina Lente



Cafaggiolo Trebbio Careggi Fiesole La Quiete Collesalvetti Poggio a Caiano Castello Mezzomonte Agnano Spedaletto La Petraia Camugliano Stabbia La Topaia Cerreto Guidi Marignolle Arena Metato Poggio Imperiale Lapeggi L'Ambrogiana La Màgia Liliano Coltano Montevettolini Artimino Buti Seravezza Madama


Casino Mediceo di San Marco Palazzo
Riccardi Palazzo
Madama Palazzo
Pitti Villa Medici Palazzo
Tornaquinci Livorno Palazzo
delle Vedove Pisa Materdei Palazzo
di Ottaviano

Fountains and gardens

fountain Villa di Pratolino


Arezzo Grosseto Piombino Pistoia San Piero a Sieve Siena Volterra


Cappelle medicee The Chapel of Medici
di Gragnano


Painters, sculptors and architects

Bartolomeo Ammannati Sandro Botticelli Filippo Brunelleschi Michelangelo Bernardo Buontalenti Leonardo da Vinci Donatello Michelozzo Antonio del Pollaiolo Jacopo della Quercia Giorgio Vasari

Poets and other literary figures

Agnolo Poliziano Niccolò Machiavelli

Humanists and philosophers

Pico della Mirandola Marsilio Ficino


Galileo Galilei


Emilio de' Cavalieri Jacopo Peri


coat of arms Crown of the Grand Duke of Tuscany Order of Saint Stephen




lions Medici
porcelain Medici
Vase Venus de' Medici Arazzeria Medicea


giraffe Galilean moons Stories set to music: "opera" Albizzi Pazzi
conspiracy Savonarola

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Catherine de' Medici




Lorenzo II de' Medici, Duke of Urbino
Duke of Urbino
(father) Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne (mother) Henry II of France


Francis II of France Elisabeth, Queen of Spain Claude, Duchess of Lorraine Louis, Duke of Orléans Charles IX of France Henry III of France Marguerite, Queen of France
and Navarre François, Duke of Anjou Joan Victoria

Dynasties/ Groups in her life

House of Medici House of Valois House of Bourbon House of Guise Huguenot French Catholic Leagues

People in her life

Clarice de' Medici
(paternal aunt) Pope
Clement VII Cardinal Silvio Passerini Jean Fernel Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine Mary, Queen of Scots Philip II of Spain Francis, Duke of Guise Prince Louis de Condé Michel de l'Hôpital Antoine of Navarre Claude, Duke of Guise Jeanne III of Navarre Henry I, Duke of Guise Admiral Gaspard de Coligny Diane de Poitiers


Siege of Florence
(1529–1530) Colloquy at Poissy
Colloquy at Poissy
(1561) Edict of Saint-Germain (1562) Massacre at Vassy (1562) Edict of Amboise
Edict of Amboise
(1563) Surprise of Meaux (1567) Treaty of Longjumeau (1568) Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1570) St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
(1572) French Wars of Religion Edict of Beaulieu (1576)

Places in her life

Riccardi Basilique Saint-Denis Château de Chenonceau Château d'Amboise Palace of Fontainebleau Notre Dame de Paris Palais du Louvre Château de Blois

Patron of the Arts

Arts Building projects Court Festivals

Catherine de' Medici
Catherine de' Medici
at Commons

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Royal houses of Europe

Nordic countries


Knýtlinga Fairhair Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg


Bjelbo Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov


Fairhair Knýtlinga Hardrada Gille Sverre Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg


Munsö Stenkil Sverker Eric Bjelbo Estridsen Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse-Kassel Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte


Fairhair Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Britain and Ireland


Mercia Wuffing Kent Sussex Essex Bernicia Deira Northumbria Uí Ímair Wessex Knýtlinga Normandy Angevin Plantagenet Lancaster York Tudor


Fergus Óengus Strathclyde Mann and the Isles Alpin Northumbria Bernicia Uí Ímair Galloway Dunkeld Sverre Balliol Bruce Stuart


Dinefwr Aberffraw Gwynedd Mathrafal Cunedda Tudor


Ulaid Dál Riata Érainn Corcu Loígde Laigin Connachta Uí Néill Ó Gallchobhair Ó Domhnail Ó Néill Ó Máel Sechlainn Mac Murchada Ó Briain Mac Lochlainn Ó Conchobhair

Gaelic Ireland

Laigin Síl Conairi Ulaid Dáirine Osraige Cruthin Dál nAraidi Connachta Uí Fiachrach Uí Briúin Uí Néill Síl nÁedo Sláine Clann Cholmáin Eóganachta Chaisil Glendamnach Raithlind Uí Dúnlainge Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
(Norse) Uí Ceinnselaig Dál gCais Ó Briain Mac Carthaig Ó Conchobhair Ó Ruairc De Burgh (Norman) FitzGerald (Norman) Ó Domhnaill Ó Néill

Great Britain

Stuart Orange-Nassau Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Windsor

Eastern Europe


Angevin Progon Arianiti Thopia Kastrioti Dukagjini Wied Zogu Ottoman Savoy


Orontid Artaxiad Arsacid Bagratid Artsruni Rubenids Hethumids Lusignan Savoy


Boričević Kulinić Kotromanić Kosača Ottoman Habsburg-Lorraine


Dulo Krum Cometopuli Asen Smilets Terter Shishman Sratsimir Battenberg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Trpimirović Domagojević Svačić Ottoman Luxembourg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine Bonaparte Savoy (disputed)


Plantagenet Lusignan Ottoman Savoy


Pharnavazid Artaxiad Arsacid Ottoman Chosroid Bagrationi


Argead Macedonian Doukas Komnenos Angelos Laskaris Palaiologos Ottoman Wittelsbach Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg


Mindaugas Gediminids Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov


Dragoș (Drăgoșești) Rossetti Bogdan-Muşat Movilești Drăculeşti Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Racoviță Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Basarab


Vojislavljević Balšić Ottoman Crnojević Petrović-Njegoš


House of Basarab Rossetti Bogdan-Mușat Movilești Drăculești Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Romanov Racoviță Ottoman Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Romania/Royal family


Rurik Borjigin Godunov Shuysky Vasa Romanov


Vlastimirović Vukanović Nemanjić Lazarević Mrnjavčević Dejanović Branković Ottoman Obrenović Karađorđević




Rurikids Piast Gediminids Olshanski Olelkovich Giray Romanov Habsburg-Lorraine

1 Transcontinental country. 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia
but having socio-political connections with Europe.

Western Europe


Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Merovingian Carolingian Capet Valois Bourbon Bonaparte Orléans


Aleramici Appiani Bonaparte Bourbon-Parma Bourbon-Two Sicilies Carolingian Della Rovere Este Farnese Flavian Gonzaga Grimaldi Habsburg Julio-Claudian Malatesta Malaspina Medici Montefeltro Nerva–Antonine Ordelaffi Orsini Palaiologos Pallavicini Savoy Severan Sforza Visconti


Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Bourbon-Parma




Bonaparte Orange-Nassau (Mecklenburg) (Lippe) (Amsberg)


Vímara Peres Burgundy Aviz Habsburg Spanish Braganza

Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha


Asturias Barcelona Jiménez Burgundy Champagne Capet Évreux Trastámara Habsburg Bourbon

Bonaparte Savoy

Central Europe


Babenberg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine


Přemyslid Piast Luxembourg Jagiellon Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine


Ascania Carolingian Conradines Ottonian Luitpolding Salian Süpplingenburg Hohenstaufen Welf Habsburg Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Nassau Luxembourg Wittelsbach Schwarzburg Brunswick-Lüneburg House of Pomerania Hohenzollern Württemberg Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Mecklenburg Vasa Palatine Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov Bonaparte Wettin Lippe Zähringen


Árpád Přemyslid Wittelsbach Angevin Luxembourg Hunyadi Jagiellon Szapolyai Ottoman Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine




Piast Přemyslid Samborides Griffins Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski

After partitions:

Kingdom of Poland Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Wettin Duchy of Warsaw Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk Hohenzollern Duchy of Poznań

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Abravanel Bardi Benveniste Berenberg Bethmann Bischoffsheim Borgia Camondo Cerchi Chigi Etcheverría Ephrussi Fould Fugger Goldman–Sachs Goldschmidt Gondi Gossler (Berenberg-Gossler) Hambro Hochstetter Hottinguer Imhoff Königswarter Kronenberg Medici Mendelssohn Metzler Oppenheim Pazzi Pictet Pierleoni Péreire Peruzzi Rothschild Schröder Seyler Solaro Sozzini Speyer Stern Thurzó Wallenberg Warburg Welser Van Lanschot

United States

Barney Drexel Goldman–Sachs Lazard Lehman Mellon Morgan Rockefeller Seligman Warburg

United Kingdom

Baring Child Clifford Goldsmid Hope Mocatta Rothschild Sassoon Smith


Mitsui Sumitomo Yasuda

Middle East


Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 13102