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The Hotchkiss gun
Hotchkiss gun
can refer to different products of the Hotchkiss arms company starting in the late 19th century. It usually refers to the 1.65-inch (42 mm) light mountain gun; there were also a navy (47 mm) and a 3-inch (76 mm) Hotchkiss guns. The 42 mm gun was intended to be mounted on a light carriage or packed on two mules to accompany a troop of cavalry or an army travelling in rough country. Descriptions[edit] The 1.65-inch (42 mm) gun and accessories could be packed on two mules. The gun was introduced as a modern replacement for the aging twelve-pound mountain howitzer. The first gun purchased by the U.S. military from the French arms firm of Hotchkiss was employed against the Nez Percé in 1877. Over the next twenty years the U.S. purchased 56. They were used at the Wounded Knee Massacre
Wounded Knee Massacre
in 1890, and again in Cuba
Cuba
for the attack on San Juan Hill during the Spanish–American War.

The Hotchkiss Revolving Cannon picture published 1874

The term "Hotchkiss gun" also refers to the Hotchkiss Revolving Cannon, a Gatling-type revolving barrel machine gun invented in 1872 by Benjamin B. Hotchkiss
Benjamin B. Hotchkiss
(1826–1885), founder of Hotchkiss & Co. It was a built-up, rifled, rapid-fire gun of oil-tempered steel, having a rectangular breechblock which moved in a mortise cut completely through the jacket. It was designed to be light enough to travel with cavalry, and had an effective range beyond that of rifled small-arms.

Hotchkiss 5-barrel revolving cannon, Fort Copacabana

The 1-pounder revolving Hotchkiss cannon had five 37 mm barrels, and was capable of firing 68 rounds per minute with an accuracy range of 2,000 yards (1,800 m). Each feed magazine held ten rounds and weighed approximately 18 pounds (8 kg). Besides the field gun version, several other versions of the 37mm Hotchkiss revolving cannon were in existence, notably versions for naval defense against torpedo boats as well as fortress versions firing shrapnel or canister for the defense of moats. The naval version was adopted by Russia and the United States, amongst others. The field cannon version was accompanied by a horse-drawn ammunition limber, which held 110 rounds plus six loaded magazines, totaling 170 rounds.[1] One example is on display at the Museum of the History of the Brazilian Army
Army
at Fort Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro.[2][3] A 3-pounder 47mm Hotchkiss revolver cannon was also adopted by the US and Russian navies in the 1880s. This had five barrels.[4][5] With 3-pounder and 1-pounder weapons, it is difficult to determine from references what type of weapons a particular ship had. Single-shot, revolver cannon, and (from 1890) Maxim-Nordenfelt
Maxim-Nordenfelt
1-pounder machine gun weapons were all used on new warships 1880-1910. All of these were called quick-firing or, in the US, rapid-firing. Hotchkiss also produced a range of light naval guns and, in the 1930s, anti-tank guns. The naval guns which originated in the 1880s were mostly 3 pounders and 6 pounders and originally were widely used (by Britain, Russia, and the United States amongst others) for close-up defence of major warships against small craft armed with the newly invented locomotive torpedo. When improvements in torpedo range made them obsolete in this role, they continued to be used as small-craft armament up to and including World War II. In World War I
World War I
the British motor gunboats which won naval supremacy from the Germans on Lake Tanganyika were armed with the Hotchkiss 3 pounder. The Hotchkiss 6 pounder was adopted by the British army for the first tanks. During World War II
World War II
the 6 pounder was the main weapon of the early units of the numerous and successful Fairmile 'D' Class motor gunboats of the Royal Navy, not being entirely replaced by more modern weapons until 1945.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hotchkiss 47 mm Revolving Cannon.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to QF 3 pounder Hotchkiss.

References[edit]

^ Description of Hotchkiss revolver cannon and its use against Indians ^ DiGiulian, Tony, Russian Hotchkiss 1-pounders ^ DiGiulian, Tony, US 1-pounders ^ DiGiulian, Tony, Russian Hotchkiss 3-pounders ^ DiGiulian, Tony, US 3-pounders

External links[edit]

http://www.HotchkissMountainGun.com http://www.spanamwar.com/hotchkis165.htm http://www.firstworldwar.com/atoz/mgun_hotchkiss.htm History, description and Animations (Requires QuickTime, and not suitable for slow speed links) Tony DiGiulian, British Hotchkiss 3-pdr (1.4 kg) (1.85"/40 (47 mm)) QF Marks I and II DiGiulian, Tony, US 3-pounders DiGiulian, Tony, Russian Hotchkiss 3-pounders

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French weapons of the 19th century

Small arms

Delvigne rifle (1826) Thouvenin Carabine à tige
Carabine à tige
(1846) Lefaucheux M1858
Lefaucheux M1858
revolver Minié rifle
Minié rifle
(1849) Tabatière rifle
Tabatière rifle
(1864) Chassepot
Chassepot
rifle (1866) Gras rifle (1874) Lebel rifle (1886) Modèle 1892 revolver

Machine guns

Reffye mitrailleuse (1866) Hotchkiss "Canon-Revolver" (1872) Mitrailleuse
Mitrailleuse
Gatling modèle APX 1895 (1895) Mle 1897 Hotchkiss Machine gun
Machine gun
(1897)

Cannons

Year XI system
Year XI system
(1803) Paixhans gun
Paixhans gun
(1823) Valée system
Valée system
(1828) Canon obusier de 12
Canon obusier de 12
(1853) La Hitte system
La Hitte system
(1858) Reffye 85 mm (1870) Reffye 75 mm (1873) Lahitolle 95 mm (1873) de Bange 80 mm (1877) de Bange 90 mm (1877) Canet 320 mm (1880) Canon de 75 (1897)

Warships

Steam battleship Napoléon (1850) Ironclad floating battery Lave (1854) Ironclad Gloire (1858) Mechanical powered submarine Plongeur (1863) Steel battleship Redoutable (1876) Armoured cruiser Dupuy de Lôme (1890) Electrical submarine Gymnote (1888)

Ammunition

Lepage fulminate (1807-10) Pauly-Prélat integrated cartridge (1808) Prélat percussion cap (1818) Lefaucheux cartridge (1836) Tamisier
Tamisier
ball (1841) Minié ball
Minié ball
(1847) 8 mm Lebel smokeless powder cartridge (1886)

Systems

Lepage percussion system (1807) Marié-Davy naval periscope (1854) De Bange breech obturator (1872) Du Temple high-circulation steam engine (1876) Krebs naval electric gyrocompass (1880) Smokeless powder Poudre B (1886)

Operational usage

Napoleonic Wars French Intervention in Spain French conquest of Algeria Crimean War Second Italian War of Independence French Intervention in Mexico French weapons in the American Civil War Franco-Prussian War Tonkin Campaign Sino-French War

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Multiple barrel firearms

Handguns

Arsenal Firearms AF2011A1 Baylè 1879 Derringer Garrucha Henrion, Dassy & Heuschen Revolver Howdah pistol Lancaster pistol LeMat revolver Multi-barrelled flintlock Pepperbox revolver TKB-506

Rifles

Attached grenade launchers Ball and shot gun Double rifle Nock gun TKB-059

Shotguns

Ball and shot gun Colt Defender Mark I Double-barreled shotgun Standard Manufacturing DP-12 Winchester Liberator

Combination guns

Cape guns Drillings Vierlings

Submachine guns

Flieger-Doppelpistole 1919 Villar-Perosa aircraft submachine gun

Machine guns

Caldwell machine gun Gardner gun Gast gun Fyodorov–Shpagin Model 1922 Mitrailleuse Montigny mitrailleuse Nikonov machine gun Nordenfelt gun Ribauldequin Type 89 machine gun Type 100 machine gun Volley gun

Rotary type

Gatling gun GAU-19 GShG-7.62 Fokker-Leimberger Hotchkiss revolving cannon Hua Qing Minigun Minigun XM214 Microgun YakB-12.7

Non-lethal

Flash-ball Osa (handgun)

Amphibious firearms

Heckler & Koch P11 Mk1 UDG SPP-1 underwater pistol

Flare launchers

Nambu Type 90

Grenade launchers

DP-64 Lavina Redback RG-6 RPG-30

Cannon

GAU-8 Avenger GAU-12/U Equalizer GAU-13/A GAU-22/A T250 Vigilante Double-barreled cannon GSh-23 GSh-6-23 GSh-30 GSh-6-30 M61

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