The Info List - Hotak Dynasty

The Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
(Pashto: د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني‎) was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji
Pashtuns,[1][2] established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak
Mirwais Hotak
after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in the region of Loy Kandahar
("Greater Kandahar") in what is now southern Afghanistan.[1] It lasted until 1738 when the founder of the Afsharid dynasty, Nader Shah Afshar, defeated Hussain Hotak
Hussain Hotak
during the long siege of Kandahar, and started the reestablishment of Iranian suzerainty over all regions lost decades before against the Iranian archrival, the Ottomans, and the Russians.[3] At its peak, the Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
ruled briefly over an area which is now Afghanistan, Iran, western Pakistan, and some parts of Tajikistan
and Turkmenistan. In 1715, Mirwais died of a natural cause and his brother Abdul Aziz succeeded the monarchy. He was quickly followed by Mahmud who ruled the empire at its largest extent for a mere three years. Following the 1729 Battle of Damghan, where Ashraf Hotak was roundly defeated by Nader Shah, Ashraf was banished to what is now southern Afghanistan with Hotak rule being confined to it. Hussain Hotak
Hussain Hotak
became the last ruler until he was also defeated in 1738.


1 Rise to power

1.1 Decline

2 List of rulers 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Rise to power[edit] Loy Kandahar
was ruled by the Shi'a Safavids as their far easternmost territory from the 16th century until the early 18th century, while the native Afghan tribes living in the area were Sunni
Muslims. Immediately to the east began the Sunni
Mughul Empire, who occasionally fought wars with the powerful Safavids over the territory of southern Afghanistan.[4] The area to the north, was controlled by the Khanate of Bukhara
Khanate of Bukhara
at the same time. By the late 17th century, the Iranian Safavids, like their arch rival the Ottoman Turks, had been starting to heavily decline due to misrule, sectarian strife, and foreign interests. In 1704, the Safavid Shah Husayn appointed his Georgian subject and king of Kartli
George XI (Gurgīn Khān), who had converted to Islam
like many other Georgians under Ottoman or Persian rule, as the commander-in-chief of the easternmost provinces of the Safavid Empire, in what is now Afghanistan.[5] His first task was to quell the uprisings in the region. Gurgin began imprisoning and executing Afghans, especially those suspected of organizing rebellions, successfully crushing the rebellions.[citation needed] One of those arrested and imprisoned was Mirwais who belonged to an influential Hotak family in the Kandahar region. Mirwais was sent as a prisoner to the Persian court in Isfahan but the charges against him were dismissed by Shah Husayn, so he was sent back to his native land as a free man.[6] In April 1709, Mirwais, protected by the Ghaznavid Nasher Khans,[7] and along with his followers revolted against the Safavid rule at Kandahar. The uprising began when Gurgīn Khān and his escort were killed during a feast that was organized by Mirwais at his farmhouse outside the city. It is reported that drinking of wine was involved. Next, Mirwais ordered the killings of the remaining Persian military officials in the region. The Afghans then defeated a twice as large Persian army that had been dispatched from Isfahan
(capital of the Safavids), one which included Qizilbash
and Georgian/Circassian troops.[8]

Several half-hearted attempts to subdue the rebellious city having failed, the Persian Government despatched Khusraw Khán, nephew of the late Gurgín Khán, with an army of 30,000 men to effect its subjugation, but in spite of an initial success, which led the Afgháns to offer to surrender on terms, his uncompromising attitude impelled them to make a fresh desperate effort, resulting in the complete defeat of the Persian army (of whom only some 700 escaped) and the death of their general. Two years later, in A.D. 1713, another Persian army commanded by Rustam Khán was also defeated by the rebels, who thus secured possession of the whole Loy Kandahar region.[8] — Edward G. Browne, 1924

(Candahar) during the Afsharid and Mughal period.

Refusing the title of king, Mirwais was called "Prince of Qandahár and General of the national troops" by his Afghan countrymen. He died peacefully in November 1715 from natural causes and was succeeded by his brother Abdul Aziz; the latter was murdered later by Mirwais' son Mahmud. In 1720, Mahmud's Afghan forces crossed the deserts of Sistan and captured Kerman.[8] His plan was to conquer the Persian capital, Isfahan.[9] After defeating the Persian army at the Battle of Gulnabad on March 8, 1722, he proceeded to and besieged Isfahan
for 6 months, after which it fell.[10] On October 23, 1722, Sultan Husayn
Sultan Husayn
abdicated and acknowledged Mahmud as the new Shah of Persia.[11] The majority of the Persian people, however, rejected the Afghan regime as usurpers from the start. For the next seven years until 1729, the Hotaks were the de facto rulers of most of Persia, and the southern and eastern areas of Afghanistan
still remained under their control until 1738. The Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
was a troubled and violent one from the very start as internecine conflict made it difficult to establish permanent control. The dynasty lived under great turmoil due to bloody succession feuds that made their hold on power tenuous, and after the massacre of thousands of civilians in Isfahan
– including more than three thousand religious scholars, nobles, and members of the Safavid family – the Hotak dynasty
Hotak dynasty
was eventually removed from power in Persia.[12] On the other hand, the Afghans had also been suppressed by the Iranian Safavid government represented by its governor Gurgin Khan before their uprising in 1709.[6] Decline[edit] Ashraf Hotak, who took over the monarchy following Shah Mahmud's death in 1725, and his soldiers were crushingly defeated in the October 1729 Battle of Damghan by Nader Shah Afshar, an Iranian soldier of fortune from the Sunni
Afshar tribe, and the founder of the Afsharid dynasty that replaced the Safavids in Persia. Nader Shah had driven out and banished the remaining Ghilji
forces from Persia and began enlisting some the Abdali Afghans of Farah and Kandahar
in his military. Nader Shah's forces (among them were Ahmad Shah Abdali and his 4,000 Abdali troops) conquered Kandahar
in 1738. They besieged and destroyed the last Hotak seat of power, which was held by Hussain Hotak
Hussain Hotak
(or Shah Hussain).[9][13] Nader Shah then built a new town nearby, named after himself, "Naderabad". The Abdalis were also restored to the general area of Kandahar, with the Ghilji's being pushed back to their former stronghold of Kalat-i Ghilji—an arrangement that lasts to the present day. List of rulers[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Afghanistan



Indus Valley Civilisation 2200–1800 BC

Oxus civilization 2100–1800 BC

Aryans 1700–700 BC

Median Empire 728–550 BC

Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BC

Seleucid Empire 330–150 BC

Maurya Empire 305–180 BC

Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 256–125 BC

Parthian Empire 247 BC–224 AD

Indo-Greek Kingdom 180–130 BC

Indo-Scythian Kingdom 155–80? BC

Kushan Empire 135 BC – 248 AD

Indo-Parthian Kingdom 20 BC – 50? AD

Sasanian Empire 230–651

Kidarite Kingdom 320–465

Alchon Huns 380–560

Hephthalite Empire 410–557

Nezak Huns 484–711


Kabul Shahi 565–879

Principality of Chaghaniyan 7th–8th centuries

Rashidun Caliphate 652–661

Umayyads 661–750

Abbasids 750–821

Tahirids 821–873

Saffarids 863–900

Samanids 875–999

Ghaznavids 963–1187

Ghurids before 879–1215

Seljuks 1037–1194

Khwarezmids 1215–1231

Qarlughids 1224–1266

Ilkhanate 1258–1353

Chagatai Khanate 1225–1370

Khaljis 1290–1320

Karts 1245–1381

Timurids 1370–1507

Arghuns 1479–1522


Mughals 1501–1738

Safavids 1510–1709

Hotak dynasty 1709–1738

Afsharid dynasty 1738–1747

Empire 1747–1826

Emirate of Afghanistan 1826–1919

Kingdom of Afghanistan 1919–1973

Republic of Afghanistan 1973–1978

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan 1978–1992

Islamic State of Afghanistan 1992–2001

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 1996–2004

Interim/Transitional Administration 2001–2004

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since 2004

Book Category Portal

v t e

Part of a series on


Native Pashtun areas in orange

Art Culture Diaspora Language Tribes


Khalji Lodi Suri Hotaki Durrani Barakzai



v t e

Name Picture Reign started Reign ended

Mirwais Hotak Woles Mashar

1709 1715

Abdul Aziz Hotak Emir

1715 1717

Mahmud Hotak Shah

1717 1725

Ashraf Hotak Shah

1725 1729

Hussain Hotak Emir

1729 1738

See also[edit]

dynasty Safavid dynasty Delhi Sultanate


^ a b Malleson, George Bruce (1878). History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878. London: Elibron.com. p. 227. ISBN 1402172788. Retrieved 2010-09-27.  ^ Ewans, Martin; Sir Martin Ewans (2002). Afghanistan: a short history of its people and politics. New York: Perennial. p. 30. ISBN 0060505087. Retrieved 2010-09-27.  ^ "AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF PERSIA DURING THE LAST TWO CENTURIES (A.D. 1722-1922)". Edward Granville Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 33. Retrieved 2010-09-24.  ^ Romano, Amy (2003). A Historical Atlas of Afghanistan. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 28. ISBN 9780823938636. Retrieved 2010-10-17.  ^ Nadir Shah and the Afsharid Legacy, The Cambridge history of Iran: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic, Ed. Peter Avery, William Bayne Fisher, Gavin Hambly and Charles Melville, (Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 11. ^ a b Otfinoski, Steven Bruce (2004). Afghanistan. Infobase Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 9780816050567. Retrieved 2010-09-27.  ^ Runion, Meredith L. The History of Afghanistan. p. 63.  ^ a b c "AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF PERSIA DURING THE LAST TWO CENTURIES (A.D. 1722-1922)". Edward Granville Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 29. Retrieved 2010-09-24.  ^ a b "Last Afghan empire". Louis Dupree, Nancy Hatch Dupree
Nancy Hatch Dupree
and others. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-09-24.  ^ "Account of British Trade across the Caspian Sea". Jonas Hanway. Centre for Military and Strategic Studies. Retrieved 2010-09-27.  ^ Axworthy pp.39-55 ^ "AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF PERSIA DURING THE LAST TWO CENTURIES (A.D. 1722-1922)". Edward Granville Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 31. Retrieved 2010-09-24.  ^ "AFGHANISTAN x. Political History". D. Balland. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 

External links[edit]

Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online - Last Afghan empire

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hotak Empire.

v t e

Monarchs of Afghanistan

Hotaki dynasty

Mirwais Hotak Abdul Aziz Hotak Mahmud Hotaki Ashraf Hotaki Hussain Hotaki


Ahmad Shah Durrani Timur Shah Durrani Zaman Shah Durrani Mahmud Shah Durrani Shuja Shah Durrani Ali Shah Durrani Ayub Shah Durrani

Emirate (Barakzai dynasty)

Dost Mohammad Khan Akbar Khan Sher Ali Khan Mohammad Afzal Khan Mohammad Azam Khan Mohammad Yaqub Khan Ayub Khan Abdur Rahman Khan Habibullah Khan Nasrullah Khan


Amanullah Khan Inayatullah Khan Habibullah Kalakani Mohammed Nadir Shah Mohammed Zahir Shah

v t e





3400–550 BCE

Kura-Araxes culture
Kura-Araxes culture
(3400–2000 BC) Proto-Elamite
civilization (3200–2800 BC) Elamite dynasties (2800–550 BC) Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
(c.2334 BC–c.2154 BC) Kassites
(c.1500–c.1155 BC) Kingdom of Mannai (10th–7th century BC) Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
(911–609 BC) Urartu
(860 BC–590 BC) Median Empire
Median Empire
(728–550 BC) (Scythian Kingdom) (652–625 BC) Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
(626–539 BC)

550 BC – 224 AD

Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(550–330 AD) Kingdom of Armenia (331 BC–428 AD) Atropatene
(320s BC–3rd century AD) Kingdom of Cappadocia
Kingdom of Cappadocia
(320s BC–17 AD) Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
(330 BC–150 AD) Kingdom of Pontus
Kingdom of Pontus
(281 BC–62 AD) Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
(248 BC –  224 AD)

224–651 AD

Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
(224–651 AD)


637 – 1055

Patriarchal Caliphate (637–651) Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
(661–750) Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
(750–1258) Tahirid dynasty
Tahirid dynasty
(821–873) Alavid dynasty (864–928) Saffarid dynasty
Saffarid dynasty
(861–1003) Samanid dynasty (819–999) Ziyarid dynasty
Ziyarid dynasty
(928–1043) Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty


Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187) Ghurid dynasty
Ghurid dynasty
(1011–1215) Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
(1037–1194) Khwarazmian dynasty
Khwarazmian dynasty
(1077–1231) Eldiguzids
(1135/36-1225) Ilkhanate
(1256–1335) Kurt dynasty
Kurt dynasty
(1231–1389) Muzaffarid dynasty (1314–1393) Chobanid dynasty (1337–1357) Jalairid Sultanate
Jalairid Sultanate
dynasty (1339–1432)


Timurid Empire
Timurid Empire
(1370–1507) Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans (1375–1468) Ag Qoyunlu
Ag Qoyunlu
Turcomans (1378–1508) Safavid Empire
Safavid Empire
(1501 – 1722 / 1736) Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
(1736–50) Zand Dynasty (1750–94) Qajar Dynasty (1794–1925)

Khanates of the Caucasus
Khanates of the Caucasus
(18th century–20th century)



Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
(1925–1979) Iran
Constituent Assembly, 1949 1953 coup d'état Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
(1979) Interim Government

Islamic Republic

History (1979–) Arab separatism in Khuzestan

Embassy siege (1980)

Iran–Iraq War
Iran–Iraq War
(1980–88) Iranian pilgrim massacre (1987) Iran
Air Flight 655 shootdown (1988) PJAK insurgency Balochistan conflict Syrian Civil War Military intervention against ISIL

See also

Ancient Iran Greater Iran Iranic peoples (languages) Kura–Araxes culture Jiroft culture Aryans Persian people Azerbaijanis Caucasian peoples Kings of Persia Heads of state Cities Military history History of democracy List of years in Iran


Cities (list) Earthquakes Iranian Azerbaijan Iranian Balochistan Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests Caucasus Iranian Kurdistan Iranian Plateau Lake Urmia Islands Mountains Provinces Wildlife



Censorship Constitution (Persian Constitutional Revolution) Elections (2009 presidential Green Revolution) Foreign relations Human rights (LGBT) Judicial system Military (Army Air Force Navy) Ministry of Intelligence and National Security Cyberwarfare Nuclear program (UN Security Council Resolution 1747) Political parties Principlists Propaganda Reformists Terrorism (state-sponsorship allegations) White Revolution
White Revolution
(1963) Women's rights movement


Assembly (or Council) of Experts Expediency Discernment Council City and Village Councils Guardian Council Islamic Consultative Assembly
Islamic Consultative Assembly
(parliament) Supreme National Security Council


Ambassadors President Provincial governors Supreme Leader



(charitable trust) Brain drain Companies (Automotive industry) Corruption Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO) Economic history Economic Reform Plan Energy Environmental issues Foreign direct investment Intellectual property International oil bourse International rankings Iran
and the World Trade Organization Taxation Main economic laws Economy of the Middle East Milad Tower
Milad Tower
and complex Military equipment manufactured Nuclear program (UN Security Council Resolution 1747) Privatization Rial (currency) Space Agency Setad Supreme Audit Court Tehran Stock Exchange Venture capital (Technology start-ups)


Agriculture (fruit) Banking and insurance (Banks (Central Bank) Electronic banking) Construction Defense Health care (Pharmaceuticals) Industry Mining Petroleum (Anglo-Persian Oil Company) Telecommunications and IT (TCI) Transport (airlines metro railways shipping) Tourism

State-owned companies

Defense Industries Organization
Defense Industries Organization
(DIO) Industrial Development and Renovation Organization (IDRO) Iran
Aviation Industries Organization (IAIO) Iran
Electronics Industries (IEI) National Iranian Oil Company
National Iranian Oil Company
(NIOC) National Development Fund


industrial corridor Chabahar Free Trade-Industrial Zone Kish Island
Kish Island
Free Trade Zone Research centers




Persian (Farsi) Armenian Azerbaijani Kurdish Georgian Neo-Aramaic Iranian languages


Iranian citizens (abroad) Ethnic minorities

Armenians Assyrians Azerbaijanis Circassians Georgians Kurds Persian Jews Turkmen


Islam Bahá'í (persecution) Christianity Zoroastrians (persecution) minorities


Corruption Crime Education (higher scientists and scholars universities) Brain drain Health care International rankings Nationality Water supply and sanitation Women


Architecture (Achaemenid architects) Art (modern / contemporary) Blogs Calendars (Persian New Year (Nowruz)) Chādor (garment) Chicago Persian antiquities dispute Cinema Crown jewels Cuisine Folklore Intellectual movements Iranians Iranian studies Islam (Islamization) Literature Media (news agencies (student) newspapers) Mythology National symbols (Imperial Anthem) Opium consumption Persian gardens Persian name Philosophy Public holidays Scouting Sport (football)


Folk Heavy metal Pop Rap and hip-hop Rock and alternative Traditional Ey Iran

Other topics

Science and technology Anti-Iranian sentiment Tehrangeles

Category Portal WikiProject Commons

v t e

Pashtun-related topics


Lodi dynasty Suri dynasty Hotak dynasty Durrani
dynasty Barakzai dynasty more

Key figures

Bahlul Lodi Sher Shah Suri Mirwais Hotak Ahmad Shah Khan Ahmad Shah Durrani Dost Mohammad Khan Malalai of Maiwand Saidu Baba Abdur Rahman Khan Mahmud Tarzi Soraya Tarzi Amanullah Khan Mohammed Nadir Shah Mullah Powindah Sartor Faqir Umra Khan Mirzali Khan Bacha Khan Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai Wali Khan Zahir Shah Daoud Khan Abdul Ahad Mohmand Mohammad Najibullah Ghulam Ishaq Khan Mohammed Omar Hamid Karzai Asfandyar Wali Khan Zalmay Khalilzad Mohammad Ashraf Ghani Abdur Rab Nishtar Abdul Waheed Kakar Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan) Karnal Sher Khan Malala Yousafzai


Pashtun culture Pashtun cuisine Pashtunwali Pashto Pashtunization Pashtun dress Pashto
media Pashto
singers Pashtun tribes Loya jirga Adam Khan and Durkhanai Yusuf Khan and Sherbano Jirga


Amir Kror Suri Pir Roshan Rahman Baba Khushal Khattak Nazo Tokhi Abdul Hamid Baba Hussain Hotak Ahmad Shah Durrani Hamza Baba Ajmal Khattak Kabir Stori Ghani Khan

Topics and controversies

Pashtun nationalism Pashtunistan Afghan (ethnonym) Durand Line Bannu Resolution Khudai Khidmatgar Kalabagh Dam Taliban Names of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Anti-Pashtun sentiment

Battles and conflicts

First Battle of Panipat Battle of Gulnabad Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Attock Battle of Multan Battle of Shopian Battle of Nowshera Battle of Jamrud Siege of Malakand Anglo-Afghan Wars Battle of Maiwand Tirah Campaign Battle of Saragarhi Soviet–Afghan War War in Afghanistan
(2001–2014) War in North-West Pakistan War in Afghanistan