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In aviation, hot and high is a condition of low air density due to high ambient temperature and high airport elevation. Air density decreases with increasing temperature and altitude. The reduced density reduces the performance of the aircraft's engine and also provides less lift, requiring a higher speed to lift the plane off the ground. Aviators gauge air density by calculating the density altitude.[1]

An airport may be especially hot or high, without the other condition being present. Temperature and pressure altitude can change from one hour to the next. The fact that temperature decreases as altitude increases mitigates the "hot and high" effect to a small extent.

Auxiliary rockets and/or jet engines can help a fully loaded aircraft to take off within the length of the runway. The rockets are usually one-time units that are jettisoned after takeoff. This practice was common in the 1950s and 60s, when the lower levels of thrust from military turbojets was inadequate for takeoff from shorter runways or with very heavy payloads. It is now seldom used.

Auxiliary jets and rockets have rarely been used on civil aircraft due to the risk of aircraft damage and loss of cont

Auxiliary rockets and/or jet engines can help a fully loaded aircraft to take off within the length of the runway. The rockets are usually one-time units that are jettisoned after takeoff. This practice was common in the 1950s and 60s, when the lower levels of thrust from military turbojets was inadequate for takeoff from shorter runways or with very heavy payloads. It is now seldom used.

Auxiliary jets and rockets have rarely been used on civil aircraft due to the risk of aircraft damage and loss of control if something were to go wrong during their use. Boeing did, however, produce a version of its popular Boeing 727 with JATO primarily for "hot and high" operations out of Mexico City Airport (MMMX) and La Paz, Bolivia. The boosters were located adjacent to the main landing gear at the wing root on each side of the aircraft.[2]

Specialized aircraft

Several manufacturers of early jet airliners offered variants optimized for hot and high operations. Such aircraft generally offered the largest wings and/or the most powerful engines in the model lineup coupled with a small fuselage to reduce weight. Some such aircraft include: