MUHAMMAD HOSNI EL SAYED MUBARAK (Arabic : محمد حسني
السيد مبارك, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: ,
Muḥammad Ḥusnī Sayyid Mubārak ; born 4 May 1928) is a former
Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth
President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the
Egyptian Air Force . He served as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and
rose to the rank of air chief marshal in 1973. Some time in the
1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor,
remaining there until early 1959. He assumed presidency after the
Anwar Sadat . Mubarak's presidency lasted almost
thirty years, making him Egypt's longest-serving ruler since Muhammad
Ali Pasha , who ruled the country from 1805 to 1848, a reign of 43
years. Mubarak stepped down after 18 days of demonstrations during
Egyptian Revolution of 2011
Egyptian Revolution of 2011 . On 11 February 2011, Vice President
Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned as president and
transferred authority to the
Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
Supreme Council of the Armed Forces .
On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor ordered Mubarak and both of his sons
(Alaa and Gamal ) to be detained for 15 days of questioning about
allegations of corruption and abuse of power. Mubarak was then
ordered to stand trial on charges of negligence for failing to halt
the killing of peaceful protesters during the revolution. These
trials began on 3 August 2011. On 2 June 2012, an Egyptian court
sentenced Mubarak to life imprisonment. After sentencing, he was
reported to have suffered a series of health crises. On 13 January
Court of Cassation (the nation's high court of appeal)
overturned Mubarak's sentence and ordered a retrial. On retrial,
Mubarak and his sons were convicted on 9 May 2015 of corruption and
given prison sentences. Mubarak was detained in a military hospital
and his sons were freed 12 October 2015 by a
Cairo court. He was
acquitted on 2 March 2017 by Court of Cassation, Egypt's top appeals
court. He was released on 24 March 2017.
* 1 Early life and Air Force career
* 2 Vice
President of Egypt
President of Egypt
* 3.1 Egypt\'s return to the
Gulf War of 1991
* 3.3 Governing style
* 3.4 Stance on the invasion of Iraq in 2003
* 3.5 2005 elections
* 3.6 State corruption during Mubarak\'s presidency
* 3.7 Wealth and allegations of personal corruption
* 3.8 Presidential succession
* 4 Revolution and overthrow
* 4.1 Protests
* 4.2 Post-resignation
* 4.3 Trial
* 4.4 Support for Sisi
* 4.5 Health problems
* 5 Acquittal
* 6 Personal life
* 7 Political and military posts
* 8 Awards
* 9 References
* 10 External links
EARLY LIFE AND AIR FORCE CAREER
Hosni Mubarak was born on 4 May 1928 in Kafr El-Meselha, Monufia
Egypt . On 2 February 1949, he left the Military
Academy and joined the Air Force Academy , gaining his commission as a
pilot officer on 13 March 1950 and eventually receiving a bachelor's
degree in aviation sciences.
Mubarak served as an
Egyptian Air Force officer in various formations
and units; he spent two years in a
Spitfire fighter squadron. Some
time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an
instructor, remaining there until early 1959. From February 1959 to
June 1961, Mubarak undertook further training in the
Soviet Union ,
attending a Soviet pilot training school in Moscow and another at Kant
Air Base near
Bishkek in the
Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic .
Mubarak undertook training on the
Ilyushin Il-28 and Tupolev Tu-16
jet bombers. In 1964 he gained a place at the Frunze Military Academy
in Moscow. On his return to Egypt, he served as a wing commander, then
as a base commander; he commanded the
Cairo West Air Base in October
1966 then briefly commanded the
Beni Suef Air Base. In November 1967,
Mubarak became the Air Force Academy's commander when he was credited
with doubling the number of Air Force pilots and navigators during the
pre-October War years. Two years later, he became Chief of Staff for
the Egyptian Air Force.
In 1972, Mubarak became Commander of the Air Force and Egyptian
Deputy Minister of Defense. On 6 October 1973, the Egyptian Air Force
launched a surprise attack on Israeli soldiers on the east bank of the
Suez Canal. Egyptian pilots hit 90% of their targets, making Mubarak a
national hero. The next year he was promoted to
Air Chief Marshal
Air Chief Marshal in
recognition of service during the October War of 1973 against Israel.
Mubarak was credited in some publications for Egypt's initial strong
performance in the war. The Egyptian analyst Mohamed Hassanein Heikal
said the Air Force played a mostly psychological role in the war,
providing an inspirational sight for the Egyptian ground troops who
carried out the crossing of the Suez Canal, rather than for any
military necessity. However Mubarak's influence was also disputed by
Shahdan El-Shazli, the daughter of the former Egyptian military Chief
Saad el-Shazly . She said Mubarak exaggerated his role in the
1973 war. In an interview with the Egyptian independent newspaper
Almasry Alyoum (26 February 2011), El-Shazli said Mubarak altered
documents to take credit from her father for the initial success of
the Egyptian forces in 1973. She also said photographs pertaining to
the discussions in the military command room were altered and Saad
El-Shazli was erased and replaced with Mubarak. She stated she intends
to take legal action.
VICE PRESIDENT OF EGYPT
In April 1975, Sadat appointed Mubarak Vice President of Egypt. In
this position, he took part in government consultations that dealt
with the future disengagement of forces agreement with Israel. In
September 1975, Mubarak went on a mission to
persuade the Saudi Arabian and Syrian governments to accept the
disengagement agreement signed with the Israeli government ("Sinai
II"), but was refused a meeting by the Syrian President Hafez Al-Assad
. During his meetings with the Saudi government, Mubarak developed a
friendship with the nation's powerful Crown Prince Fahd , whom Sadat
had refused to meet or contact and who was now seen as major player
who could help mend the failing relationship between
Egypt and Saudi
Arabia. Mubarak also developed friendships with several other
important Arab figureheads, including Saudi Foreign Minister Prince
Saud , Oman's
Sultan Qaboos , Morocco's
King Hassan II
King Hassan II , and Sudan's
Jaafar Nimeiry .
Sadat also sent Mubarak to numerous meetings with foreign leaders
outside the Arab world. Mubarak's political significance as
Vice-President can be seen from a conversation held on 23 June 1975
between Foreign Minister Fahmy and US Ambassador Hermann Eilts. Fahmy
told Eilts that "Mubarak is, for the time being at least, likely to be
a regular participant in all sensitive meetings" and he advised the
Ambassador not to antagonize Mubarak because he was Sadat's personal
choice. Though supportive of Sadat's earlier efforts made to bring
Sinai Peninsula back into Egyptian control, Mubarak agreed with
the views of various Arab figureheads and opposed the Camp David
Accords for failing to address other issues relating to the
Arab–Israeli conflict . Sadat even transferred his decisionmaking
authority to Mubarak temporarily at times he went on vacations.
PRESIDENT OF EGYPT
Egyptian presidential referendum 1981 Akhbar newspaper
Mubarak was injured during the assassination of President Sadat in
October 1981 by soldiers led by Lieutenant
Khalid Islambouli .
Following Sadat's death, Mubarak became the fourth president of Egypt.
EGYPT\'S RETURN TO THE ARAB LEAGUE
Until Libya's suspension from the
Arab League at the beginning of the
Libyan Civil War ,
Egypt was the only state in the history of the
organization to have had its membership suspended, because of
President Sadat's peace treaty with Israel. In 1989,
re-admitted as a full member and the League's headquarters were moved
to their original location in
GULF WAR OF 1991
Egypt was a member of the allied coalition during the 1991
Gulf War ;
Egyptian infantry were some of the first to land in Saudi Arabia to
remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Egypt's participation in the war
solidified its central role in the Arab World and brought financial
benefits for the Egyptian government. Reports that sums of up to
US$500,000 per soldier were paid or debt forgiven were published in
the news media. According to
The Economist :
The programme worked like a charm: a textbook case, says the . In
fact, luck was on Hosni Mubarak's side; when the US was hunting for a
military alliance to force Iraq out of Kuwait, Egypt's president
joined without hesitation. After the war, his reward was that America,
the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and Europe forgave
$20 billion of debt. Iraqi stamp about the Arab Cooperation
Council (ACC), founded 1989 by President
Hosni Mubarak of Egypt,
Ali Abdullah Saleh
Ali Abdullah Saleh of (North) Yemen, King Hussein of Jordan
Saddam Hussein of Iraq
Throughout the 1980s, Mubarak increased the production of affordable
housing, clothing, furniture, and medicine. By the time he became
President, Mubarak was one of a few Egyptian officials who refused to
visit Israel and vowed to take a less enthusiastic approach to
normalizing relations with the Israeli government. Mubarak was quick
to deny that his policies would result in difficulties for
Egyptian-Israeli dealings in the future. Egypt's heavy dependence on
US aid and its hopes for US pressure on Israel for a Palestinian
settlement continued under Mubarak. He quietly improved relations with
the former Soviet Union. In 1987, Mubarak won an election to a second
In his early years in power, Mubarak expanded the Egyptian State
Security Investigations Service (Mabahith Amn ad-Dawla) and the
Central Security Forces (anti-riot and containment forces). According
to Tarek Osman , the experience of seeing his predecessor assassinated
"right in front of him" and his lengthy military career—which was
longer than those of Nasser or Sadat—may have instilled in him more
focus and absorption with security than seemed the case with the
latter heads of state. Mubarak sought advice and confidence not in
leading ministers, senior advisers or leading intellectuals, but from
his security chiefs—"interior ministers, army commanders, and the
heads of the ultra-influential intelligence services."
Because of his positions against
Islamic fundamentalism and his
diplomacy towards Israel, Mubarak was the target of repeated
assassination attempts. According to the BBC, Mubarak survived six
attempts on his life. In June 1995, there was an alleged
assassination attempt involving noxious gases and Egyptian Islamic
Jihad while Mubarak was in Ethiopia for a conference of the
Organization of African Unity . He was also reportedly injured by a
knife-wielding assailant in
Port Said in September 1999. Mubarak
West Berlin in 1989
STANCE ON THE INVASION OF IRAQ IN 2003
With the U.S. President ,
George W. Bush
George W. Bush , March 2002
President Mubarak spoke out against the 2003 Iraq War, arguing that
Israeli–Palestinian conflict should have been resolved first. He
also said the war would cause "100 Bin Ladens ." However, as
President he did not support an immediate US withdrawal from Iraq
because he believed it would probably lead to chaos.
Egyptian presidential election, 2005 Mubarak
meeting with U.S. State Secretary
Hillary Clinton , Palestinian
Mahmoud Abbas , and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin
Sharm el-Sheikh on 14 September 2010.
President Mubarak was re-elected by majority votes in a referendum
for successive terms on four occasions: in 1987, 1993, and 1999.
Previously, Mubarak secured his position by having himself nominated
by Parliament then confirmed without opposition in a referendum.
The September 2005 ballot was a multiple-candidate election rather
than a referendum, but the electoral institutions and security
apparatus remain under the control of the President. On 28 July 2005,
Mubarak announced his candidacy. The election was scheduled for 7
September 2005; according to civil organizations that observed the
election it was marred by mass rigging activities. In a move widely
seen as political persecution,
Ayman Nour , a dissident and candidate
El-Ghad Party ("Tomorrow party") was convicted of forgery and
sentenced to five years' hard labor on 24 December 2005.
STATE CORRUPTION DURING MUBARAK\'S PRESIDENCY
While in office, political corruption in the Mubarak administration's
Ministry of the Interior rose dramatically. Political figures and
young activists were imprisoned without trial. Illegal, undocumented,
hidden detention facilities were established, and universities,
mosques, and newspaper staff were rejected because of political
Freedom House , a non-governmental organization that conducts
research into democracy, reported that the Egyptian government under
Mubarak expanded bureaucratic regulations, registration requirements,
and other controls that often feed corruption.
Freedom House said,
"corruption remained a significant problem under Mubarak, who promised
to do much, but in fact never did anything significant to tackle it
Transparency International 's Corruption Perceptions Index
Egypt with a CPI score of 3.1, based on perceptions of
the degree of corruption from business people and country analysts,
with 10 being very clean and 0 being highly corrupt.
Egypt ranked 98th
out of the 178 countries included in the report.
WEALTH AND ALLEGATIONS OF PERSONAL CORRUPTION
In February 2011,
ABC News reported that experts believed the
personal wealth of Mubarak and his family was between US$40 billion
and US$70 billion from military contracts made during his time as an
air force officer.
The Guardian reported that Mubarak and his family
might be worth up to US$70 billion garnered from corruption, bribes
and legitimate business activities. The money was said to be spread
out in various bank accounts, including some in Switzerland and the
UK, and invested in foreign property. The newspaper said some of the
information about the family's wealth might be ten years old.
Newsweek , these allegations are poorly substantiated and
On 12 February 2011, the government of Switzerland announced it was
freezing the Swiss bank accounts of Mubarak and his family. On 20
February 2011, the Egyptian Prosecutor General ordered the freezing of
Mubarak's assets and those of his wife Suzanne, his sons Alaa and
Gamal Mubarak, and his daughters-in-law Heidi Rasekh and Khadiga
Gamal. The Prosecutor General also ordered the Egyptian Foreign
Minister to communicate this to other countries where Mubarak and his
family could have assets. This order came two days after Egyptian
newspapers reported that Mubarak filed his financial statement.
Egyptian regulations mandate government officials to submit a
financial statement listing their assets and sources of income while
performing government work. On 21 February 2011, the Egyptian Military
Council, which was temporarily given the presidential authorities
following 25 January 2011 Revolution, said it had no objection to a
trial of Mubarak on charges of corruption.
On 23 February 2011, the Egyptian newspaper Eldostor reported that a
"knowledgeable source" described the order of the Prosecutor General
to freeze Mubarak's assets and the threats of a legal action as
nothing but a signal for Mubarak to leave
Egypt after a number of
attempts were made to encourage him to leave willingly. In February
Voice of America
Voice of America reported that Egypt's top prosecutor had
ordered a travel ban and an asset freeze for Mubarak and his family as
he considered further action. On 21 May 2014 a
Cairo court convicted
Mubarak and his sons of embezzling the equivalent of US$17.6 million
of state funds which were allocated for renovation and maintenance of
presidential palaces but were instead diverted to upgrade private
family homes. The court ordered the repayment of US$17.6 million,
fined the trio US$2.9 million, and sentenced Mubarak to three years in
prison and each of his sons to four years.
Gamal Mubarak , son of
In 2009, US Ambassador Margaret Scobey said, "despite incessant
whispered discussions, no one in
Egypt has any certainty about who
will eventually succeed Mubarak nor under what circumstances." She
said presidential son
Gamal Mubarak was the most likely successor;
some thought intelligence chief
Omar Suleiman might seek the office,
Arab League Secretary-General
Amr Moussa might stand. President
Mubarak and his son denied this; they said "a multi-candidate
electoral system introduced in 2005 has made the political process
Nigerian Tribune journalist Abiodun Awolaja
described a possible succession by
Gamal Mubarak as a "hereditary
The National Democratic Party of
Egypt continued to state that Hosni
Mubarak was to be the party's only candidate in the 2011 Presidential
Election. Mubarak said on 1 February 2011 that he had no intention of
standing in the 2011 presidential election. When this declaration
failed to ease the protests, Mubarak's vice president stated that
Gamal Mubarak would not run for president. With the escalation of the
demonstration and the fall of Mubarak, Hamdy El-Sayed , a former
influential figure in the National Democratic Party, said Gamal
Mubarak intended to usurp the presidency, assisted by then Interior
Minister, Habib El-Adly .
During his presidency, Mubarak upheld the U.S. brokered Camp David
Accords treaty signed between
Egypt and Israel in 1978. Mubarak, on
occasion also hosted meetings relating to the Israeli-Palestinian
conflict and made a number of attempts to serve as a broker between
them. Mubarak was concerned that Rabbi
Menachem M. Schneerson didn't
trust him on the issue and considered meeting him in New York.
In October 2000, Mubarak hosted an emergency summit meeting at Sharm
el-Sheikh to discuss the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In attendance
were: U.S. President
Bill Clinton , P.L.O. Chairman
Yasser Arafat ,
Israeli Prime Minister
Ehud Barak , King Abdullah of Jordan, NATO Sec.
Javier Solana , and U.N. Sec. General
Kofi Annan .
Mubarak was involved in the
Arab League , supporting Arab efforts to
achieve a lasting peace in the region. At the
Beirut Summit on 28
March 2002, the league adopted the
Arab Peace Initiative , a
Saudi-inspired plan to end the
Arab–Israeli conflict . 1
September 2010. During Middle East negotiations, Mubarak and Prime
Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel check their watches to see if
the sun has set; during Ramadan, Muslims fast until sunset.
In June 2007, Mubarak held a summit meeting at
Sharm el-Sheik with
Abdullah II of Jordan
Abdullah II of Jordan , President
Mahmoud Abbas and Prime
Ehud Olmert . On 19 June 2008, the Egypt-brokered pause in
hostilities between Israel and Hamas went into effect. According to
The New York Times
The New York Times , neither side fully respected the terms of the
The agreement required Hamas to end rocket attacks on Israel and to
enforce the ceasefire throughout Gaza. In exchange, Hamas expected the
blockade to end, commerce in Gaza to resume, and truck shipments to be
restored to 2005 levels. Israel tied an easing of the blockade to a
reduction in rocket fire and gradually re-opened supply lines and
permitted around 90 daily truck shipments to enter Gaza. Hamas
criticized Israel for its continued blockade while Israel accused
Hamas of continued weapons smuggling via tunnels to
Egypt and pointed
to continued rocket attacks.
In 2009, Mubarak's government banned the
Cairo Anti-war Conference ,
which had criticised his lack of action against Israel.
REVOLUTION AND OVERTHROW
Egyptian Revolution of 2011
Egyptian Revolution of 2011 Massive protests
centered on Cairo's
Tahrir Square led to Mubarak's resignation in
Protests against Mubarak and his regime erupted in
Cairo and other
Egyptian cities in January 2011. On 1 February, Mubarak announced he
would not contest the presidential election due in September. He also
promised constitutional reform. This did not satisfy most protesters,
who expected Mubarak to depart immediately. The demonstrations
continued and on 2 February, violent clashes occurred between
pro-Mubarak and anti-Mubarak protesters.
On 10 February, contrary to rumours, Mubarak said he would not
resign until the September election, though he would be delegating
responsibilities to Vice President
Omar Suleiman . The next day,
Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned. The announcement
sparked cheers, flag-waving, and celebrations from protesters in
Egypt. Discussions about the nation's future direction began. It had
been suggested that
Egypt be put in the hands of a caretaker
On 25 January 2011, protests against Mubarak and his government
Cairo and around
Egypt calling for Mubarak's resignation.
Mubarak stated in a speech that he would not leave, and would die on
Egyptian soil. Opposition leader
Mohamed ElBaradei paid no attention
to Mubarak's remarks and labeled it as a trick designed to help
Mubarak to stay in power. In a state televised broadcast on 1
February 2011, Mubarak announced that he would not seek re-election in
September but would like to finish his current term and promised
constitutional reform. This compromise was not acceptable for the
protestors and violent demonstrations occurred in front of the
Presidential Palace. On 11 February, then Vice President Omar Suleiman
announced Mubarak had resigned and that power would be turned over to
the Egyptian military .
Two and a half hours after Mubarak's resignation, an Egyptian
military member came on air and thanked Mubarak for "putting the
interests of the country first." The statement, which said "The
Supreme Council is currently studying the situation," did not state
what the council would do next.
Mubarak made no media appearances after his resignation. Except for
his family and a close circle of aides, he reportedly refused to talk
to anyone—even his supporters. His health was speculated to be
rapidly deteriorating; some reports said he was in a coma. Most
sources said he was no longer interested in performing any duties and
wanted to "die in Sharm El-Sheikh".
On 28 February 2011, the General Prosecutor of
Egypt issued an order
prohibiting Mubarak and his family from leaving Egypt. It was reported
that Mubarak was in contact with his lawyer in case of possible
criminal charges against him. As a result, Mubarak and his family
were placed under house arrest at a presidential palace in the Red Sea
resort of Sharm el-Sheikh. On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor originally
appointed by Mubarak ordered the former president and both his sons to
be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption
and abuse of power amid growing suspicion that the Egyptian military
was more aligned with the Mubaraks than with the revolution. Gamal and
Alaa were jailed in
Tora Prison ; state television reported that
Mubarak was in police custody in a hospital near his residence
following a heart attack. Former Israeli Cabinet minister Benjamin
Ben Eliezer told Israeli Radio that he had offered Mubarak refuge in
the southern Israeli city of
On 11 May 2013, he told
El-Watan in his first media appearance since
his resignation said, "History will judge and I am still certain that
the coming generations will view me fairly." He added that President
Mohammed Morsi faced a tough time and that it was too early to judge
For more details on this topic, see Trials and judicial hearings
Egyptian Revolution of 2011
Egyptian Revolution of 2011 § Mubarak family .
Mubarak appearing in a
On 24 May 2011, Mubarak was ordered to stand trial on charges of
premeditated murder of peaceful protesters during the revolution and,
if convicted, could face the death penalty. The decision to try
Mubarak was made days before a scheduled protest in Tahrir Square. The
full list of charges released by the public prosecutor was
"intentional murder, attempted killing of some demonstrators ...
misuse of influence, deliberately wasting public funds and unlawfully
making private financial gains and profits".
On 28 May, a
Cairo administrative court found Mubarak guilty of
damaging the national economy during the protests by shutting down the
Internet and telephone services. He was fined LE200 million—about
US$33.6 million—which the court ordered he must pay from his
personal assets. This was the first court ruling against Mubarak, who
would next have to answer to the murder charges.
The trial of Hosni Mubarak, his sons Ala'a and Gamal, former interior
Habib el-Adly and six former top police officials began on 3
August 2011 at a temporary criminal court at the Police Academy in
north Cairo. They were charged with corruption and the premeditated
killing of peaceful protesters during the mass movement to oust the
Mubarak government, the latter of which carries the death penalty.
The trial was broadcast on Egyptian television; Mubarak made an
unexpected appearance—his first since his resignation. He was taken
into the court on a hospital bed and held in a cage for the session.
Upon hearing the charges against him, Mubarak pleaded not guilty.
Judge Ahmed Refaat adjourned the court, ruling that Mubarak be
transferred under continued arrest to the military hospital on the
outskirts of Cairo. The second court session scheduled for 15 August.
On 15 August, the resumed trial lasted three hours. At the end of the
session, Rifaat announced that the third session would take place on 5
September and that the remainder of the proceedings would be
off-limits to television cameras. Riot police outside the
courthouse where Mubarak was being sentenced on 2 June 2012
The trial resumed in December 2011 and lasted until January 2012. The
defense strategy was that Mubarak never actually resigned, was still
president, and thus had immunity . On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was found
guilty of not halting the killing of protesters by the Egyptian
security forces; he was sentenced to life imprisonment. The court
found Mubarak not guilty of ordering the crackdown on Egyptian
protesters. All other charges against Mubarak, including profiteering
and economic fraud, were dismissed. Mubarak's sons, Habib el-Adly, and
six senior police officials were all acquitted for their roles in the
killing of demonstrators because of a lack of evidence. According to
The Guardian , the relatives of those killed by Mubarak's forces were
angered by the verdict. Thousands of demonstrators protested the
verdict in Tahrir Square, Arbein Square and Al-Qaed Ibrahim Square.
In January 2013, an appeals court overturned Mubarak's life sentence
and ordered a retrial. He remained in custody and returned to court
on 11 May 2013 for a retrial on charges of complicity in the murder of
protesters. On 21 August 2013, a
Cairo court ordered his release.
Judicial sources confirmed that the court had upheld a petition from
Mubarak's longtime lawyer that called for his release. A day later,
interim prime minister
Hazem El Beblawi ordered that Mubarak be put
under house arrest.
On 21 May 2014, while awaiting retrial, Mubarak and his sons were
convicted on charges of embezzlement; Mubarak was sentenced to three
years in prison, while his sons received four-year sentences. The
three were fined the equivalent of US$2.9 million, and were ordered to
repay US$17.6 million.
In November 2014, conspiracy to kill charges were dismissed by the
Cairo Criminal Court on a technicality. The court also cleared
Mubarak of corruption charges. On 13 January 2015, Egypt's Court of
Cassation overturned Mubarak's and his sons' embezzlement charges, the
last remaining conviction against him, and ordered a retrial. A
retrial on the corruption charges led to a conviction and sentencing
to three years in prison in May 2015 for Mubarak, with four-year terms
for his sons, Gamal and Alaa . It was not immediately clear whether
the sentence would take into account time already served – Mubarak
and his sons have already spent more than three years in prison, so
potentially will not have to serve any additional time. Supporters of
Mubarak jeered the decision when it was announced in a
on 9 May. The sentence also included a 125 million Egyptian pound
(US$16.3 million) fine, and required the return of 21 million
embezzled Egyptian pounds (US$2.7 million). These amounts were
previously paid after the first trial.
SUPPORT FOR SISI
Though mostly out of the public eye, Mubarak granted a rare interview
in February 2014 with Kuwaiti journalist Fajer al-Saeed, expressing
support for then-Minister of Defense and Commander-in-Chief of the
Egyptian Armed Forces
Egyptian Armed Forces
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi as the next President of
Egypt, recognizing that Sisi was working to restore the confidence of
the Egyptian people. "The people want Sisi, and the people's will
shall prevail," Mubarak noted. Mubarak also expressed great admiration
and gratitude towards the late Sheikh
Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan of
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates and his children, for their continuous
Egypt and its people. However, Mubarak expressed his
dislike of opposition politician
Hamdeen Sabbahi , a Nasserist
following the policies of
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser .
In July 2010, the media said
Egypt was about to undergo dramatic
change because Mubarak was thought to have cancer and because of the
scheduled 2011 presidential election . Intelligence sources said he
had esophageal cancer, stomach or pancreatic cancer; this was denied
by Egyptian authorities. Speculation about his ill health increased
after his resignation from the presidency. According to Egyptian
media, Mubarak's condition worsened after he went into exile in Sharm
el-Sheikh. He was reportedly depressed, refused to take medications,
and was slipping in and out of consciousness. According to the
source—an unnamed Egyptian security official—"Mubarak wants to be
left alone and die in his homeland". The source denied that Mubarak
was writing his memoirs, stating that he was almost completely
unconscious. After his resignation, Egypt's ambassador to the United
Sameh Shoukry reported that his personal sources said Mubarak
"is possibly in somewhat of bad health", while several Egyptian and
Saudi Arabian newspapers reported that Mubarak was in a coma and close
to death. On 12 April 2011, it was reported that he had been
hospitalized after suffering a heart attack during questioning over
possible corruption charges.
In June 2011, Mubarak's lawyer Farid el-Deeb said his client "has
stomach cancer, and the cancer is growing". Mubarak had undergone
surgery for the condition in Germany in 2010 and also suffered from
circulatory problems with an irregular heart beat. On 13 July 2011,
unconfirmed reports stated that Mubarak had slipped into a coma at his
residence after giving his final speech, and on 17 July, el-Deeb
confirmed the reports. On 26 July 2011, Mubarak was reported to be
depressed and refusing solid food while in hospital being treated for
a heart condition and in custody awaiting trial.
On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was reported as have suffered a health crisis
while being transported to prison after his conviction on the charges
of complicity in the killing of protestors. Some sources reported he
had had a heart attack. Further reports stated that Mubarak's health
continued to decline; some said he had to be treated with a
defibrillator . On 20 June 2012, as Mubarak's condition continued to
decline, state-run media erroneously reported that the former
president had been declared "clinically dead", causing widespread
confusion. Officials later clarified that Mubarak was is a critical
On 27 December 2012, Mubarak was taken from
Tora Prison to the Cairo
military hospital after falling and breaking a rib. He was released
from prison in August 2013.
In a new development, on 19 June 2014, Mubarak slipped in the
bathroom at the military hospital in
Cairo where he is being held and
broke his left leg, also fracturing his left thighbone, requiring
surgery. Mubarak is serving a three-year sentence for corruption and
is also awaiting retrial regarding the killing of protesters during
his regime. At one time, his release was ordered. However, Mubarak has
remained at the military hospital since January 2014 due to his
ongoing health issues.
On 2 March 2017, the
Court of Cassation , Egypt's top appeals court,
acquitted Mubarak of conspiring in the killing of protesters during
the 2011 uprising.
Hosni Mubarak is married to
Suzanne Mubarak and has two sons: Alaa ,
and Gamal . Both sons served four years in Egyptian jail for
corruption and were released in 2015. Through his son Alaa, Mubarak
has two grandsons, Muhammed and Omar; and through his son Gamal, he
has a granddaughter Farida. Muhammad died in 2009 from a cerebral
In April 2016,
Alaa Mubarak was named in the
Panama Papers as someone
with financial interests that intersect with that of
Mossack Fonseca ,
the firm implicated in that scandal.
POLITICAL AND MILITARY POSTS
* Chairman of the
Non-Aligned Movement (2009-2011)
* Re-elected for a fifth term of office (2005)
* Chairman of the G-15 (1998 vertical-align: top;">
* President of the Republic (1981)
* Vice-President of the National Democratic Party (NDP ) (1979)
* Vice-President of the Arab Republic of
* Promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General / Air Marshal (1974)
* Commander of the Air Force and Deputy Minister of Defense (1972)
* Chief of Staff of the Air Force (1969)
* Director of the Air Force Academy (1968)
* Commander of
Cairo West Air Base (1964)
Frunze Military Academy
Frunze Military Academy , USSR (1964)
* Lecturer in Air Force Academy (1952–59)
Jawaharlal Nehru Award (1995)
* First Class of the
Order of the State of Republic of Turkey (1998)
* Honor Star Medal twice.
* Military Training medal .
Military Honor Medal Knight Rank from the President of Syria.
* Honor Star Medal from the PLO.
Order of King Abdulaziz - Excellent Degree from King Faisal .
* Hamayon Merit from Emperor
Muhammad Reza Pahlavi , Iran.
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to HOSNI MUBARAK .
Wikiquote has quotations related to: HOSNI MUBARAK
* President Mubarak at the
Wayback Machine (archived 7 January 2007)
at the official Egyptian government site
* Air Marshal
Hosni Mubarak at the official
Egyptian Air Force site
* Appearances on