The Info List - Hosni Mubarak

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Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسني السيد مبارك‎, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mæˈħæmmæd ˈħosni (ʔe)sˈsæjjed moˈbɑːɾɑk], Muḥammad Ḥusnī Sayyid Mubārak; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt
President of Egypt
from 1981 to 2011. Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force. He served as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rose to the rank of air chief marshal in 1973.[1] Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959.[1] He assumed presidency after the assassination of Anwar Sadat. Mubarak's presidency lasted almost thirty years, making him Egypt's longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha, who ruled the country from 1805 to 1848, a reign of 43 years.[2] Mubarak stepped down after 18 days of demonstrations during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.[3] On 11 February 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman
Omar Suleiman
announced that Mubarak had resigned as president and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.[4][5] On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor ordered Mubarak and both of his sons (Alaa and Gamal) to be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption and abuse of power.[6] Mubarak was then ordered to stand trial on charges of negligence for failing to halt the killing of peaceful protesters during the revolution.[7] These trials began on 3 August 2011.[8] On 2 June 2012, an Egyptian court sentenced Mubarak to life imprisonment. After sentencing, he was reported to have suffered a series of health crises. On 13 January 2013, Egypt's Court of Cassation (the nation's high court of appeal) overturned Mubarak's sentence and ordered a retrial.[9] On retrial, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on 9 May 2015 of corruption and given prison sentences.[10] Mubarak was detained in a military hospital and his sons were freed 12 October 2015 by a Cairo
court.[11] He was acquitted on 2 March 2017 by Court of Cassation, Egypt's top appeals court.[12] He was released on 24 March 2017.[13]


1 Early life and Air Force career 2 Vice President of Egypt 3 President of Egypt

3.1 Egypt's return to the Arab League 3.2 Gulf War
Gulf War
of 1991 3.3 Governing style 3.4 Stance on the invasion of Iraq in 2003 3.5 2005 elections 3.6 State corruption during Mubarak's presidency 3.7 Wealth and allegations of personal corruption 3.8 Presidential succession 3.9 Israeli–Palestinian conflict

4 Revolution and overthrow

4.1 Protests 4.2 Post-resignation 4.3 Trial 4.4 Support for Sisi 4.5 Health problems

5 Acquittal 6 Personal life 7 Political and military posts 8 Awards 9 References 10 External links

Early life and Air Force career Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
was born on 4 May 1928 in Kafr El-Meselha, Monufia Governorate, Egypt.[14] On 2 February 1949, he left the Military Academy and joined the Air Force Academy, gaining his commission as a pilot officer on 13 March 1950[1] and eventually receiving a bachelor's degree in aviation sciences. Mubarak served as an Egyptian Air Force
Egyptian Air Force
officer in various formations and units; he spent two years in a Spitfire
fighter squadron.[1] Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959.[1] From February 1959 to June 1961, Mubarak undertook further training in the Soviet Union, attending a Soviet pilot training school in Moscow and another at Kant Air Base near Bishkek
in the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic. Mubarak undertook training on the Ilyushin Il-28
Ilyushin Il-28
and Tupolev Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-16
jet bombers. In 1964 he gained a place at the Frunze Military Academy
Frunze Military Academy
in Moscow. On his return to Egypt, he served as a wing commander, then as a base commander; he commanded the Cairo
West Air Base in October 1966 then briefly commanded the Beni Suef
Beni Suef
Air Base.[1] In November 1967, Mubarak became the Air Force Academy's commander when he was credited with doubling the number of Air Force pilots and navigators during the pre-October War years.[15] Two years later, he became Chief of Staff for the Egyptian Air Force. In 1972, Mubarak became Commander of the Air Force and Egyptian Deputy Minister of Defense. On 6 October 1973, the Egyptian Air Force launched a surprise attack on Israeli soldiers on the east bank of the Suez Canal. Egyptian pilots hit 90% of their targets, making Mubarak a national hero.[16] The next year he was promoted to Air Chief Marshal in recognition of service during the October War of 1973 against Israel.[1][17] Mubarak was credited in some publications for Egypt's initial strong performance in the war.[18] The Egyptian analyst Mohamed Hassanein Heikal
Mohamed Hassanein Heikal
said the Air Force played a mostly psychological role in the war, providing an inspirational sight for the Egyptian ground troops who carried out the crossing of the Suez Canal, rather than for any military necessity.[19] However Mubarak's influence was also disputed by Shahdan El-Shazli, the daughter of the former Egyptian military Chief of Staff Saad el-Shazly. She said Mubarak exaggerated his role in the 1973 war. In an interview with the Egyptian independent newspaper Almasry Alyoum (26 February 2011), El-Shazli said Mubarak altered documents to take credit from her father for the initial success of the Egyptian forces in 1973. She also said photographs pertaining to the discussions in the military command room were altered and Saad El-Shazli was erased and replaced with Mubarak. She stated she intends to take legal action.[20] Vice President of Egypt In April 1975, Sadat appointed Mubarak Vice President of Egypt. In this position, he took part in government consultations that dealt with the future disengagement of forces agreement with Israel.[21] In September 1975, Mubarak went on a mission to Riyadh
and Damascus
to persuade the Saudi Arabian and Syrian governments to accept the disengagement agreement signed with the Israeli government ("Sinai II"), but was refused a meeting by the Syrian President Hafez Al-Assad.[22][23] During his meetings with the Saudi government, Mubarak developed a friendship with the nation's powerful Crown Prince Fahd, whom Sadat had refused to meet or contact and who was now seen as major player who could help mend the failing relationship between Egypt
and Saudi Arabia.[24] Mubarak also developed friendships with several other important Arab figureheads, including Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud, Oman's Sultan Qaboos, Morocco's King Hassan II, and Sudan's President Jaafar Nimeiry.[24] Sadat also sent Mubarak to numerous meetings with foreign leaders outside the Arab world.[25] Mubarak's political significance as Vice-President can be seen from a conversation held on 23 June 1975 between Foreign Minister Fahmy and US Ambassador Hermann Eilts. Fahmy told Eilts that "Mubarak is, for the time being at least, likely to be a regular participant in all sensitive meetings" and he advised the Ambassador not to antagonize Mubarak because he was Sadat's personal choice.[22] Though supportive of Sadat's earlier efforts made to bring the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
back into Egyptian control,[24] Mubarak agreed with the views of various Arab figureheads and opposed the Camp David Accords for failing to address other issues relating to the Arab–Israeli conflict.[24] Sadat even transferred his decisionmaking authority to Mubarak temporarily at times he went on vacations.[26] President of Egypt

Egyptian presidential referendum 1981 Akhbar newspaper

Mubarak was injured during the assassination of President Sadat in October 1981 by soldiers led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli. Following Sadat's death, Mubarak became the fourth president of Egypt. Egypt's return to the Arab League Until Libya's suspension from the Arab League
Arab League
at the beginning of the Libyan Civil War, Egypt
was the only state in the history of the organization to have had its membership suspended, because of President Sadat's peace treaty with Israel. In 1989, Egypt
was re-admitted as a full member and the League's headquarters were moved to their original location in Cairo.[27] Gulf War
Gulf War
of 1991 Egypt
was a member of the allied coalition during the 1991 Gulf War; Egyptian infantry were some of the first to land in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait. Egypt's participation in the war solidified its central role in the Arab World and brought financial benefits for the Egyptian government. Reports that sums of up to US$500,000 per soldier were paid or debt forgiven were published in the news media. According to The Economist:

The programme worked like a charm: a textbook case, says the [International Monetary Fund]. In fact, luck was on Hosni Mubarak's side; when the US was hunting for a military alliance to force Iraq out of Kuwait, Egypt's president joined without hesitation. After the war, his reward was that America, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and Europe forgave Egypt
around $20 billion of debt.[28]

Iraqi stamp about the Arab Cooperation Council
Arab Cooperation Council
(ACC), founded 1989 by President Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
of Egypt, President Ali Abdullah Saleh
Ali Abdullah Saleh
of (North) Yemen, King Hussein of Jordan
Hussein of Jordan
and President Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
of Iraq

Governing style Throughout the 1980s, Mubarak increased the production of affordable housing, clothing, furniture, and medicine. By the time he became President, Mubarak was one of a few Egyptian officials who refused to visit Israel and vowed to take a less enthusiastic approach to normalizing relations with the Israeli government.[24] Mubarak was quick to deny that his policies would result in difficulties for Egyptian-Israeli dealings in the future.[24] Egypt's heavy dependence on US aid and its hopes for US pressure on Israel for a Palestinian settlement continued under Mubarak. He quietly improved relations with the former Soviet Union. In 1987, Mubarak won an election to a second six-year term. In his early years in power, Mubarak expanded the Egyptian State Security Investigations Service (Mabahith Amn ad-Dawla) and the Central Security Forces
Central Security Forces
(anti-riot and containment forces).[29] According to Tarek Osman, the experience of seeing his predecessor assassinated "right in front of him" and his lengthy military career—which was longer than those of Nasser or Sadat—may have instilled in him more focus and absorption with security than seemed the case with the latter heads of state. Mubarak sought advice and confidence not in leading ministers, senior advisers or leading intellectuals, but from his security chiefs—"interior ministers, army commanders, and the heads of the ultra-influential intelligence services."[30] Because of his positions against Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism
and his diplomacy towards Israel, Mubarak was the target of repeated assassination attempts. According to the BBC, Mubarak survived six attempts on his life.[31] In June 1995, there was an alleged assassination attempt involving noxious gases and Egyptian Islamic Jihad while Mubarak was in Ethiopia for a conference of the Organization of African Unity.[32] He was also reportedly injured by a knife-wielding assailant in Port Said
Port Said
in September 1999.[33]

Mubarak in West Berlin
West Berlin
in 1989

Stance on the invasion of Iraq in 2003

With the U.S. President, George W. Bush, March 2002

President Mubarak spoke out against the 2003 Iraq War, arguing that the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
should have been resolved first. He also said the war would cause "100 Bin Ladens."[34] However, as President he did not support an immediate US withdrawal from Iraq because he believed it would probably lead to chaos.[35] 2005 elections Main article: Egyptian presidential election, 2005

Mubarak meeting with U.S. State Secretary Hillary Clinton, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu at Sharm el-Sheikh
Sharm el-Sheikh
on 14 September 2010.

President Mubarak was re-elected by majority votes in a referendum for successive terms on four occasions: in 1987, 1993, and 1999. Previously,[when?] Mubarak secured his position by having himself nominated by Parliament then confirmed without opposition in a referendum. The September 2005 ballot was a multiple-candidate election rather than a referendum, but the electoral institutions and security apparatus remain under the control of the President. On 28 July 2005, Mubarak announced his candidacy. The election was scheduled for 7 September 2005; according to civil organizations that observed the election it was marred by mass rigging activities.[36] In a move widely seen as political persecution, Ayman Nour, a dissident and candidate for the El-Ghad Party ("Tomorrow party") was convicted of forgery and sentenced to five years' hard labor on 24 December 2005.[37] State corruption during Mubarak's presidency While in office, political corruption in the Mubarak administration's Ministry of the Interior rose dramatically. Political figures and young activists were imprisoned without trial.[38] Illegal, undocumented, hidden detention facilities were established,[39][40] and universities, mosques, and newspaper staff were rejected because of political inclination.[41][clarification needed] In 2005 Freedom House, a non-governmental organization that conducts research into democracy, reported that the Egyptian government under Mubarak expanded bureaucratic regulations, registration requirements, and other controls that often feed corruption. Freedom House
Freedom House
said, "corruption remained a significant problem under Mubarak, who promised to do much, but in fact never did anything significant to tackle it effectively".[42] In 2010, Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index report assessed Egypt
with a CPI score of 3.1, based on perceptions of the degree of corruption from business people and country analysts, with 10 being very clean and 0 being highly corrupt. Egypt
ranked 98th out of the 178 countries included in the report.[43] Wealth and allegations of personal corruption In February 2011, ABC News
ABC News
reported that experts believed the personal wealth of Mubarak and his family was between US$40 billion and US$70 billion from military contracts made during his time as an air force officer.[44] The Guardian
The Guardian
reported that Mubarak and his family might be worth up to US$70 billion garnered from corruption, bribes and legitimate business activities. The money was said to be spread out in various bank accounts, including some in Switzerland and the UK, and invested in foreign property. The newspaper said some of the information about the family's wealth might be ten years old.[45] According to Newsweek, these allegations are poorly substantiated and lack credibility.[46] On 12 February 2011, the government of Switzerland announced it was freezing the Swiss bank accounts of Mubarak and his family.[47] On 20 February 2011, the Egyptian Prosecutor General ordered the freezing of Mubarak's assets and those of his wife Suzanne, his sons Alaa and Gamal Mubarak, and his daughters-in-law Heidi Rasekh and Khadiga Gamal. The Prosecutor General also ordered the Egyptian Foreign Minister to communicate this to other countries where Mubarak and his family could have assets. This order came two days after Egyptian newspapers reported that Mubarak filed his financial statement.[48] Egyptian regulations mandate government officials to submit a financial statement listing their assets and sources of income while performing government work. On 21 February 2011, the Egyptian Military Council, which was temporarily given the presidential authorities following 25 January 2011 Revolution, said it had no objection to a trial of Mubarak on charges of corruption.[49] On 23 February 2011, the Egyptian newspaper Eldostor reported that a "knowledgeable source" described the order of the Prosecutor General to freeze Mubarak's assets and the threats of a legal action as nothing but a signal for Mubarak to leave Egypt
after a number of attempts were made to encourage him to leave willingly.[50] In February 2011, Voice of America
Voice of America
reported that Egypt's top prosecutor had ordered a travel ban and an asset freeze for Mubarak and his family as he considered further action.[51] On 21 May 2014 a Cairo court convicted Mubarak and his sons of embezzling the equivalent of US$17.6 million of state funds which were allocated for renovation and maintenance of presidential palaces but were instead diverted to upgrade private family homes. The court ordered the repayment of US$17.6 million, fined the trio US$2.9 million, and sentenced Mubarak to three years in prison and each of his sons to four years.[52] Presidential succession

Gamal Mubarak, son of Hosni Mubarak

In 2009, US Ambassador Margaret Scobey said, "despite incessant whispered discussions, no one in Egypt
has any certainty about who will eventually succeed Mubarak nor under what circumstances."[53] She said presidential son Gamal Mubarak
Gamal Mubarak
was the most likely successor; some thought intelligence chief Omar Suleiman
Omar Suleiman
might seek the office, or Arab League
Arab League
Secretary-General Amr Moussa
Amr Moussa
might stand.[53] President Mubarak and his son denied this; they said "a multi-candidate electoral system introduced in 2005 has made the political process more transparent".[54] Nigerian Tribune journalist Abiodun Awolaja described a possible succession by Gamal Mubarak
Gamal Mubarak
as a "hereditary pseudo-monarchy."[55] The National Democratic Party of Egypt
continued to state that Hosni Mubarak was to be the party's only candidate in the 2011 Presidential Election. Mubarak said on 1 February 2011 that he had no intention of standing in the 2011 presidential election. When this declaration failed to ease the protests, Mubarak's vice president stated that Gamal Mubarak
Gamal Mubarak
would not run for president. With the escalation of the demonstration and the fall of Mubarak, Hamdy El-Sayed, a former influential figure in the National Democratic Party, said Gamal Mubarak intended to usurp the presidency, assisted by then Interior Minister, Habib El-Adly.[56] Israeli–Palestinian conflict During his presidency, Mubarak upheld the U.S. brokered Camp David Accords treaty signed between Egypt
and Israel in 1978. Mubarak, on occasion also hosted meetings relating to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and made a number of attempts to serve as a broker between them.[57] Mubarak was concerned that Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson didn't trust him on the issue and considered meeting him in New York.[58] In October 2000, Mubarak hosted an emergency summit meeting at Sharm el-Sheikh to discuss the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In attendance were: U.S. President Bill Clinton, P.L.O. Chairman Yasser Arafat, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, King Abdullah of Jordan, NATO Sec. General Javier Solana, and U.N. Sec. General Kofi Annan.[16] Mubarak was involved in the Arab League, supporting Arab efforts to achieve a lasting peace in the region. At the Beirut Summit on 28 March 2002, the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative,[59] a Saudi-inspired plan to end the Arab–Israeli conflict.

1 September 2010. During Middle East negotiations, Mubarak and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
of Israel check their watches to see if the sun has set; during Ramadan, Muslims fast until sunset.

In June 2007, Mubarak held a summit meeting at Sharm el-Sheik
Sharm el-Sheik
with King Abdullah II of Jordan, President Mahmoud Abbas
Mahmoud Abbas
and Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. On 19 June 2008, the Egypt-brokered pause in hostilities between Israel and Hamas went into effect.[60][61] According to The New York Times, neither side fully respected the terms of the ceasefire.[62] The agreement required Hamas to end rocket attacks on Israel and to enforce the ceasefire throughout Gaza. In exchange, Hamas expected the blockade to end, commerce in Gaza to resume, and truck shipments to be restored to 2005 levels.[62][63] Israel tied an easing of the blockade to a reduction in rocket fire and gradually re-opened supply lines and permitted around 90 daily truck shipments to enter Gaza.[64] Hamas criticized Israel for its continued blockade[65] while Israel accused Hamas of continued weapons smuggling via tunnels to Egypt
and pointed to continued rocket attacks.[62] In 2009, Mubarak's government banned the Cairo
Anti-war Conference, which had criticised his lack of action against Israel.[66] Revolution and overthrow Main article: Egyptian Revolution of 2011

Massive protests centered on Cairo's Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
led to Mubarak's resignation in February 2011.

Protests against Mubarak and his regime erupted in Cairo
and other Egyptian cities in January 2011. On 1 February, Mubarak announced he would not contest the presidential election due in September. He also promised constitutional reform.[67] This did not satisfy most protesters, who expected Mubarak to depart immediately.[68] The demonstrations continued and on 2 February, violent clashes occurred between pro-Mubarak and anti-Mubarak protesters.[69] On 10 February, contrary to rumours,[70] Mubarak said he would not resign until the September election, though he would be delegating responsibilities to Vice President Omar Suleiman. The next day, Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned.[4] The announcement sparked cheers, flag-waving, and celebrations from protesters in Egypt. Discussions about the nation's future direction began.[71] It had been suggested that Egypt
be put in the hands of a caretaker government.[72] Protests On 25 January 2011, protests against Mubarak and his government erupted in Cairo
and around Egypt
calling for Mubarak's resignation.[71] Mubarak stated in a speech that he would not leave, and would die on Egyptian soil. Opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei paid no attention to Mubarak's remarks[71] and labeled it as a trick designed to help Mubarak to stay in power.[72] In a state televised broadcast on 1 February 2011, Mubarak announced that he would not seek re-election in September but would like to finish his current term and promised constitutional reform. This compromise was not acceptable for the protestors and violent demonstrations occurred in front of the Presidential Palace. On 11 February, then Vice President Omar Suleiman announced Mubarak had resigned and that power would be turned over to the Egyptian military. Two and a half hours after Mubarak's resignation, an Egyptian military member came on air and thanked Mubarak for "putting the interests of the country first." The statement, which said "The Supreme Council is currently studying the situation," did not state what the council would do next.[73] Post-resignation Mubarak made no media appearances after his resignation. Except for his family and a close circle of aides, he reportedly refused to talk to anyone—even his supporters. His health was speculated to be rapidly deteriorating; some reports said he was in a coma. Most sources said he was no longer interested in performing any duties and wanted to "die in Sharm El-Sheikh".[74][75] On 28 February 2011, the General Prosecutor of Egypt
issued an order prohibiting Mubarak and his family from leaving Egypt. It was reported that Mubarak was in contact with his lawyer in case of possible criminal charges against him.[76] As a result, Mubarak and his family were placed under house arrest at a presidential palace in the Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheikh.[77] On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor originally appointed by Mubarak ordered the former president and both his sons to be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption and abuse of power amid growing suspicion that the Egyptian military was more aligned with the Mubaraks than with the revolution. Gamal and Alaa were jailed in Tora Prison; state television reported that Mubarak was in police custody in a hospital near his residence following a heart attack.[6] Former Israeli Cabinet minister Benjamin Ben Eliezer told Israeli Radio that he had offered Mubarak refuge in the southern Israeli city of Eilat.[78] On 11 May 2013, he told El-Watan
in his first media appearance since his resignation said, "History will judge and I am still certain that the coming generations will view me fairly." He added that President Mohammed Morsi faced a tough time and that it was too early to judge him.[79] Trial Further information: Trials and judicial hearings following the Egyptian Revolution of 2011
Egyptian Revolution of 2011
§ Mubarak family

Mubarak appearing in a Cairo

On 24 May 2011, Mubarak was ordered to stand trial on charges of premeditated murder of peaceful protesters during the revolution and, if convicted, could face the death penalty. The decision to try Mubarak was made days before a scheduled protest in Tahrir Square. The full list of charges released by the public prosecutor was "intentional murder, attempted killing of some demonstrators ... misuse of influence, deliberately wasting public funds and unlawfully making private financial gains and profits".[7] On 28 May, a Cairo
administrative court found Mubarak guilty of damaging the national economy during the protests by shutting down the Internet and telephone services. He was fined LE200 million—about US$33.6 million—which the court ordered he must pay from his personal assets. This was the first court ruling against Mubarak, who would next have to answer to the murder charges.[80][81] The trial of Hosni Mubarak, his sons Ala'a and Gamal, former interior minister Habib el-Adly and six former top police officials began on 3 August 2011 at a temporary criminal court at the Police Academy in north Cairo. They were charged with corruption and the premeditated killing of peaceful protesters during the mass movement to oust the Mubarak government, the latter of which carries the death penalty.[82] The trial was broadcast on Egyptian television; Mubarak made an unexpected appearance—his first since his resignation. He was taken into the court on a hospital bed and held in a cage for the session. Upon hearing the charges against him, Mubarak pleaded not guilty. Judge Ahmed Refaat adjourned the court, ruling that Mubarak be transferred under continued arrest to the military hospital on the outskirts of Cairo. The second court session scheduled for 15 August.[83] On 15 August, the resumed trial lasted three hours. At the end of the session, Rifaat announced that the third session would take place on 5 September and that the remainder of the proceedings would be off-limits to television cameras.[84]

Riot police outside the courthouse where Mubarak was being sentenced on 2 June 2012

The trial resumed in December 2011 and lasted until January 2012. The defense strategy was that Mubarak never actually resigned, was still president, and thus had immunity.[85] On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was found guilty of not halting the killing of protesters by the Egyptian security forces; he was sentenced to life imprisonment.[86] The court found Mubarak not guilty of ordering the crackdown on Egyptian protesters. All other charges against Mubarak, including profiteering and economic fraud, were dismissed. Mubarak's sons, Habib el-Adly, and six senior police officials were all acquitted for their roles in the killing of demonstrators because of a lack of evidence.[87] According to The Guardian, the relatives of those killed by Mubarak's forces were angered by the verdict.[88][89] Thousands of demonstrators protested the verdict in Tahrir Square, Arbein Square and Al-Qaed Ibrahim Square.[89] In January 2013, an appeals court overturned Mubarak's life sentence and ordered a retrial.[90] He remained in custody and returned to court on 11 May 2013 for a retrial on charges of complicity in the murder of protesters.[91] On 21 August 2013, a Cairo
court ordered his release. Judicial sources confirmed that the court had upheld a petition from Mubarak's longtime lawyer that called for his release.[92] A day later, interim prime minister Hazem El Beblawi ordered that Mubarak be put under house arrest.[93] On 21 May 2014, while awaiting retrial, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on charges of embezzlement; Mubarak was sentenced to three years in prison, while his sons received four-year sentences. The three were fined the equivalent of US$2.9 million, and were ordered to repay US$17.6 million.[52] In November 2014, conspiracy to kill charges were dismissed by the Cairo
Criminal Court on a technicality.[94] The court also cleared Mubarak of corruption charges.[95] On 13 January 2015, Egypt's Court of Cassation overturned Mubarak's and his sons' embezzlement charges, the last remaining conviction against him, and ordered a retrial.[96] A retrial on the corruption charges led to a conviction and sentencing to three years in prison in May 2015 for Mubarak, with four-year terms for his sons, Gamal and Alaa.[10] It was not immediately clear whether the sentence would take into account time already served – Mubarak and his sons have already spent more than three years in prison, so potentially will not have to serve any additional time.[97] Supporters of Mubarak jeered the decision when it was announced in a Cairo courtroom on 9 May.[98][99] The sentence also included a 125 million Egyptian pound
Egyptian pound
(US$16.3 million) fine, and required the return of 21 million embezzled Egyptian pounds (US$2.7 million). These amounts were previously paid after the first trial.[98] Support for Sisi Though mostly out of the public eye, Mubarak granted a rare interview in February 2014 with Kuwaiti journalist Fajer al-Saeed, expressing support for then-Minister of Defense and Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces
Egyptian Armed Forces
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
as the next President of Egypt, recognizing that Sisi was working to restore the confidence of the Egyptian people. "The people want Sisi, and the people's will shall prevail," Mubarak noted. Mubarak also expressed great admiration and gratitude towards the late Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan
Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan
of the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
and his children, for their continuous support of Egypt
and its people.[100] However, Mubarak expressed his dislike of opposition politician Hamdeen Sabbahi, a Nasserist following the policies of Gamal Abdel Nasser.[101] Health problems In July 2010, the media said Egypt
was about to undergo dramatic change because Mubarak was thought to have cancer and because of the scheduled 2011 presidential election. Intelligence sources said he had esophageal cancer,[102] stomach or pancreatic cancer; this was denied by Egyptian authorities.[103][104] Speculation about his ill health increased after his resignation from the presidency.[105] According to Egyptian media, Mubarak's condition worsened after he went into exile in Sharm el-Sheikh. He was reportedly depressed, refused to take medications, and was slipping in and out of consciousness. According to the source—an unnamed Egyptian security official—"Mubarak wants to be left alone and die in his homeland". The source denied that Mubarak was writing his memoirs, stating that he was almost completely unconscious.[106] After his resignation, Egypt's ambassador to the United States Sameh Shoukry
Sameh Shoukry
reported that his personal sources said Mubarak "is possibly in somewhat of bad health", while several Egyptian and Saudi Arabian newspapers reported that Mubarak was in a coma and close to death.[107] On 12 April 2011, it was reported that he had been hospitalized after suffering a heart attack during questioning over possible corruption charges.[108] In June 2011, Mubarak's lawyer Farid el-Deeb said his client "has stomach cancer, and the cancer is growing".[109] Mubarak had undergone surgery for the condition in Germany in 2010 and also suffered from circulatory problems with an irregular heart beat.[109] On 13 July 2011, unconfirmed reports stated that Mubarak had slipped into a coma at his residence after giving his final speech, and on 17 July, el-Deeb confirmed the reports.[110] On 26 July 2011, Mubarak was reported to be depressed and refusing solid food while in hospital being treated for a heart condition and in custody awaiting trial.[111] On 2 June 2012, Mubarak was reported as have suffered a health crisis while being transported to prison after his conviction on the charges of complicity in the killing of protestors. Some sources reported he had had a heart attack.[112][113] Further reports stated that Mubarak's health continued to decline; some said he had to be treated with a defibrillator.[114][115] On 20 June 2012, as Mubarak's condition continued to decline, state-run media erroneously reported that the former president had been declared "clinically dead", causing widespread confusion. Officials later clarified that Mubarak was is a critical condition.[116] On 27 December 2012, Mubarak was taken from Tora Prison to the Cairo military hospital after falling and breaking a rib. He was released from prison in August 2013.[117] In a new development, on 19 June 2014, Mubarak slipped in the bathroom at the military hospital in Cairo
where he is being held and broke his left leg, also fracturing his left thighbone, requiring surgery. Mubarak is serving a three-year sentence for corruption and is also awaiting retrial regarding the killing of protesters during his regime. At one time, his release was ordered. However, Mubarak has remained at the military hospital since January 2014 due to his ongoing health issues.[118] Acquittal On 2 March 2017, the Court of Cassation, Egypt's top appeals court, acquitted Mubarak of conspiring in the killing of protesters during the 2011 uprising.[12] Personal life Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
is married to Suzanne Mubarak
Suzanne Mubarak
and has two sons: Alaa, and Gamal. Both sons served four years in Egyptian jail for corruption and were released in 2015.[118] Through his son Alaa, Mubarak has two grandsons, Muhammed and Omar; and through his son Gamal, he has a granddaughter Farida. Muhammad died in 2009 from a cerebral hemorrhage.[119][120] In April 2016, Alaa Mubarak was named in the Panama Papers
Panama Papers
as someone with financial interests that intersect with that of Mossack Fonseca, the firm implicated in that scandal.[121] Political and military posts

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Chairman of the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(2009–2011) Re-elected for a fifth term of office (2005) Chairman of the G-15 (1998 & 2002) Re-elected for a fourth term of office (1999) Chairman of the Arab Summit since June (1996) Chairman of the OAU (1993–94) Re-elected for a third term of office (1993) Chairman of the OAU (1989–90) Re-elected for a second term of office (1987) President of the National Democratic Party (1982)

President of the Republic (1981) Vice-President of the National Democratic Party (NDP) (1979) Vice-President of the Arab Republic of Egypt
(1975) Promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General / Air Marshal (1974) Commander of the Air Force and Deputy Minister of Defense (1972) Chief of Staff of the Air Force (1969) Director of the Air Force Academy (1968) Commander of Cairo
West Air Base (1964) Joined Frunze Military Academy, USSR (1964) Lecturer in Air Force Academy (1952–59)


Jawaharlal Nehru Award (1995)[122] First Class of the Order of the State of Republic of Turkey (1998)[123] Honor Star Medal, twice[124] Military Training medal[124] Military Honor Medal
Military Honor Medal
Knight Rank from the President of Syria[124] Honor Star Medal from the PLO[124] Order of King Abdulaziz
Order of King Abdulaziz
– Excellent Degree from King Faisal[124] Hamayon Merit from Emperor Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, Iran[124]


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crisis: President Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
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Issues Travel Ban, Asset Freeze on Mubarak". VOA. 28 February 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ a b "Egypt's Mubarak gets three years in a graft case". Middle East Star. Retrieved 22 May 2014.  ^ a b Scobey, Margaret (19 May 2009). "Scenesetter: President Mubarak's visit to Washington". WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks cable: 09CAIRO874. Archived from the original on 18 January 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2011.  ^ Shahine, Alaa (25 November 2010). "Egypt's Ruling Party Tightens Grip as Mubarak Succession Nears". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2011.  ^ Awolaja, Abiodun (24 March 2010). "Between Nigeria and Egypt's presidential crises". Nigerian Tribune. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2011.  ^ "حمدى السيد: جمال مبارك كان يدبر لانقلاب على أبيه بدعم العادلى – بوابة الشروق". Shorouk News. Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ Jeremy M. Sharp, Egypt: Background and U. S. Relations. CRS, 2009. p.43. ^ Joseph Telushkin, Rebbe: The Life and Teachings of Menachem M. Schneerson, the Most Influential Rabbi in Modern History. HarperCollins, 2014. p. 209. ^ Council of Arab States (1 October 2005). "The Arab Peace Initiative, 2002". Al-bab. Archived from the original on 4 June 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2008.  ^ Isabel Kershner (25 June 2008). "Rockets hit Israel, breaking Hamas truce". International Herald Tribune.  ^ Hamas offering Israel truce, not peace. USA Today. 12 March 2008. ^ a b c Bronner, Ethan (19 December 2008). "Gaza Truce May Be Revived by Necessity". New York Times. Retrieved 12 February 2009.  ^ Press Conference on Gaza humanitarian situation UN. 2009. ^ Truce barely eases Gaza embargo. Aleem Maqbool. BBC
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conference". Socialist Worker. 12 May 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2009.  ^ Kevin Connolly (16 May 2009). " Egypt
unrest: Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
vows to quit after polls". BBC. Retrieved 1 February 2011.  ^ "Factbox—World reaction to Egypt's Mubarak quitting in September". Reuters. 3 February 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011.  ^ Wyre Davies (3 February 2011). " Egypt
unrest: PM apologises for Tahrir Square
Tahrir Square
violence". BBC
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protests: Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
to make TV address". BBC. Retrieved 12 February 2011.  ^ a b c ' Egyptians
celebrate a moment in history. Retrieved 12 February 2011. ^ a b BBC
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Hosni Mubarak
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officials fined $91 million for blocking cellphones, Internet". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 29 May 2011.  ^ "Mubarak fined for mobile, Internet cut". The Egyptian Gazette. 28 May 2011. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011.  ^ Mubarak and sons to stand trial in August Al Jazeera. Retrieved 1 June 2011 ^ Afify, Heba; Fahim, Kareem (31 July 2011). "Judge Says TV Will Show Mubarak on Trial". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ Hill, Evan (15 August 2011). "Mubarak trial reined in at second hearing". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 16 August 2011. Lawyers were forced to take their seats and submit their requests in writing, and Rifaat adjourned the case until 5 September, after issuing a terse series of 10 decisions on how the trial would proceed.  ^ "Egypt's Hosni Mubarak
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Greets Mixed Verdict for Mubarak". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 June 2012.  ^ "Hosni Mubarak's sentence greeted with initial euphoria, then anger". The Guardian. 2 June 2012.  ^ a b "Live updates: Thousands take to Egypt
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Hosni Mubarak
and Sons Sentenced to 3 Years in Prison, Likely to Go Free". NBC News. Reuters. 9 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.  ^ a b Rohan, Brian (9 May 2015). "Egyptian court sentences former president Hosni Mubarak
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and sons to three years in prison for corruption". National Post. Retrieved 9 May 2015.  ^ Malsin, Jared (9 May 2015). "Egypt: Hosni Mubarak
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sentenced to three years in prison". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 May 2015.  ^ In rare interview, Mubarak says Egyptians
want Sisi ^ "Mubarak supports Sisi, slams Sabbahi in phone interview". Cairo Post. Retrieved 29 April 2016.  ^ "Report: Mubarak has fallen ill". The Jerusalem Post. 7 July 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2011.  ^ Evan Hill (21 November 2010). "The Muslim Brotherhood
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asks to vote in Egypt's constitutional referendum. The Guardian. Retrieved 16 January 2014. ^ a b " Hosni Mubarak
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breaks leg in jail". the Guardian. Retrieved 29 April 2016.  ^ "Hosni Mubarak's grandson, 12, dies suddenly". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. 20 May 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2017.  ^ Dickey, Christopher (13 February 2011). "The Tragedy of Hosni Mubarak". Newsweek. Retrieved 13 January 2017.  ^ Lily Kuo (4 April 2016). "Africa loses more money to illicit financial flows than it receives in foreign aid". Quartz. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016.  ^ "Indian Council for Cultural Relations, Universe of Culture, Promoting Indian Culture, Showcasing World Cultures". Iccrindia. Retrieved 28 January 2011.  ^ "Dostluk İlişkilerine Katkının Altın Sembolü: Devlet ve Cumhuriyet Nişanları (Turkish) – The Gold Symbol Contribution of Friendly Relations : State and Republic Orders". Haberler.com. February 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2015.  ^ a b c d e f " Egyptian Air Force
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– Air Marshal Mohammed Hosni Mubarak". Archived from the original on 23 December 2008. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hosni Mubarak.

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President Mubarak at the Wayback Machine
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collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English " Hosni Mubarak
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collected news and commentary". The Guardian.  " Hosni Mubarak
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collected news and commentary". The New York Times.  Works by or about Hosni Mubarak
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in libraries ( WorldCat
catalog) Hosni Mubarak: The Last Pharaoh, slideshow by Life magazine European Parliament Resolution on Egypt's Human Rights Situation, 16 January 2008

Military offices

Preceded by Yahia Saleh Al-Aidaros Director of the Egyptian Air Academy 1967–1969 Succeeded by Mahmoud Shaker

Preceded by Ali Mustafa Baghdady Commander of the Egyptian Air Force 1972–1975

Political offices

Vacant Title last held by Hussein el-Shafei Vice-President of Egypt 1975–1981 Vacant Title next held by Omar Suleiman

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Khedivate (1878–1914)

Nobar Isma'il1 Tewfik Sherif Tewfik1 Riaz Sherif Baroudy Raghib2 Sherif Nobar Riaz Fahmy Fakhry Riaz Nobar Fahmy Ghaly Said Roshdy

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Roshdy Said Wahba Naseem Yakan

Kingdom (1922–1953)

Sarwat Naseem Y. Ibrahim Zaghlul Zeiwar Yakan Sarwat Nahas Mahmoud Yakan Nahas Sedky A. Yahya Naseem Aly Maher Nahas Mahmoud Aly Maher H. Sabry Serry Nahas Ahmed Maher Nokrashy Sedky Nokrashy Hady Serry Nahas Aly Maher Hilaly Serry Hilaly Aly Maher Naguib3

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Notes ^1 interim ^2 Orabi ^3 headed a government in rebellion, July–September 1882, beginning during Raghib's term ^4 UAR period

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Tito Nasser Kaunda Boumédienne Gopallawa Jayewardene F. Castro Reddy Singh Mugabe Drnovšek Jović Mesić Kostić Ćosić Suharto Samper Pastrana Mandela Mbeki Mahathir Abdullah F. Castro R. Castro Mubarak Tantawi Morsi Ahmadinejad Rouhani Maduro

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Identities VIAF: 2664478 LCCN: n83198443 ISNI: 0000 0001 2098 5407 GND: 118817213 SELIBR: 341523 SUDOC: 076711595 BNF: cb13973486z (da