HORTICULTURE is the branch of agriculture that deals with the art,
science, technology, and business of growing plants. It also is the
study of plants. It includes the cultivation of medicinal plants ,
fruits , vegetables , nuts , seeds , herbs , sprouts , mushrooms ,
algae , flowers, seaweeds and non-food crops such as grass and
ornamental trees and plants. It also includes plant conservation ,
landscape restoration , landscape and garden design , construction,
and maintenance, and arboriculture . Inside agriculture, horticulture
contrasts with extensive field farming as well as animal husbandry .
Horticulturists apply their knowledge, skills, and technologies used
to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses
and for personal or social needs. Their work involves plant
propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth,
yields, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects,
diseases, and environmental stresses. They work as gardeners, growers,
therapists, designers, and technical advisors in the food and non-food
sectors of horticulture.
Horticulture even refers to the growing of
plants in a field or garden.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Scope
* 3 Anthropology
* 4 Organizations
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 Further reading
* 8 External links
The word horticulture is modeled after agriculture , and comes from
the Greek χόρτος, which in Latin became hortus "garden" and
cultūra "cultivation", from cultus, the perfect passive participle of
the verb colō "I cultivate". Hortus is cognate with the native
English word yard (in the meaning of land associated with a building)
and also the borrowed word garden.
Horticulture involves nine areas of study, which can be grouped into
two broad sections: ornamentals and edibles:
Arboriculture is the study of, and the selection, plant, care, and
removal of, individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody
Turf management includes all aspects of the production and
maintenance of turf grass for sports, leisure use or amenity use.
Floriculture includes the production and marketing of floral
* Landscape horticulture includes the production, marketing and
maintenance of landscape plants.
Olericulture includes the production and marketing of vegetables .
Pomology includes the production and marketing of pome fruits.
Viticulture includes the production and marketing of grapes .
Oenology includes all aspects of wine and winemaking .
Postharvest physiology involves maintaining the quality of and
preventing the spoilage of plants and animals.
Horticulture has a very long history. The study and science of
horticulture dates all the way back to the times of
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great of
ancient Persia, and has been going on ever since, with present-day
horticulturists such as Freeman S. Howlett and
Luther Burbank . The
practice of horticulture can be retraced for many thousands of years.
The cultivation of taro and yam in Papua New Guinea dates back to at
least 6950–6440 cal BP. The origins of horticulture lie in the
transition of human communities from nomadic hunter-gatherers to
sedentary or semi-sedentary horticultural communities, cultivating a
variety of crops on a small scale around their dwellings or in
specialized plots visited occasionally during migrations from one area
to the next (such as the "milpa " or maize field of Mesoamerican
cultures). In the Pre-Columbian Amazon Rainforest, natives are
believed to have used biochar to enhance soil productivity by
smoldering plant waste. European settlers called it Terra Preta de
Indio . In forest areas such horticulture is often carried out in
swiddens ("slash and burn " areas). A characteristic of horticultural
communities is that useful trees are often to be found planted around
communities or specially retained from the natural ecosystem.
Horticulture primarily differs from agriculture in two ways. First,
it generally encompasses a smaller scale of cultivation, using small
plots of mixed crops rather than large fields of single crops.
Secondly, horticultural cultivations generally include a wide variety
of crops, even including fruit trees with ground crops. Agricultural
cultivations however as a rule focus on one primary crop. In
pre-contact North America the semi-sedentary horticultural communities
of the Eastern Woodlands (growing maize, squash and sunflower)
contrasted markedly with the mobile hunter-gatherer communities of the
Plains people . In Central America, Maya horticulture involved
augmentation of the forest with useful trees such as papaya , avocado
, cacao , ceiba and sapodilla . In the cornfields, multiple crops were
grown such as beans (using cornstalks as supports), squash, pumpkins
and chilli peppers, in some cultures tended mainly or exclusively by
The oldest Horticultural society in the world, founded in 1768, is
the Ancient Society of York Florists. They still have four shows a
year in York, UK. They have a large archive of records, including the
original members book dating back to 1768.
Desh Bhagat School of
Horticulture Sciences at Desh Bhagat University
, Punjab is a prestigious institution in India to encourage the
research and promote horticulture techniques throughout the country.
The Royal Horticultural Society is a UK charity which oversees several
major shows and gardens.
The professional body representing horticulturists in Great Britain
and Ireland is the Institute of
Horticulture (IOH). Also, the IOH has
an international branch for members outside of these islands.
The International Society for Horticultural Science promotes and
encourages research and education in all branches of horticultural
The American Society of Horticultural Science promotes and
encourages research and education in all branches of horticultural
science in the Americas.
The Australian Society of Horticultural Science was established in
1990 as a professional society for the promotion and enhancement of
Australian horticultural science and industry .
The National Junior Horticultural Association (NJHA) was established
in 1934 and was the first organization in the world dedicated solely
to youth and horticulture. NJHA programs are designed to help young
people obtain a basic understanding of, and develop skills in, the
ever-expanding art and science of horticulture.
The New Zealand
Horticulture Initiative (GlobalHort) fosters more
efficient and effective partnerships and collective action among
different stakeholders in horticulture. The organization has a special
focus on horticulture for development (H4D), i.e. using horticulture
to reduce poverty and improve nutrition worldwide. To be efficient,
GlobalHort is organized in a consortium of national and international
organizations to collaborate in research, training, and
technology-generating activities designed to meet mutually-agreed-upon
objectives. GlobalHort is a not-for-profit organization registered in
* Genetically modified trees
Genomics of domestication
* ^ hortus. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary
Perseus Project .
* ^ Harper, Douglas. "horticulture".
Online Etymology Dictionary
Online Etymology Dictionary .
* ^ Entry for yard Dictionary.com (presenting information
supposedly from Random House Dictionary)
* ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 10,
2012. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
* ^ Fullagar, Richard, Judith Field, Tim Denham, and Carol Lentfer
(2006) Early and mid Holocene tool-use and processing of taro
(Colocasia esculenta), yam (Dioscorea sp.) and other plants at Kuk
Swamp in the highlands of Papua New Guinea Journal of Archaeological
Science 33: 595–614
* ^ von Hagen, V.W. (1957) The Ancient Sun Kingdoms Of The
Americas. Ohio: The World Publishing Company
* ^ Solomon, Dawit, Johannes Lehmann, Janice Thies, Thorsten
Schafer, Biqing Liang, James Kinyangi, Eduardo Neves, James Petersen,
Flavio Luizao, and Jan Skjemstad, Molecular signature and sources of
biochemical recalcitrance of organic carbone in Amazonian Dark Earths,
Geochemica et cosmochemica ACTA 71.9 2285-2286 (2007) ("Amazonian Dark
Earths (ADE) are a unique type of soils apparently developed between
500 and 9000 years B.P. through intense anthropogenic activities such
as biomass-burning and high-intensity nutrient depositions on
pre-Columbian Amerindian settlements that transformed the original
soils into Fimic Anthrosols throughout the Brazilian Amazon Basin.")
(internal citations omitted)
* ^ Glaser, Bruno, Johannes Lehmann, and Wolfgang Zech,
Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered
soils in the tropics with charcoal – a review, Biology and Fertility
of Soils 35.4 219-220 (2002) ("These so called Terra Preta do Indio
(Terra Preta) characterize the settlements of pre-Columbian Indios. In
Terra Preta soils large amounts of black C indicate a high and
prolonged input of carbonized organic matter probably due to the
production of charcoal in hearths, whereas only low amounts of
charcoal are added to soils as a result of forest fires and
slash-and-burn techniques.") (internal citations omitted)
* ^ McGee, J.R. and Kruse, M. (1986)
Swidden horticulture among the
Lacandon Maya . University of California, Berkeley: Extension Media
* ^ Thompson, S.I. (1977) Women, Horticulture, and Society in
Tropical America. American Anthropologist, N.S., 79: 908–10
* ^ Wilson, Simon. "Ancient society of York Florists,oldest
horticultural society in world,longest running horticultural show in
world established 1768, flower shows in york yorkshire
uk,horticultural shows in york yorkshire uk, vegetable shows in york
yorkshire uk, fruit shows in york yorkshire uk, floral art shows in
york yorkshire uk,handicrafts and baking shows in york uk,dahlia shows
in york yorkshire uk,gladioli shows in york yorkshire uk,chrysanthemum
shows in york yorkshire uk, auricula shows in york yorkshire uk, sweet
pea shows in york yorkshire uk,".
* ^ https://www.rhs.org.uk/
* ^ IOH
* ^ ISHS Archived September 22, 2012, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "ASHS".
* ^ "Australian Society of Horticultural Science - Australian
Society of Horticultural Science".
* ^ "Home - NJHA".
* ^ "RNZIH - Royal New Zealand Institute of
Horticulture - Home
* ^ "The Global
* C.R. Adams, Principles of
Horticulture Butterworth-Heinemann; 5th
edition (11 Aug 2008), ISBN 0-7506-8694-4 .
* David Oluwatosin Samuel. I actually don't know I can make a
contribution on here. This is great. : )