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A HORROR FILM is a movie that seeks to elicit a physiological reaction, such as an elevated heartbeat, through the use of fear and shocking one’s audiences. Inspired by literature from authors like Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe
, Bram Stoker , and Mary Shelley , the horror genre has existed for more than a century. The macabre and the supernatural are frequent themes. Horror may also overlap with the fantasy , supernatural fiction and thriller genres.

Horror films often deal with viewers' nightmares , fears , revulsions and terror of the unknown. Plots within the horror genre often involve the intrusion of an evil force, event, or personage into the everyday world. Prevalent elements include ghosts , extraterrestrials , vampires , werewolves , demons , satanism , gore , torture , vicious animals , evil witches , monsters , zombies , cannibals , psychopaths , natural or man-made disasters , and serial killers .

Some subgenres of horror include action horror, comedy horror, body horror, disaster horror, holiday horror, horror drama, psychological horror, science fiction horror, slasher horror, supernatural horror, gothic horror, natural horror, zombie horror, first-person horror and teen horror.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 1889–1900s * 1.2 1910s–1920s * 1.3 1930s–1940s * 1.4 1950s–1960s * 1.5 1970s–1980s * 1.6 1990s * 1.7 2000s * 1.8 2010s

* 2 Subgenres

* 3 Influences

* 3.1 Influences on society * 3.2 Influences internationally

* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links

HISTORY

1889–1900S

The first depictions of supernatural events appear in several of the silent shorts created by the film pioneer Georges Méliès in the late 1890s, the best known being _Le Manoir du Diable _, which is sometimes credited as being the first horror film. Another of his horror projects was 1898's _ La Caverne maudite _ (a.k.a. _The Cave of the Demons_, literally "the accursed cave"). Japan made early forays into the horror genre with _Bake Jizo_ (_Jizo the Spook_) and _Shinin no Sosei_ (_Resurrection of a Corpse_), both made in 1898. The era featured a slew of literary adaptations, adapting the works of Poe and Dante, among others. In 1908, Selig Polyscope Company produced _Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde _.

1910S–1920S

_ In 1910, Edison Studios produced the first motion picture adaptation of Mary Shelley 's Frankenstein
Frankenstein
_.

In 1910, Edison Studios produced the first filmed version of _ Frankenstein
Frankenstein
_. The macabre nature of the source materials used made the films synonymous with the horror film genre.

Before and during the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
era, German Expressionist filmmakers would significantly influence later productions. Paul Wegener 's _The Student of Prague _ (1913) and _ The Golem _ trilogy (1915–20), as well as Robert Wiene 's _The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari _ (1920), Arthur Robison 's _Warning Shadows _ (1923), and Paul Leni 's _Waxworks _ (1924), were influential films at the time. The first vampire-themed movie, _ Nosferatu
Nosferatu
_ (1922), was made during this period, though it was an unauthorized adaptation of Bram Stoker 's _ Dracula _.

Other European countries also, contributed to the genre during this period. Victor Sjöström
Victor Sjöström
's _ The Phantom Carriage _ (Sweden, 1920) is a cautionary tale about a supernatural legend, Benjamin Christensen 's _ Häxan _ (Denmark/Sweden, 1922) is a documentary-style, horror film, about witchcraft and superstition, and in 1928, Frenchman, Jean Epstein produced an influential film, _The Fall of the House of Usher _, based on the Poe tale. _ Lon Chaney, Sr. in the 1925 film The Phantom of the Opera _.

Though the word "horror" to describe the film genre would not be used until the 1930s (when Universal Pictures
Universal Pictures
released their initial monster films), earlier American productions often relied on horror themes. Some notable examples include _The Hunchback of Notre Dame _ (1923), _The Phantom of the Opera _ (1925), _The Cat and the Canary _ (1927), _The Unknown _ (1927), and _The Man Who Laughs _ (1928). Many of these early films were considered dark melodramas because of their stock characters and emotion-heavy plots that focused on romance, violence, suspense, and sentimentality.

The trend of inserting an element of macabre into American pre-horror melodramas continued into the 1920s. Directors known for relying on macabre in their films during the 1920s were Maurice Tourneur , Rex Ingram , and Tod Browning
Tod Browning
. Ingram's _The Magician _ (1926) contains one of the first examples of a "mad doctor " and is said to have had a large influence on James Whale's version of _Frankenstein_. _The Unholy Three _ (1925) is an example of Browning's use of macabre and unique style of morbidity; he remade the film in 1930 as a talkie , though _The Terror _ (1928) was the first horror film with sound .

1930S–1940S

Boris Karloff
Boris Karloff
as Frankenstein's monster in the 1935 _Bride of Frankenstein
Frankenstein
_.

During the early period of talking pictures, Universal Pictures
Universal Pictures
began a successful Gothic horror film series. Tod Browning's _ Dracula _ (1931) was quickly followed by James Whale 's _ Frankenstein
Frankenstein
_ (1931) and _ The Old Dark House _ (1932), both featuring monstrous mute antagonists. Some of these films blended science fiction with Gothic horror, such as Whale's _The Invisible Man _ (1933) and featured a mad scientist , mirroring earlier German films. _Frankenstein_ was the first in a series of remakes which lasted for years. _The Mummy _ (1932) introduced Egyptology as a theme; Make-up artist
Make-up artist
Jack Pierce was responsible for the iconic image of the monster, and others in the series. Universal's horror cycle continued into the 1940s with B-movies including _The Wolf Man _ (1941), as well as a number of films uniting several of the most common monsters.

Other studios followed Universal's lead. The once controversial _ Freaks _ (1932), based on the short story "Spurs ", was made by MGM
MGM
, though the studio disowned the completed film, and it remained banned, in the UK, for thirty years. _Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde _ (Paramount , 1931) is remembered for its innovative use of photographic filters to create Jekyll's transformation before the camera. With the progression of the genre, actors like Boris Karloff
Boris Karloff
and Bela Lugosi were beginning to build entire careers in horror. Both appeared in three of Val Lewton 's atmospheric B-movies for RKO in the mid-1940s, including _The Body Snatcher _ (1945).

1950S–1960S

_ Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
starred in numerous British horror films of the era, produced by Hammer Films . Shown here is the 1958 color remake of Dracula _.

With advances in technology, the tone of horror films shifted from the Gothic towards contemporary concerns. Two subgenres began to emerge: the Doomsday film and the Demonic film. Low-budget productions featured humanity overcoming threats such as alien invasions and deadly mutations to people, plants, and insects. Japan's experience with Hiroshima and Nagasaki bore the well-known _Godzilla _ (1954) and its sequels , featuring mutation from the effects of nuclear radiation . _ Theatrical release poster of Psycho _

Hollywood directors and producers found ample opportunity for audience exploitation through gimmicks. _House of Wax _ (1953) used the advent of 3-D film
3-D film
to draw audiences, while _The Tingler_ used electric seat buzzers in 1959 . Filmmakers continued to merge elements of science fiction and horror over the following decades. Considered a "pulp masterpiece" of the era was _ The Incredible Shrinking Man _ (1957), based on Richard Matheson 's existentialist novel. The film conveyed the fears of living in the Atomic Age
Atomic Age
and the terror of social alienation .

During the later 1950s, the UK emerged as a major producer of horror films. The Hammer company focused on the genre for the first time, enjoying huge international success from films involving classic horror characters which were shown in color for the first time. Drawing on Universal's precedent, many films produced were Frankenstein
Frankenstein
and Dracula remakes, both followed by many sequels. Other British companies contributed to a boom in horror film production in the UK during the 1960s and 1970s.

Released in May 1960, the British psychological thriller _Peeping Tom _ (1960) by Michael Powell was the first "slasher " film. Alfred Hitchcock cemented the subgenre with _Psycho _ released later that year. France continued the mad scientist theme, while Italian horror films became internationally notable. American International Pictures (AIP) made a series of Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe
–themed films. _ Zombies in Romero 's most influential film, the groundbreaking 1968 Night of the Living Dead _. This was the template for all future zombie films .

Films in the era used the supernatural premise to express the horror of the demonic . _The Innocents _ (1961) based on the Henry James novel _ The Turn of the Screw _. Meanwhile, ghosts were a dominant theme in Japanese horror
Japanese horror
, in such films as _Kwaidan _, _Onibaba _ (both 1964) and _ Kuroneko _ (1968).

_Rosemary\'s Baby _ is a 1968 American psychological horror film written and directed by Roman Polanski , based on the bestselling 1967 novel of the same name by Ira Levin . Another influential American horror film of this period was George A. Romero 's _Night of the Living Dead _ (1968). Produced and directed by Romero on a budget of $114,000, it grossed $30 million internationally. An Armageddon film about zombies , it began to combine psychological insights with gore. Distancing the era from earlier gothic trends, late 60's films brought horror into everyday life. Low-budget splatter films from the likes of Herschell Gordon Lewis also gained prominence.

1970S–1980S

_ Theatrical release poster of The Texas Chain Saw Massacre
The Texas Chain Saw Massacre
_ _ Theatrical release poster of The Exorcist _ _ Jack Nicholson in the famous "Here’s Johnny" scene in The Shining _ _ Suzy ( Jessica Harper , right) and Sara ( Stefania Casini , left) in Suspiria _, a giallo horror film

The financial successes of the low-budget gore films of the ensuing years, and the critical and popular success of _Rosemary's Baby_, led to the release of more films with occult themes during the 1970s. _The Exorcist _ (1973), the first of these movies, was a significant commercial success and was followed by scores of horror films in which a demon entity is represented as the supernatural evil, often by impregnating women or possessing children.

" Evil
Evil
children" and reincarnation became popular subjects. Robert Wise 's film _Audrey Rose _ (1977) for example, deals with a man who claims that his daughter is the reincarnation of another dead person. _ Alice, Sweet Alice _ (1977), is another Catholic-themed horror slasher about a little girl's murder and her sister being the prime suspect. Another popular occult horror movie was _ The Omen _ (1976), where a man realizes that his five-year-old adopted son is the Antichrist . Invincible to human intervention, Demons
Demons
became villains in many horror films with a postmodern style and a dystopian worldview.

Another example is _The Sentinel _ (1977), in which a fashion model discovers that her new brownstone residence may actually be a portal to Hell
Hell
.

During the 1970s, Italian filmmakers Mario Bava , Riccardo Freda , Antonio Margheriti , and Dario Argento developed giallo horror films that became classics and influenced the genre in other countries. Representative films include: _Black Sunday _, _Blood and Black Lace _, _ Castle of Blood _, _ Twitch of the Death Nerve _, _The Bird with the Crystal Plumage _, _ Deep Red _, and _ Suspiria _.

_Don\'t Look Now _, a 1973 independent British-Italian film directed by Nicolas Roeg
Nicolas Roeg
, was also notable. Its focus on the psychology of grief was unusually strong for a film featuring a supernatural horror plot. Another notable 1973 film is _ The Wicker Man _, a British mystery horror film dealing with the practice of ancient pagan rituals in the modern era. It was written by Anthony Shaffer and directed by Robin Hardy .

The ideas of the 1960s began to influence horror films, as the youth involved in the counterculture began exploring the medium. Wes Craven 's _The Hills Have Eyes _ (1977) and _ The Last House On The Left _ (1972) along with Tobe Hooper 's _ The Texas Chain Saw Massacre
The Texas Chain Saw Massacre
_ (1974) (based on the Ed Gein case) recalled the Vietnam war
Vietnam war
; while George A. Romero satirized the consumer society in his zombie sequel, _Dawn of the Dead _ (1978). Meanwhile, the subgenre of comedy horror re-emerged in the cinema with _ The Abominable Dr. Phibes _ (1971), _Young Frankenstein
Frankenstein
_ (1974), _ The Rocky Horror Picture Show _ (1975), and _ An American Werewolf in London _ (1981) among others.

Also in the 1970s, the works of the horror author Stephen King began to be adapted for the screen, beginning with Brian De Palma 's adaptation of _Carrie _ (1976), King's first published novel, for which the two female leads ( Sissy Spacek and Piper Laurie ) gained Oscar nominations. Next, was his third published novel, _The Shining _ (1980), directed by Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
, which was a sleeper at the box office. At first, many critics and viewers had negative feedback towards _The Shining._ However, the film is now known as one of Hollywood's most classic horror films.

This psychological horror film has a variety of themes; "evil children", alcoholism, telepathy , and insanity. This type of film is an example of how Hollywood's idea of horror started to evolve. Murder and violence were no longer the main themes of horror films. During the 70s and 80s, psychological and supernatural horror started to take over cinema. Another classic Hollywood horror film is Tobe Hooper 's _Poltergeist ._ _Poltergeist_ is ranked the 20th scariest movie ever made by the Chicago Film Critics Association . Both _The Shining_ and _Poltergeist_ involve horror being based on real-estate values. The evil and horror throughout the films come from where the movies are taking place.

A cycle of slasher films was made during the 1970s and 1980s. John Carpenter created _Halloween _ (1978), Sean Cunningham made _Friday the 13th _ (1980), Wes Craven
Wes Craven
directed _A Nightmare
Nightmare
on Elm Street _ (1984), and Clive Barker made _ Hellraiser _ (1987). This subgenre would be mined by dozens of increasingly violent movies throughout the subsequent decades, and _Halloween_ became a successful independent film. Another notable '70s slasher film is Bob Clark 's _Black Christmas _ (1974). _ Sleepaway Camp _ (1983) is known for its twist ending , which is considered by some to be one of the most shocking endings among horror films. The boom in slasher films provided enough material for numerous comedic spoofs of the genre including _Saturday the 14th _ (1981), _ Student Bodies _ (1981), _National Lampoon\'s Class Reunion _ (1983), and _Hysterical _ (1983).

Some films explored urban legends such as "The Babysitter and the Man Upstairs " . A notable example is _When a Stranger Calls _, a 1979 American psychological horror film directed by Fred Walton starring Carol Kane and Charles Durning
Charles Durning
.

Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
's _Jaws _ (1975) began a new wave of killer animal stories, such as _Orca _ (1977) and _ Up from the Depths _ (1979). _Jaws_ is often credited as being one of the first films to use traditionally B movie elements such as horror and mild gore in a big-budget Hollywood film. In 1979, Don Coscarelli 's _Phantasm _ was the first of the Phantasm franchise .

_Alien _, a 1979 British-American science-fiction horror film directed by Ridley Scott was very successful, receiving both critical acclaim and being a box office success. John Carpenter's 1982 movie _The Thing _ was also a mix of horror and sci-fi, but it was neither a box-office nor critical hit, but soon became a cult classic. However, nearly 20 years after its release it was praised for using ahead-of-its-time special effects and paranoia.

The 1980s saw a wave of gory " B movie " horror films – although most of them were panned by critics, many became cult classics and later saw success with critics. A significant example is Sam Raimi
Sam Raimi
's _ Evil
Evil
Dead _ movies, which were low-budget gorefests but had a very original plotline which was later praised by critics.

Vampire
Vampire
horror was also popular in the 1980s, including cult vampire classics such as _ Fright Night _ (1985), _ The Lost Boys
The Lost Boys
_ (1987), and _ Near Dark _ (also 1987). In 1984, Joe Dante 's seminal monster comedy _ Gremlins _ became a box office hit with critics and audiences, and inspired a trend of "little monster" films such as _Critters _ and _ Ghoulies _.

David Cronenberg 's films such as _Shivers _ (1975), _Rabid _ (1977) _ The Brood _ (1979), _The Dead Zone _ (1983), _The Fly _ (1986) dealt with "body horror " and "mad scientist " themes.

_Child\'s Play _ (1988) and _Pet Sematary _ (1989) are notable supernatural horror films of the late 1980s.

1990S

_ Theatrical release poster of Scream _ _ Theatrical release poster of The Silence of the Lambs _

In the first half of the 1990s, the genre still contained many of the themes from the 1980s. The slasher films _A Nightmare
Nightmare
on Elm Street _, _Friday the 13th _, _Halloween _ and _Child\'s Play _ all saw sequels in the 1990s, most of which met with varied amounts of success at the box office, but all were panned by critics, with the exception of Wes Craven's _New Nightmare
Nightmare
_ (1994) and the hugely successful _Silence of the Lambs _ (1991).

_New Nightmare
Nightmare
_, with _ In the Mouth of Madness _ (1995), _The Dark Half _ (1993), and _Candyman _ (1992), were part of a mini-movement of self-reflexive or metafictional horror films. Each film touched upon the relationship between fictional horror and real-world horror. _Candyman_, for example, examined the link between an invented urban legend and the realistic horror of the racism that produced its villain. _In the Mouth of Madness_ took a more literal approach, as its protagonist actually hopped from the real world into a novel created by the madman he was hired to track down. This reflective style became more overt and ironic with the arrival of _Scream _ (1996).

In _Interview with the Vampire
Vampire
_ (1994), the "Theatre de Vampires" (and the film itself, to some degree) invoked the Grand Guignol style, perhaps to further remove the undead performers from humanity, morality and class. The horror movie soon continued its search for new and effective frights. In 1985's novel _The Vampire
Vampire
Lestat _ by the author Anne Rice
Anne Rice
(who penned _Interview..._'s screenplay and the 1976 novel of the same name) suggests that its antihero Lestat inspired and nurtured the Grand Guignol style and theatre.

Two main problems pushed horror backward during this period: firstly, the horror genre wore itself out with the proliferation of nonstop slasher and gore films in the eighties. Secondly, the adolescent audience which feasted on the blood and morbidity of the previous decade grew up, and the replacement audience for films of an imaginative nature were being captured instead by the explosion of science-fiction and fantasy films, courtesy of the special effects possibilities with advances made in computer-generated imagery . Examples of these CGI include movies like _Species _ (1995), _Anaconda _ (1997), _Mimic _ (1997), _Blade _ (1998), _ Deep Rising _ (1998), _House on Haunted Hill _ (1999), _Sleepy Hollow _ (1999), and _The Haunting _ (1999).

To re-connect with its audience, horror became more self-mockingly ironic and outright parodi c, especially in the latter half of the 1990s. Peter Jackson's _Braindead _ (1992) (known as _Dead Alive_ in the U.S.) took the splatter film to ridiculous excesses for comic effect. Wes Craven's _Scream _ (written by Kevin Williamson ) movies, starting in 1996, featured teenagers who were fully aware of, and often made reference to, the history of horror movies, and mixed ironic humour with the shocks (despite _ Scream 2 _ and _ Scream 3 _ utilising less use of the humour of the original, until _ Scream 4 _ in 2011, and rather more references to horror film conventions). Along with _ I Know What You Did Last Summer _ (1997) (written by Kevin Williamson as well) and _Urban Legend _ (1998), they re-ignited the dormant slasher film genre.

_Event Horizon _ is a 1997 British-American science fiction horror film directed by Paul W. S. Anderson
Paul W. S. Anderson
. _ The Sixth Sense _ is a 1999 supernatural horror film written and directed by M. Night Shyamalan , which tells the story of Cole Sear ( Haley Joel Osment
Haley Joel Osment
), a troubled, isolated boy who is able to see and talk to the dead, and an equally troubled child psychologist named Malcolm Crowe ( Bruce Willis ) who tries to help him.

The 1998 film _The Last Broadcast _ served as inspiration for 1999's highly successful _ The Blair Witch Project
The Blair Witch Project
_, which popularized the found footage horror subgenre. The theme of witchcraft was also addressed in _The Craft _, a 1996 supernatural horror film directed by Andrew Fleming .

2000S

_Valentine _ (2001), notably starring David Boreanaz , had some success at the box office, but was derided by critics for being formulaic and relying on foregone horror film conventions. Franchise films such as _ Jason X _ (2001) and _ Freddy vs. Jason _ (2003) also made a stand in theaters. _Final Destination _ (2000) marked a successful revival of teen-centered horror and spawned four installments. _Jeepers Creepers _ series was also successful. Films such as _ Hollow Man _ (2000), _Orphan _ (2009), _ Wrong Turn _ (2003), _Cabin Fever _ (2002), _ House of 1000 Corpses
House of 1000 Corpses
_ (2003), and the previous mentions helped bring the genre back to Restricted ratings in theaters. Comic book adaptations like the _Blade _ series, _Constantine _ (2005), and _Hellboy _ (2004) also became box office successes. Video game adaptations like _Doom _ (2005) and _Silent Hill _ (2006) also had moderate box office success while _Van Helsing _ (2004) and _Underworld _ series had huge box office success. _Ginger Snaps _ (2000) is a Canadian film dealing with the tragic transformation of a teenage girl who is bitten by a werewolf . _Signs _ (2002) revived the science fiction alien theme. _ The Descent
The Descent
_, a 2005 British adventure horror film written and directed by Neil Marshall was also successful. Another notable film is _Drag Me to Hell _, a 2009 American supernatural horror film co-written and directed by Sam Raimi
Sam Raimi
.

Some pronounced trends have marked horror films. Films from non-English language countries have become successful. The _Devil\'s Backbone _ (2001) is such an example. It is a 2001 Spanish -Mexican gothic horror film directed by Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
, and written by del Toro, David Muñoz , and Antonio Trashorras . A French horror film _ Brotherhood of the Wolf _ (2001) became the second-highest-grossing French language film in the United States in the last two decades. The Swedish film _Let the Right One In _ (2008) was also successful. Another notable film is _The Orphanage _, a 2007 Spanish horror film and the debut feature of Spanish filmmaker J. A. Bayona . Another trend is the emergence of psychology to scare audiences, rather than gore. _The Others _ (2001) proved to be a successful example of a psychological horror film. A minimalist approach which was equal parts Val Lewton's theory of "less is more" (usually employing the low-budget techniques utilized on _ The Blair Witch Project
The Blair Witch Project
_, (1999) has been evident, particularly in the emergence of Asian horror movies which have been remade into successful Americanized versions, such as _The Ring _ (2002), _ The Grudge _ (2004), _Dark Water _ (2005), and _Pulse _ (2006). In March 2008, China banned the movies from its market.

The _Resident Evil
Evil
_ video game franchise was adapted into a film released in March 2002, and several sequels followed. The films _I Am Legend _ (2007), _Quarantine _ (2008), _ Zombieland
Zombieland
_ (2009), and _28 Days Later _ (2002) featured an update of the apocalyptic and aggressive zombie genre. The latter film spawned a sequel: _28 Weeks Later _ (2007). An updated remake of _Dawn of the Dead _ (2004) soon appeared as well as the zombie comedy _ Shaun of the Dead
Shaun of the Dead
_ (2004) and Spanish -Cuban comedy zombie film _ Juan of the Dead _ (2012). This resurgence led George A. Romero to return to his Living Dead series with _ Land of the Dead
Land of the Dead
_ (2005), _ Diary of the Dead _ (2007) and _ Survival of the Dead _ (2009).

The Australian film _Wolf Creek _ (2005) written, co-produced, and directed by Greg McLean revolves around three backpackers who find themselves taken captive and after a brief escape, hunted down by Mick Taylor in the Australian outback . The film was ambiguously marketed as being "based on true events"; the plot bore elements reminiscent of the real-life murders of tourists by Ivan Milat in the 1990s, and Bradley Murdoch in 2001; and contained more extreme violence. An extension of this trend was the emergence of a type of horror with emphasis on depictions of torture, suffering and violent deaths, (variously referred to as "horror porn", "torture porn ", "splatterporn", and "gore-nography") with films such as _ Ghost
Ghost
Ship _ (2002), _Eight Legged Freaks _ (2002), _The Collector _, _Saw _, _Hostel _, and their respective sequels, frequently singled out as examples of emergence of this subgenre. The _Saw_ film series holds the Guinness World Record of the highest-grossing horror franchise in history. Finally, with the arrival of _ Paranormal Activity
Paranormal Activity
_ (2009), which was well received by critics and an excellent reception at the box office, minimalist horror approach started by _The Blair Witch Project _ was reaffirmed. _ The Mist
The Mist
_ (2007) is a science-fiction horror film based on the 1980 novella of the same name by Stephen King . _ Antichrist _ is a 2009 English-language Danish experimental horror film written and directed by Lars von Trier
Lars von Trier
, and starring Willem Dafoe and Charlotte Gainsbourg .

Remakes of earlier horror movies became routine in the 2000s. In addition to 2004's remake of _Dawn of the Dead _, as well as 2003's remake of both Herschell Gordon Lewis ' cult classic _ 2001 Maniacs _ and the 2003 remake of Tobe Hooper 's classic _The Texas Chainsaw Massacre _, there was also the 2007 Rob Zombie -written and -directed remake of John Carpenter's _Halloween _. The film focused more on Michael's backstory than the original did, devoting the first half of the film to Michael's childhood. It was critically panned by most, but was a success in its theatrical run, spurring its own sequel . This film helped to start a "reimagining" riot in horror film makers. Among the many remakes or "reimaginings" of other popular horror films and franchises are films such as _ Thirteen Ghosts _ (2001), _The Texas Chainsaw Massacre _ (2003), _The Hills Have Eyes _ (2006), _Friday the 13th _ (2009), _Children of the Corn _ (2009), _Prom Night _ (2008), _Day of the Dead _ (2008) and _My Bloody Valentine _ (2009).

2010S

Remakes remain popular, with _A Nightmare
Nightmare
on Elm Street _ (2010), _The Crazies _ (2010), _Child\'s Play _ seeing a sequel with _Curse of Chucky _ (2013), while _Halloween _, _Friday the 13th _ and _ Hellraiser _ all have reboots in the works. Serialized, found footage style web videos featuring Slender Man
Slender Man
became popular on YouTube
YouTube
in the beginning of the decade. Such series included _TribeTwelve_, _EverymanHybrid_ and _ Marble Hornets _, the latter of which has been adapted into a feature film . The character as well as the multiple series is credited with reinvigorating interest in found footage as well as urban folklore. Horror has become prominent on television with _The Walking Dead _, _ American Horror Story _ and _The Strain _, also many popular horror films have had successful television series made: _Psycho _ spawned _Bates Motel _, _The Silence of the Lambs _ spawned _Hannibal _, while _Scream _ and _Friday the 13th _ both have television series in development.

_You\'re Next _ (2011) and _ The Cabin in the Woods _ (2012) led to a return to the slasher genre; the latter was intended also as a critical satire of torture porn. _The Green Inferno _ (2015) pays homage to the controversial horror film _ Cannibal
Cannibal
Holocaust
Holocaust
_ (1980). _ The Babadook _ (2014) was met with critical acclaim. _ It Follows _ (2014) subverted traditional horror tropes of sexuality and slasher films and enjoyed commercial and critical success. _The Conjuring (film series) _ deal with the paranormal . _Sinister _ is a 2012 British-American supernatural horror film directed by Scott Derrickson and written by Derrickson and C. Robert Cargill . _The Witch _ is a 2015 historical period supernatural horror film written and directed by Robert Eggers in his directorial debut , which follows a Puritan family encountering forces of evil in the woods beyond their New England farm. _Get Out _ (2017) received universal acclaim from critics and audiences alike.

The success of non-English language films continued with the Swedish film _Marianne _ (2011), while _Let the Right One In _ (2008) was the subject of a Hollywood remake, _Let Me In _ in 2010.

SUBGENRES

Horror films can be divided into the following subgenres, a single film may overlap into several subgenres:

* ACTION HORROR – A subgenre combining the intrusion of an evil force, event, or personage of horror movies with the weapon fights and frenetic chases of the action genre. Themes or elements often prevalent in typical action-horror films include gore , demons , Aliens , vicious animals, vampires and, most commonly, zombies . This category also fuses the fantasy genre. Examples include: _Aliens _, _ Snakes on a Plane
Snakes on a Plane
_, _Predator _, _Hansel the first movie earned $6 million and the third movie earned $101 million. The importance that horror films have gained in the public and producers’ eyes is one obvious effect on our society.

Horror films' income expansion is only the first sign of the influences of horror flicks. The role of women and how women see themselves in the movie industry has been altered by the horror genre. Early horror films such as _My Bloody Valentine _ (1981), _Halloween _ (1978), and _Friday the 13th _ (1980) were produced mostly for male audiences in order to "feed the fantasies of young men". This idea is no longer prevalent in horror films, as women have become not only the main audience and fans of horror films but also the main protagonists of contemporary horror films. Movie makers have also begun to integrate topics more broadly associated with other genres into their films in order to grow audience appeal.

INFLUENCES INTERNATIONALLY

While horror is only one genre of film, the influence it presents to the international community is large. Horror movies tend to be a vessel for showing eras of audiences issues across the globe visually and in the most effective manner. Jeanne Hall, a film theorist, agrees with the use of horror films in easing the process of understanding issues by making use of their optical elements. The use of horror films to help audiences understand international prior historical events occurs, for example, to show the horridness of the Vietnam war , the Holocaust
Holocaust
and the worldwide AIDS epidemic . However, horror movies do not always present positive endings. In fact, in many occurrences the manipulation of horror presents cultural definitions that are not accurate, yet set an example to which a person relates to that specific cultural from then on in their life.

The visual interpretations of films can be lost in the translation of their elements from one culture to another like in the adaptation of the Japanese film _Ju on_ into the American film _The Grudge_. The cultural components from Japan were slowly "siphoned away" to make the film more relatable to a western audience. This deterioration that can occur in an international remake happens by over-presenting negative cultural assumptions that, as time passes, sets a common ideal about that particular culture in each individual. Holm's discussion of _The Grudge_ remakes presents this idea by stating, "It is, instead, to note that _The Grudge_ films make use of an untheorized notion of Japan... that seek to directly represent the country.

SEE ALSO

* Horror fiction portal

* Lists of horror films

* Bollywood horror films * Cannibalism in popular culture * Chinese horror * List of disaster films * Fangoria
Fangoria
* German underground horror * Japanese horror
Japanese horror
* Horror and terror * Horror Fiction * List of ghost films * List of horror film antagonists * List of natural horror films * Misogyny in horror films * Monsters in fiction * Monster
Monster
movie * Racism in horror films * Survival horror games * Universal Monsters * Urban Gothic * Vampire
Vampire
film * Werewolf fiction

REFERENCES

Notes

* ^ Steve Bennett. "Definition Horror Fiction Genre". Find me an author. Retrieved 24 April 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ "The True Origin of the Horror Film". Pages.emerson.edu. Retrieved 24 April 2012. * ^ "J-Horror: An Alternative Guide". _ Japanzine _. 29 September 2006. Retrieved 6 December 2016. * ^ "Edison\'s Frankenstein". Filmbuffonline.com. 15 March 1910. Retrieved 24 April 2012. * ^ Clarens, Carlos (1997) . _An Illustrated History of The Horror Film_. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0306808005 . * ^ Worland, Rick. _The Horror Film: An Introduction_. Blackwell Publisher. pp. 144 – pg.146. ISBN 1-4051-3902-1 . * ^ Kinnard, Roy (1999). _Horror in Silent Films: A Filmography, 1896-1929_. North Carolina: McFarland. pp. 189–190. ISBN 978-0786407514 . * ^ The American Horror Film by Reynold Humpries * ^ Derek Malcolm "Tod Browning: Freaks", _The Guardian_, 15 April 1999; _A Century of Films_, London: IB Tauris, 2000, p.66-67. * ^ David J. Skal, _The Monster
Monster
Show: a Cultural History of Horror_, New York: Faber, p.142. * ^ Charles Derry, _Dark Dreams: A Psychological History of the Modern Horror Film_; A S Barnes & Co, 1977. * ^ Geoff Andrew, "_The Incredible Shrinking Man_", in John Pym (ed.) _Time Out Film Guide 2009_, London: Penguin, 2008, p.506. * ^ Mark D. Eckel (2014). "When the Lights Go Down". p. 167. WestBow Press. * ^ "Cannibalistic Capitalism and other American Delicacies". _Naomi Merritt_. * ^ _The American Horror Film_ by Reynold Humphries * ^ _American Horror Film_ edited by Stefen Hantke * ^ "The Horror: It just won\'t die". Acmi.net.au. 17 September 2004. Retrieved 24 April 2012. * ^ "Horror Films in the 1980s". Mediaknowall.com. Retrieved 24 April 2012. * ^ China Bans Horror Movies – _Shanghai Daily_, March 2008. * ^ George A. Romero\'s _Survival of The Dead_: _More Horror News_, 6 May 2010. * ^ Box Office for Horror Movies Is Weak: Verging on Horrible: _RAK Times_, 11 June 2007. * ^ Kit, Zorianna (22 July 2010). "\'Saw\' movie franchise to get Guinness World Record". MSNBC. Reuters. Retrieved 22 July 2010. * ^ I Spit on Your Horror Movie Remakes – MSNBC 2005 opinion piece on horror remakes * ^ Halloween – Rotten Tomatoes. Rotten Tomatoes
Rotten Tomatoes
. Retrieved 7 September 2007. * ^ Halloween (2007): Reviews. Metacritic . Retrieved 7 September 2007. * ^ "_Friday the 13th: The Remake_". Retrieved 26 May 2008. * ^ Aviles, Omar. "_Corn_ remake cast". JoBlo.com . Retrieved 11 April 2009. * ^ "_ Nightmare
Nightmare
on Elm Street_ Sets Release Date". Shock Till You Drop. 5 March 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2009. * ^ "Friday the 13th (2016)". _IMDb_. 13 May 2016. * ^ " Clive Barker Writing Hellraiser Remake". _IMDb_. * ^ "Halloween Returns". _IMDb_. * ^ "MTV\'s ‘Scream’ TV Series Plot Details & Character Descriptions". Screenrant.com. Retrieved 2014-08-23. * ^ Fleming, Mike (2014-04-24). "‘Friday The 13th’ Series: Horror Franchise To Become TV Show". Deadline. Retrieved 2014-08-23. * ^ Film, Total. "Joss Whedon talks The Cabin in the Woods". TotalFilm.com. Retrieved April 17, 2012. * ^ Hallenbeck 2009 , p. 3 * ^ "Natural Horror Top rated Most Viewed – AllMovie". Allrovi.com. Retrieved 24 April 2012. * ^ refMcRobert, Neil. "Mimesis of Media: Found Footage Cinema and the Horror of the Real." Gothic Studies, vol. 17, no. 2, Nov. 2015, pp. 137-150. EBSCOhost, doi:10.7227/GS.17.2.9 * ^ Reyes, Xavier Aldana. "Reel Evil: A Critical Reassessment of Found Footage Horror." Gothic Studies, vol. 17, no. 2, Nov. 2015, pp. 122-136. EBSCOhost, doi:10.7227/GS.17.2.8. * ^ Miller C, Van Riper A. Marketing, Monsters, and Music: Teensploitation Horror Films. Journal of American Culture . June 2015;38(2):130-141. Available from: Academic Search Complete, Ipswich, MA. Accessed March 21, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Stack, Tim. "Oh, The Horror.". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 19 April 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Nowell, Richard. ""There\'s More Than One Way to Lose Your Heart": the American film industry, early teen slasher films, and female youth."". Cinema Journal. Retrieved 24 April 2012. * ^ Spines, Christine. "Chicks dig scary movies.". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 15 April 2012. * ^ Lizardi, Ryan. "Hegemony and Misogyny in the Contemporary Slasher Remake" (PDF). Journal of Popular Film and Television. * ^ Heller-Nicholas, Alexandra. _History and Horror_. Screen Education. * ^ _A_ _B_ Carta, Silvio (2011). "Orientalism in the Documentary Representation of Culture". _Visual Anthropology_. 24 (5): 403–420. doi :10.1080/08949468.2011.604592 . Retrieved March 7, 2013. * ^ Holm, Nicholas. "Ex(or)cising the Spirit of Japan: Ringu, The Ring, and the Persistence of Japan". Journal of Popular Film and Television. Retrieved 2012-04-20.

Bibliography

* Worland, Rick (2006). _The Horror Film: An Introduction_.