A HORROR FILM is a movie that seeks to elicit a physiological
reaction, such as an elevated heartbeat, through the use of fear and
shocking one’s audiences. Inspired by literature from authors like
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe ,
Bram Stoker , and
Mary Shelley , the horror genre
has existed for more than a century. The macabre and the supernatural
are frequent themes. Horror may also overlap with the fantasy ,
supernatural fiction and thriller genres.
Horror films often deal with viewers' nightmares , fears , revulsions
and terror of the unknown. Plots within the horror genre often involve
the intrusion of an evil force, event, or personage into the everyday
world. Prevalent elements include ghosts , extraterrestrials ,
vampires , werewolves , demons , satanism , gore , torture , vicious
animals , evil witches , monsters , zombies , cannibals , psychopaths
, natural or man-made disasters , and serial killers .
Some subgenres of horror include action horror, comedy horror, body
horror, disaster horror, holiday horror, horror drama, psychological
horror, science fiction horror, slasher horror, supernatural horror,
gothic horror, natural horror, zombie horror, first-person horror and
* 1 History
* 1.1 1889–1900s
* 1.2 1910s–1920s
* 1.3 1930s–1940s
* 1.4 1950s–1960s
* 1.5 1970s–1980s
* 1.6 1990s
* 1.7 2000s
* 1.8 2010s
* 2 Subgenres
* 3 Influences
* 3.1 Influences on society
* 3.2 Influences internationally
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 Further reading
* 7 External links
The first depictions of supernatural events appear in several of the
silent shorts created by the film pioneer
Georges Méliès in the late
1890s, the best known being _Le Manoir du Diable _, which is sometimes
credited as being the first horror film. Another of his horror
projects was 1898's _
La Caverne maudite _ (a.k.a. _The Cave of the
Demons_, literally "the accursed cave"). Japan made early forays into
the horror genre with _Bake Jizo_ (_Jizo the Spook_) and _Shinin no
Sosei_ (_Resurrection of a Corpse_), both made in 1898. The era
featured a slew of literary adaptations, adapting the works of Poe and
Dante, among others. In 1908,
Selig Polyscope Company produced _Dr.
Jekyll and Mr. Hyde _.
_ In 1910,
Edison Studios produced the first motion picture
Mary Shelley 's
Edison Studios produced the first filmed version of
Frankenstein _. The macabre nature of the source materials used made
the films synonymous with the horror film genre.
Before and during the
Weimar Republic era, German Expressionist
filmmakers would significantly influence later productions. Paul
Wegener 's _The Student of Prague _ (1913) and _
The Golem _ trilogy
(1915–20), as well as
Robert Wiene 's _The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari _
Arthur Robison 's _Warning Shadows _ (1923), and
Paul Leni 's
_Waxworks _ (1924), were influential films at the time. The first
vampire-themed movie, _
Nosferatu _ (1922), was made during this
period, though it was an unauthorized adaptation of
Bram Stoker 's
Other European countries also, contributed to the genre during this
Victor Sjöström 's _
The Phantom Carriage _ (Sweden, 1920) is
a cautionary tale about a supernatural legend,
Benjamin Christensen 's
Häxan _ (Denmark/Sweden, 1922) is a documentary-style, horror film,
about witchcraft and superstition, and in 1928, Frenchman, Jean
Epstein produced an influential film, _The Fall of the House of Usher
_, based on the Poe tale. _
Lon Chaney, Sr. in the 1925 film The
Phantom of the Opera _.
Though the word "horror" to describe the film genre would not be used
until the 1930s (when
Universal Pictures released their initial
monster films), earlier American productions often relied on horror
themes. Some notable examples include _The Hunchback of Notre Dame _
(1923), _The Phantom of the Opera _ (1925), _The Cat and the Canary _
(1927), _The Unknown _ (1927), and _The Man Who Laughs _ (1928). Many
of these early films were considered dark melodramas because of their
stock characters and emotion-heavy plots that focused on romance,
violence, suspense, and sentimentality.
The trend of inserting an element of macabre into American pre-horror
melodramas continued into the 1920s. Directors known for relying on
macabre in their films during the 1920s were
Maurice Tourneur , Rex
Ingram , and
Tod Browning . Ingram's _The Magician _ (1926) contains
one of the first examples of a "mad doctor " and is said to have had a
large influence on James Whale's version of _Frankenstein_. _The
Unholy Three _ (1925) is an example of Browning's use of macabre and
unique style of morbidity; he remade the film in 1930 as a talkie ,
though _The Terror _ (1928) was the first horror film with sound .
Boris Karloff as Frankenstein's monster
in the 1935 _Bride of
During the early period of talking pictures,
Universal Pictures began
a successful Gothic horror film series. Tod Browning's _
(1931) was quickly followed by
James Whale 's _
Frankenstein _ (1931)
The Old Dark House _ (1932), both featuring monstrous mute
antagonists. Some of these films blended science fiction with Gothic
horror, such as Whale's _The Invisible Man _ (1933) and featured a mad
scientist , mirroring earlier German films. _Frankenstein_ was the
first in a series of remakes which lasted for years. _The Mummy _
Egyptology as a theme;
Make-up artist Jack Pierce
was responsible for the iconic image of the monster, and others in the
series. Universal's horror cycle continued into the 1940s with
B-movies including _The Wolf Man _ (1941), as well as a number of
films uniting several of the most common monsters.
Other studios followed Universal's lead. The once controversial
Freaks _ (1932), based on the short story "Spurs ", was made by
though the studio disowned the completed film, and it remained banned,
in the UK, for thirty years. _Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde _ (Paramount ,
1931) is remembered for its innovative use of photographic filters to
create Jekyll's transformation before the camera. With the
progression of the genre, actors like
Boris Karloff and Bela Lugosi
were beginning to build entire careers in horror. Both appeared in
Val Lewton 's atmospheric
B-movies for RKO in the mid-1940s,
including _The Body Snatcher _ (1945).
Christopher Lee starred in numerous British horror films of the
era, produced by Hammer Films . Shown here is the 1958 color remake of
With advances in technology, the tone of horror films shifted from
the Gothic towards contemporary concerns. Two subgenres began to
Doomsday film and the Demonic film. Low-budget
productions featured humanity overcoming threats such as alien
invasions and deadly mutations to people, plants, and insects. Japan's
experience with Hiroshima and Nagasaki bore the well-known _Godzilla _
(1954) and its sequels , featuring mutation from the effects of
nuclear radiation . _ Theatrical release poster of Psycho _
Hollywood directors and producers found ample opportunity for
audience exploitation through gimmicks. _House of Wax _ (1953) used
the advent of
3-D film to draw audiences, while _The Tingler_ used
electric seat buzzers in 1959 . Filmmakers continued to merge elements
of science fiction and horror over the following decades. Considered a
"pulp masterpiece" of the era was _
The Incredible Shrinking Man _
(1957), based on
Richard Matheson 's existentialist novel. The film
conveyed the fears of living in the
Atomic Age and the terror of
social alienation .
During the later 1950s, the UK emerged as a major producer of horror
films. The Hammer company focused on the genre for the first time,
enjoying huge international success from films involving classic
horror characters which were shown in color for the first time.
Drawing on Universal's precedent, many films produced were
Dracula remakes, both followed by many sequels. Other
British companies contributed to a boom in horror film production in
the UK during the 1960s and 1970s.
Released in May 1960, the British psychological thriller _Peeping Tom
_ (1960) by
Michael Powell was the first "slasher " film. Alfred
Hitchcock cemented the subgenre with _Psycho _ released later that
year. France continued the mad scientist theme, while Italian horror
films became internationally notable. American International Pictures
(AIP) made a series of
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe –themed films. _ Zombies
in Romero 's most influential film, the groundbreaking 1968 Night of
the Living Dead _. This was the template for all future zombie films .
Films in the era used the supernatural premise to express the horror
of the demonic . _The Innocents _ (1961) based on the Henry James
The Turn of the Screw _. Meanwhile, ghosts were a dominant
Japanese horror , in such films as _Kwaidan _, _Onibaba _
(both 1964) and _
Kuroneko _ (1968).
_Rosemary\'s Baby _ is a 1968 American psychological horror film
written and directed by
Roman Polanski , based on the bestselling 1967
novel of the same name by
Ira Levin . Another influential American
horror film of this period was
George A. Romero 's _Night of the
Living Dead _ (1968). Produced and directed by Romero on a budget of
$114,000, it grossed $30 million internationally. An Armageddon film
about zombies , it began to combine psychological insights with gore.
Distancing the era from earlier gothic trends, late 60's films brought
horror into everyday life. Low-budget splatter films from the likes of
Herschell Gordon Lewis also gained prominence.
_ Theatrical release poster of
The Texas Chain Saw Massacre
The Texas Chain Saw Massacre _
_ Theatrical release poster of The Exorcist _ _ Jack
Nicholson in the famous "Here’s Johnny" scene in The Shining _ _
Jessica Harper , right) and Sara (
Stefania Casini , left) in
Suspiria _, a giallo horror film
The financial successes of the low-budget gore films of the ensuing
years, and the critical and popular success of _Rosemary's Baby_, led
to the release of more films with occult themes during the 1970s. _The
Exorcist _ (1973), the first of these movies, was a significant
commercial success and was followed by scores of horror films in which
a demon entity is represented as the supernatural evil, often by
impregnating women or possessing children.
Evil children" and reincarnation became popular subjects. Robert
Wise 's film _Audrey Rose _ (1977) for example, deals with a man who
claims that his daughter is the reincarnation of another dead person.
Alice, Sweet Alice _ (1977), is another Catholic-themed horror
slasher about a little girl's murder and her sister being the prime
suspect. Another popular occult horror movie was _
The Omen _ (1976),
where a man realizes that his five-year-old adopted son is the
Antichrist . Invincible to human intervention,
Demons became villains
in many horror films with a postmodern style and a dystopian
Another example is _The Sentinel _ (1977), in which a fashion model
discovers that her new brownstone residence may actually be a portal
During the 1970s, Italian filmmakers
Mario Bava ,
Riccardo Freda ,
Antonio Margheriti , and
Dario Argento developed giallo horror films
that became classics and influenced the genre in other countries.
Representative films include: _Black Sunday _, _Blood and Black Lace
Castle of Blood _, _
Twitch of the Death Nerve _, _The Bird with
the Crystal Plumage _, _
Deep Red _, and _
_Don\'t Look Now _, a 1973 independent British-Italian film directed
Nicolas Roeg , was also notable. Its focus on the psychology of
grief was unusually strong for a film featuring a supernatural horror
plot. Another notable 1973 film is _
The Wicker Man _, a British
mystery horror film dealing with the practice of ancient pagan rituals
in the modern era. It was written by Anthony Shaffer and directed by
Robin Hardy .
The ideas of the 1960s began to influence horror films, as the youth
involved in the counterculture began exploring the medium. Wes Craven
's _The Hills Have Eyes _ (1977) and _
The Last House On The Left _
(1972) along with
Tobe Hooper 's _
The Texas Chain Saw Massacre
The Texas Chain Saw Massacre _
(1974) (based on the
Ed Gein case) recalled the
Vietnam war ; while
George A. Romero satirized the consumer society in his zombie sequel,
_Dawn of the Dead _ (1978). Meanwhile, the subgenre of comedy horror
re-emerged in the cinema with _
The Abominable Dr. Phibes _ (1971),
Frankenstein _ (1974), _
The Rocky Horror Picture Show _ (1975),
An American Werewolf in London _ (1981) among others.
Also in the 1970s, the works of the horror author
Stephen King began
to be adapted for the screen, beginning with
Brian De Palma 's
adaptation of _Carrie _ (1976), King's first published novel, for
which the two female leads (
Sissy Spacek and
Piper Laurie ) gained
Oscar nominations. Next, was his third published novel, _The Shining _
(1980), directed by
Stanley Kubrick , which was a sleeper at the box
office. At first, many critics and viewers had negative feedback
towards _The Shining._ However, the film is now known as one of
Hollywood's most classic horror films.
This psychological horror film has a variety of themes; "evil
children", alcoholism, telepathy , and insanity. This type of film is
an example of how Hollywood's idea of horror started to evolve. Murder
and violence were no longer the main themes of horror films. During
the 70s and 80s, psychological and supernatural horror started to take
over cinema. Another classic Hollywood horror film is
Tobe Hooper 's
_Poltergeist ._ _Poltergeist_ is ranked the 20th scariest movie ever
made by the
Chicago Film Critics Association . Both _The Shining_ and
_Poltergeist_ involve horror being based on real-estate values. The
evil and horror throughout the films come from where the movies are
A cycle of slasher films was made during the 1970s and 1980s. John
Carpenter created _Halloween _ (1978), Sean Cunningham made _Friday
the 13th _ (1980),
Wes Craven directed _A
Nightmare on Elm Street _
Clive Barker made _
Hellraiser _ (1987). This subgenre
would be mined by dozens of increasingly violent movies throughout the
subsequent decades, and _Halloween_ became a successful independent
film. Another notable '70s slasher film is
Bob Clark 's _Black
Christmas _ (1974). _
Sleepaway Camp _ (1983) is known for its twist
ending , which is considered by some to be one of the most shocking
endings among horror films. The boom in slasher films provided enough
material for numerous comedic spoofs of the genre including _Saturday
the 14th _ (1981), _
Student Bodies _ (1981), _National Lampoon\'s
Class Reunion _ (1983), and _Hysterical _ (1983).
Some films explored urban legends such as "The Babysitter and the Man
Upstairs " . A notable example is _When a Stranger Calls _, a 1979
American psychological horror film directed by Fred Walton starring
Carol Kane and
Charles Durning .
Steven Spielberg 's _Jaws _ (1975) began a new wave of killer animal
stories, such as _Orca _ (1977) and _
Up from the Depths _ (1979).
_Jaws_ is often credited as being one of the first films to use
B movie elements such as horror and mild gore in a
big-budget Hollywood film. In 1979,
Don Coscarelli 's _Phantasm _ was
the first of the Phantasm franchise .
_Alien _, a 1979 British-American science-fiction horror film
Ridley Scott was very successful, receiving both critical
acclaim and being a box office success. John Carpenter's 1982 movie
_The Thing _ was also a mix of horror and sci-fi, but it was neither a
box-office nor critical hit, but soon became a cult classic. However,
nearly 20 years after its release it was praised for using
ahead-of-its-time special effects and paranoia.
The 1980s saw a wave of gory "
B movie " horror films – although
most of them were panned by critics, many became cult classics and
later saw success with critics. A significant example is
Sam Raimi 's
Evil Dead _ movies, which were low-budget gorefests but had a very
original plotline which was later praised by critics.
Vampire horror was also popular in the 1980s, including cult vampire
classics such as _
Fright Night _ (1985), _
The Lost Boys
The Lost Boys _ (1987), and
Near Dark _ (also 1987). In 1984,
Joe Dante 's seminal monster comedy
Gremlins _ became a box office hit with critics and audiences, and
inspired a trend of "little monster" films such as _Critters _ and
David Cronenberg 's films such as _Shivers _ (1975), _Rabid _ (1977)
The Brood _ (1979), _The Dead Zone _ (1983), _The Fly _ (1986) dealt
with "body horror " and "mad scientist " themes.
_Child\'s Play _ (1988) and _Pet Sematary _ (1989) are notable
supernatural horror films of the late 1980s.
_ Theatrical release poster of Scream _ _ Theatrical
release poster of The Silence of the Lambs _
In the first half of the 1990s, the genre still contained many of the
themes from the 1980s. The slasher films _A
Nightmare on Elm Street _,
_Friday the 13th _, _Halloween _ and _Child\'s Play _ all saw sequels
in the 1990s, most of which met with varied amounts of success at the
box office, but all were panned by critics, with the exception of Wes
Nightmare _ (1994) and the hugely successful _Silence of
the Lambs _ (1991).
Nightmare _, with _
In the Mouth of Madness _ (1995), _The Dark
Half _ (1993), and _Candyman _ (1992), were part of a mini-movement of
self-reflexive or metafictional horror films. Each film touched upon
the relationship between fictional horror and real-world horror.
_Candyman_, for example, examined the link between an invented urban
legend and the realistic horror of the racism that produced its
villain. _In the Mouth of Madness_ took a more literal approach, as
its protagonist actually hopped from the real world into a novel
created by the madman he was hired to track down. This reflective
style became more overt and ironic with the arrival of _Scream _
In _Interview with the
Vampire _ (1994), the "Theatre de Vampires"
(and the film itself, to some degree) invoked the
Grand Guignol style,
perhaps to further remove the undead performers from humanity,
morality and class. The horror movie soon continued its search for new
and effective frights. In 1985's novel _The
Vampire Lestat _ by the
Anne Rice (who penned _Interview..._'s screenplay and the 1976
novel of the same name) suggests that its antihero Lestat inspired and
Grand Guignol style and theatre.
Two main problems pushed horror backward during this period: firstly,
the horror genre wore itself out with the proliferation of nonstop
slasher and gore films in the eighties. Secondly, the adolescent
audience which feasted on the blood and morbidity of the previous
decade grew up, and the replacement audience for films of an
imaginative nature were being captured instead by the explosion of
science-fiction and fantasy films, courtesy of the special effects
possibilities with advances made in computer-generated imagery .
Examples of these CGI include movies like _Species _ (1995), _Anaconda
_ (1997), _Mimic _ (1997), _Blade _ (1998), _
Deep Rising _ (1998),
_House on Haunted Hill _ (1999), _Sleepy Hollow _ (1999), and _The
Haunting _ (1999).
To re-connect with its audience, horror became more self-mockingly
ironic and outright parodi c, especially in the latter half of the
1990s. Peter Jackson's _Braindead _ (1992) (known as _Dead Alive_ in
the U.S.) took the splatter film to ridiculous excesses for comic
effect. Wes Craven's _Scream _ (written by Kevin Williamson ) movies,
starting in 1996, featured teenagers who were fully aware of, and
often made reference to, the history of horror movies, and mixed
ironic humour with the shocks (despite _
Scream 2 _ and _
Scream 3 _
utilising less use of the humour of the original, until _
Scream 4 _ in
2011, and rather more references to horror film conventions). Along
I Know What You Did Last Summer _ (1997) (written by Kevin
Williamson as well) and _Urban Legend _ (1998), they re-ignited the
dormant slasher film genre.
_Event Horizon _ is a 1997 British-American science fiction horror
film directed by
Paul W. S. Anderson
Paul W. S. Anderson . _
The Sixth Sense _ is a 1999
supernatural horror film written and directed by
M. Night Shyamalan ,
which tells the story of Cole Sear (
Haley Joel Osment
Haley Joel Osment ), a troubled,
isolated boy who is able to see and talk to the dead, and an equally
troubled child psychologist named Malcolm Crowe (
Bruce Willis ) who
tries to help him.
The 1998 film _The Last Broadcast _ served as inspiration for 1999's
highly successful _
The Blair Witch Project
The Blair Witch Project _, which popularized the
found footage horror subgenre. The theme of witchcraft was also
addressed in _The Craft _, a 1996 supernatural horror film directed by
Andrew Fleming .
_Valentine _ (2001), notably starring
David Boreanaz , had some
success at the box office, but was derided by critics for being
formulaic and relying on foregone horror film conventions. Franchise
films such as _
Jason X _ (2001) and _
Freddy vs. Jason _ (2003) also
made a stand in theaters. _Final Destination _ (2000) marked a
successful revival of teen-centered horror and spawned four
installments. _Jeepers Creepers _ series was also successful. Films
such as _
Hollow Man _ (2000), _Orphan _ (2009), _
Wrong Turn _ (2003),
_Cabin Fever _ (2002), _
House of 1000 Corpses
House of 1000 Corpses _ (2003), and the
previous mentions helped bring the genre back to Restricted ratings in
theaters. Comic book adaptations like the _Blade _ series,
_Constantine _ (2005), and _Hellboy _ (2004) also became box office
successes. Video game adaptations like _Doom _ (2005) and _Silent Hill
_ (2006) also had moderate box office success while _Van Helsing _
(2004) and _Underworld _ series had huge box office success. _Ginger
Snaps _ (2000) is a Canadian film dealing with the tragic
transformation of a teenage girl who is bitten by a werewolf . _Signs
_ (2002) revived the science fiction alien theme. _
The Descent _, a
2005 British adventure horror film written and directed by Neil
Marshall was also successful. Another notable film is _Drag Me to Hell
_, a 2009 American supernatural horror film co-written and directed by
Sam Raimi .
Some pronounced trends have marked horror films. Films from
non-English language countries have become successful. The _Devil\'s
Backbone _ (2001) is such an example. It is a 2001 Spanish -Mexican
gothic horror film directed by
Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro , and written by del
Toro, David Muñoz , and
Antonio Trashorras . A French horror film
Brotherhood of the Wolf _ (2001) became the second-highest-grossing
French language film in the United States in the last two decades. The
Swedish film _Let the Right One In _ (2008) was also successful.
Another notable film is _The Orphanage _, a 2007 Spanish horror film
and the debut feature of Spanish filmmaker
J. A. Bayona . Another
trend is the emergence of psychology to scare audiences, rather than
gore. _The Others _ (2001) proved to be a successful example of a
psychological horror film. A minimalist approach which was equal parts
Val Lewton's theory of "less is more" (usually employing the
low-budget techniques utilized on _
The Blair Witch Project
The Blair Witch Project _, (1999)
has been evident, particularly in the emergence of Asian horror movies
which have been remade into successful Americanized versions, such as
_The Ring _ (2002), _
The Grudge _ (2004), _Dark Water _ (2005), and
_Pulse _ (2006). In March 2008, China banned the movies from its
Evil _ video game franchise was adapted into a film
released in March 2002, and several sequels followed. The films _I Am
Legend _ (2007), _Quarantine _ (2008), _
Zombieland _ (2009), and _28
Days Later _ (2002) featured an update of the apocalyptic and
aggressive zombie genre. The latter film spawned a sequel: _28 Weeks
Later _ (2007). An updated remake of _Dawn of the Dead _ (2004) soon
appeared as well as the zombie comedy _
Shaun of the Dead
Shaun of the Dead _ (2004) and
Spanish -Cuban comedy zombie film _
Juan of the Dead _ (2012). This
George A. Romero to return to his Living Dead series
Land of the Dead
Land of the Dead _ (2005), _
Diary of the Dead _ (2007) and
Survival of the Dead _ (2009).
The Australian film _Wolf Creek _ (2005) written, co-produced, and
Greg McLean revolves around three backpackers who find
themselves taken captive and after a brief escape, hunted down by Mick
Taylor in the Australian outback . The film was ambiguously marketed
as being "based on true events"; the plot bore elements reminiscent of
the real-life murders of tourists by Ivan Milat in the 1990s, and
Bradley Murdoch in 2001; and contained more extreme violence. An
extension of this trend was the emergence of a type of horror with
emphasis on depictions of torture, suffering and violent deaths,
(variously referred to as "horror porn", "torture porn ",
"splatterporn", and "gore-nography") with films such as _
Ghost Ship _
(2002), _Eight Legged
Freaks _ (2002), _The Collector _, _Saw _,
_Hostel _, and their respective sequels, frequently singled out as
examples of emergence of this subgenre. The _Saw_ film series holds
the Guinness World Record of the highest-grossing horror franchise in
history. Finally, with the arrival of _
Paranormal Activity _ (2009),
which was well received by critics and an excellent reception at the
box office, minimalist horror approach started by _The Blair Witch
Project _ was reaffirmed. _
The Mist _ (2007) is a science-fiction
horror film based on the 1980 novella of the same name by Stephen King
Antichrist _ is a 2009 English-language Danish experimental horror
film written and directed by
Lars von Trier
Lars von Trier , and starring Willem
Charlotte Gainsbourg .
Remakes of earlier horror movies became routine in the 2000s. In
addition to 2004's remake of _Dawn of the Dead _, as well as 2003's
remake of both
Herschell Gordon Lewis ' cult classic _
2001 Maniacs _
and the 2003 remake of
Tobe Hooper 's classic _The Texas Chainsaw
Massacre _, there was also the 2007 Rob
Zombie -written and -directed
remake of John Carpenter's _Halloween _. The film focused more on
Michael's backstory than the original did, devoting the first half of
the film to Michael's childhood. It was critically panned by most,
but was a success in its theatrical run, spurring its own sequel .
This film helped to start a "reimagining" riot in horror film makers.
Among the many remakes or "reimaginings" of other popular horror films
and franchises are films such as _
Thirteen Ghosts _ (2001), _The Texas
Chainsaw Massacre _ (2003), _The Hills Have Eyes _ (2006), _Friday the
13th _ (2009), _Children of the Corn _ (2009), _Prom Night _ (2008),
_Day of the Dead _ (2008) and _My Bloody Valentine _ (2009).
Remakes remain popular, with _A
Nightmare on Elm Street _ (2010),
_The Crazies _ (2010), _Child\'s Play _ seeing a sequel with _Curse of
Chucky _ (2013), while _Halloween _, _Friday the 13th _ and
Hellraiser _ all have reboots in the works. Serialized, found
footage style web videos featuring
Slender Man became popular on
YouTube in the beginning of the decade. Such series included
_TribeTwelve_, _EverymanHybrid_ and _
Marble Hornets _, the latter of
which has been adapted into a feature film . The character as well as
the multiple series is credited with reinvigorating interest in found
footage as well as urban folklore. Horror has become prominent on
television with _The Walking Dead _, _
American Horror Story _ and _The
Strain _, also many popular horror films have had successful
television series made: _Psycho _ spawned _Bates Motel _, _The Silence
of the Lambs _ spawned _Hannibal _, while _Scream _ and _Friday the
13th _ both have television series in development.
_You\'re Next _ (2011) and _
The Cabin in the Woods _ (2012) led to a
return to the slasher genre; the latter was intended also as a
critical satire of torture porn. _The Green Inferno _ (2015) pays
homage to the controversial horror film _
Holocaust _ (1980).
The Babadook _ (2014) was met with critical acclaim. _
It Follows _
(2014) subverted traditional horror tropes of sexuality and slasher
films and enjoyed commercial and critical success. _The Conjuring
(film series) _ deal with the paranormal . _Sinister _ is a 2012
British-American supernatural horror film directed by Scott Derrickson
and written by Derrickson and
C. Robert Cargill . _The Witch _ is a
2015 historical period supernatural horror film written and directed
Robert Eggers in his directorial debut , which follows a Puritan
family encountering forces of evil in the woods beyond their New
England farm. _Get Out _ (2017) received universal acclaim from
critics and audiences alike.
The success of non-English language films continued with the Swedish
film _Marianne _ (2011), while _Let the Right One In _ (2008) was the
subject of a Hollywood remake, _Let Me In _ in 2010.
Horror films can be divided into the following subgenres, a single
film may overlap into several subgenres:
* ACTION HORROR – A subgenre combining the intrusion of an evil
force, event, or personage of horror movies with the weapon fights and
frenetic chases of the action genre. Themes or elements often
prevalent in typical action-horror films include gore , demons ,
Aliens , vicious animals, vampires and, most commonly, zombies . This
category also fuses the fantasy genre. Examples include: _Aliens _,
Snakes on a Plane
Snakes on a Plane _, _Predator _, _Hansel the first movie earned $6
million and the third movie earned $101 million. The importance that
horror films have gained in the public and producers’ eyes is one
obvious effect on our society.
Horror films' income expansion is only the first sign of the
influences of horror flicks. The role of women and how women see
themselves in the movie industry has been altered by the horror genre.
Early horror films such as _My Bloody Valentine _ (1981), _Halloween _
(1978), and _Friday the 13th _ (1980) were produced mostly for male
audiences in order to "feed the fantasies of young men". This idea is
no longer prevalent in horror films, as women have become not only the
main audience and fans of horror films but also the main protagonists
of contemporary horror films. Movie makers have also begun to
integrate topics more broadly associated with other genres into their
films in order to grow audience appeal.
While horror is only one genre of film, the influence it presents to
the international community is large. Horror movies tend to be a
vessel for showing eras of audiences issues across the globe visually
and in the most effective manner. Jeanne Hall, a film theorist, agrees
with the use of horror films in easing the process of understanding
issues by making use of their optical elements. The use of horror
films to help audiences understand international prior historical
events occurs, for example, to show the horridness of the Vietnam war
Holocaust and the worldwide
AIDS epidemic . However, horror
movies do not always present positive endings. In fact, in many
occurrences the manipulation of horror presents cultural definitions
that are not accurate, yet set an example to which a person relates to
that specific cultural from then on in their life.
The visual interpretations of films can be lost in the translation of
their elements from one culture to another like in the adaptation of
the Japanese film _Ju on_ into the American film _The Grudge_. The
cultural components from Japan were slowly "siphoned away" to make the
film more relatable to a western audience. This deterioration that
can occur in an international remake happens by over-presenting
negative cultural assumptions that, as time passes, sets a common
ideal about that particular culture in each individual. Holm's
discussion of _The Grudge_ remakes presents this idea by stating, "It
is, instead, to note that _The Grudge_ films make use of an
untheorized notion of Japan... that seek to directly represent the
Horror fiction portal
Lists of horror films
Bollywood horror films
Cannibalism in popular culture
List of disaster films
German underground horror
Horror and terror
List of ghost films
List of horror film antagonists
List of natural horror films
Misogyny in horror films
* Monsters in fiction
Racism in horror films
Survival horror games
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