AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
WAR OF THE FIRST COALITION
KANDYAN WARS FOURTH ANGLO-MYSORE WAR WAR OF THE SECOND COALITION
WAR OF THE THIRD COALITION
AWARDS Knight of the Order of the Bath _Several others (see below) _
SPOUSE(S) Frances Nisbet
Vice-Admiral HORATIO NELSON, 1ST VISCOUNT NELSON, 1ST DUKE OF
BRONTé, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British
flag officer in the
Nelson was born into a moderately prosperous
Shortly after the battle, Nelson took part in the Battle of Santa
Cruz de Tenerife , where his attack was defeated and he was badly
wounded, losing his right arm, and was forced to return to England to
recuperate. The following year, he won a decisive victory over the
French at the
Battle of the Nile
Nelson's death at Trafalgar secured his position as one of Britain's
most heroic figures. The significance of the victory and his death
during the battle led to his signal, "England expects that every man
will do his duty ", being regularly quoted, paraphrased and referenced
up to the modern day. Numerous monuments, including Nelson\'s Column
Trafalgar Square , London, and the Nelson Monument in
* 1 Early life * 2 Early naval career
* 3 Command
* 3.1 Captain of _Albemarle_
* 3.2 The island of
* 4 Admiralty
* 4.1 Battle of
Cape St Vincent
* 4.2 Action off
* 4.3 Battle of
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
* 4.4 Return to England
* 4.5 Hunting the French
* 4.6 The
Battle of the Nile
* 4.10 Parker and the Baltic
* 4.10.1 Battle of
* 4.11 Leave in England
* 5 Return to sea
* 6.1 Preparation * 6.2 Battle is joined * 6.3 Wounding and death
* 7 Return to England * 8 Funeral
* 9 Assessment
* 9.1 Legacy
* 10 Titles
* 10.1 Armorial bearings
* 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Notes * 14 Bibliography * 15 Further reading * 16 External links
Captain Maurice Suckling
Horatio Nelson was born on 29 September 1758 in a rectory in Burnham
Nelson attended Paston Grammar School , North Walsham , until he was 12 years old, and also attended King Edward VI’s Grammar School in Norwich . His naval career began on 1 January 1771, when he reported to the third-rate HMS _Raisonnable_ as an ordinary seaman and coxswain under his maternal uncle, Captain Maurice Suckling , who commanded the vessel. Shortly after reporting aboard, Nelson was appointed a midshipman and began officer training. Early in his service, Nelson discovered that he suffered from seasickness , a chronic complaint that dogged him for the rest of his life.
EARLY NAVAL CAREER
HMS _Raisonnable_ had been commissioned during a period of tension
with Spain, but when this passed, Suckling was transferred to the Nore
guardship HMS _Triumph_ and Nelson was dispatched to serve aboard the
West Indiamen _Mary Ann_ of the merchant shipping firm of Hibbert,
Purrier and Horton , in order to gain experience at sea; he sailed
from Medway, Kent, on 25 July 1771 sailing to
Nelson briefly returned to _Triumph_ after the expedition's return to Britain in September 1773. Suckling then arranged for his transfer to HMS _Seahorse_ , one of two ships about to sail for the East Indies . Captain Horatio Nelson, painted by John Francis Rigaud in 1781, with Fort San Juan—the scene of his most notable achievement to date—in the background. The painting itself was begun and nearly finished prior to the battle, when Nelson held the rank of lieutenant; when Nelson returned, the artist added the new captain's gold-braided sleeves.
Nelson sailed for the
East Indies on 19 November 1773 and arrived at
the British outpost at
_Worcester_, under the command of Captain Mark Robinson , sailed as a
convoy escort on 3 December and returned with another convoy in April
1777. Nelson then travelled to London to take his lieutenant's
examination on 9 April; his examining board consisted of Captains John
Campbell , Abraham North, and his uncle, Maurice Suckling. Nelson
passed, and the next day received his commission and an appointment to
HMS _Lowestoffe_ , which was preparing to sail to
Nelson and _Badger_ spent most of 1779 cruising off the Central American coast, ranging as far as the British settlements at British Honduras (now Belize), and Nicaragua , but without much success at interception of enemy prizes. On his return to Port Royal he learned that Parker had promoted him to post-captain on 11 June, and intended to give him another command. Nelson handed over the _Badger_ to Cuthbert Collingwood while he awaited the arrival of his new ship, the 28-gun frigate HMS _Hinchinbrook_ , newly captured from the French. While Nelson waited, news reached Parker that a French fleet under the command of Charles Hector, comte d\'Estaing , was approaching Jamaica. Parker hastily organized his defences and placed Nelson in command of Fort Charles, which covered the approaches to Kingston . D'Estaing instead headed north, and the anticipated invasion never materialised. Nelson duly took command of the _Hinchinbrook_ on 1 September.
_Hinchinbrook_ sailed from
Port Royal on 5 October 1779 and, in
company with other British ships, proceeded to capture a number of
American prizes. On his return to
CAPTAIN OF _ALBEMARLE_
Nelson received orders on 23 October 1781 to take the newly refitted
_Albemarle_ to sea. He was instructed to collect an inbound convoy of
Russia Company at
Elsinore , and escort them back to Britain. For
this operation, the Admiralty placed the frigates HMS _Argo_ and HMS
_Enterprise_ under his command. Nelson successfully organised the
convoy and escorted it into British waters. He then left the convoy to
return to port, but severe storms hampered him. Gales almost wrecked
_Albemarle_ as she was a poorly designed ship and an earlier accident
had left her damaged, but Nelson eventually brought her into
In August he had a narrow escape from a far superior French force
Louis-Philippe de Vaudreuil , only evading them after a
prolonged chase. Nelson arrived at
THE ISLAND OF NEVIS AND MARRIAGE
Lady Nelson, Nelson's wife, formerly Frances "Fanny" Nisbet of
the island of
Nelson visited France in late 1783, stayed with acquaintances at Saint-Omer , and briefly attempted to learn French. He returned to England in January 1784, and attended court as part of Lord Hood's entourage. Influenced by the factional politics of the time, he contemplated standing for Parliament as a supporter of William Pitt , but was unable to find a seat .
In 1784 he received command of the frigate HMS _Boreas_ with the
assignment to enforce the Navigation Acts in the vicinity of
The Acts were unpopular with both the Americans and the colonies.
Nelson served on the station under Admiral Sir Richard Hughes , and
often came into conflict with his superior officer over their
differing interpretation of the Acts. The captains of the American
vessels Nelson had seized sued him for illegal seizure. Because the
merchants of the nearby island of
In the interim, Nelson met Frances "Fanny" Nisbet , a young widow
DURING THE PEACE
Nelson remained with _Boreas_ until she was paid off in November that year. He and Fanny then divided their time between Bath and London, occasionally visiting Nelson's relations in Norfolk. In 1788, they settled at Nelson's childhood home at Burnham Thorpe. Now in reserve on half pay, he attempted to persuade the Admiralty and other senior figures he was acquainted with, such as Hood, to provide him with a command. He was unsuccessful as there were too few ships in the peacetime navy and Hood did not intercede on his behalf. Nelson spent his time trying to find employment for former crew members, attending to family affairs, and cajoling contacts in the navy for a posting. In 1792 the French revolutionary government annexed the Austrian Netherlands (modern Belgium), which were traditionally preserved as a buffer state. The Admiralty recalled Nelson to service and gave him command of the 64-gun HMS _Agamemnon_ in January 1793. On 1 February France declared war.
In May 1793, Nelson sailed as part of a division under the command of
Vice Admiral William Hotham , joined later in the month by the rest of
Lord Hood's fleet. The force initially sailed to
Lord Horatio Nelson by John Hoppner
Early on the morning of 22 October 1793, _Agamemnon_ sighted five
sails. Nelson closed with them, and discovered they were a French
squadron. He promptly gave chase, firing on the 40-gun _Melpomene_.
He inflicted considerable damage but the remaining French ships turned
to join the battle and, realising he was outnumbered, Nelson withdrew
and continued to Cagliari, arriving on 24 October. After making
repairs, Nelson and _Agamemnon_ sailed again on 26 October, bound for
A British assault force landed on the island on 7 February, after which Nelson moved to intensify the blockade off Bastia . For the rest of the month he carried out raids along the coast and intercepted enemy shipping. By late February St Fiorenzo had fallen and British troops under Lieutenant-General David Dundas entered the outskirts of Bastia. However, Dundas merely assessed the enemy positions and then withdrew, arguing that the French were too well entrenched to risk an assault. Nelson convinced Hood otherwise, but a protracted debate between the army and naval commanders meant that Nelson did not receive permission to proceed until late March. Nelson began to land guns from his ships and emplace them in the hills surrounding the town. On 11 April the British squadron entered the harbour and opened fire, whilst Nelson took command of the land forces and commenced bombardment. After 45 days, the town surrendered. Nelson subsequently prepared for an assault on Calvi , working in company with Lieutenant-General Charles Stuart .
British forces landed at Calvi on 19 June, and immediately began moving guns ashore to occupy the heights surrounding the town. While Nelson directed a continuous bombardment of the enemy positions, Stuart's men began to advance. On 12 July Nelson was at one of the forward batteries early in the morning when a shot struck one of the sandbags protecting the position, spraying stones and sand. Nelson was struck by debris in his right eye and was forced to retire from the position, although his wound was soon bandaged and he returned to action. By 18 July most of the enemy positions had been disabled, and that night Stuart, supported by Nelson, stormed the main defensive position and captured it. Repositioning their guns, the British brought Calvi under constant bombardment, and the town surrendered on 10 August. However, Nelson's right eye had been irreparably damaged and he eventually lost all sight in it.
GENOA AND THE FIGHT OF THE _ÇA IRA_
Main article: Naval Battle of Genoa (1795) _ The fight of the Ça Ira_
After the occupation of Corsica, Hood ordered Nelson to open diplomatic relations with the city-state of Genoa , a strategically important potential ally. Soon afterwards, Hood returned to England and was succeeded by Admiral William Hotham as commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean. Nelson put into Leghorn , and while _Agamemnon_ underwent repairs, met with other naval officers at the port and entertained a brief affair with a local woman, Adelaide Correglia. Hotham arrived with the rest of the fleet in December; Nelson and the _Agamemnon_ sailed on a number of cruises with them in late 1794 and early 1795.
On 8 March, news reached Hotham that the French fleet was at sea and heading for Corsica. He immediately set out to intercept them, and Nelson eagerly anticipated his first fleet action. The French were reluctant to engage and the two fleets shadowed each other throughout 12 March. The following day two of the French ships collided, allowing Nelson to engage the much larger 84-gun _Ça Ira_ for two and a half hours until the arrival of two French ships forced Nelson to veer away, having inflicted heavy casualties and considerable damage. The fleets continued to shadow each other before making contact again, on 14 March, in the Battle of Genoa . Nelson joined the other British ships in attacking the battered _Ça Ira_, now under tow from the _Censeur_ . Heavily damaged, the two French ships were forced to surrender and Nelson took possession of the _Censeur_. Defeated at sea, the French abandoned their plan to invade Corsica and returned to port.
SKIRMISHES AND THE RETREAT FROM ITALY
Nelson and the fleet remained in the
Nelson returned to operate out of Genoa, intercepting and inspecting merchantmen and cutting-out suspicious vessels in both enemy and neutral harbours. Nelson formulated ambitious plans for amphibious landings and naval assaults to frustrate the progress of the French Army of Italy that was now advancing on Genoa, but could excite little interest in Hotham. In November Hotham was replaced by Sir Hyde Parker but the situation in Italy was rapidly deteriorating: the French were raiding around Genoa and strong Jacobin sentiment was rife within the city itself. A large French assault at the end of November broke the allied lines, forcing a general retreat towards Genoa. Nelson's forces were able to cover the withdrawing army and prevent them from being surrounded, but he had too few ships and men to materially alter the strategic situation, and the British were forced to withdraw from the Italian ports. Nelson returned to Corsica on 30 November, angry and depressed at the British failure and questioning his future in the navy.
JERVIS AND THE EVACUATION OF THE MEDITERRANEAN
In January 1796 the position of commander-in-chief of the fleet in
During the passage, Nelson captured the Spanish frigate _Santa
Sabina_ and placed Lieutenants Jonathan Culverhouse and Thomas Hardy
in charge of the captured vessel, taking the Spanish captain on board
_Minerve_. _Santa Sabina_ was part of a larger Spanish force, and the
following morning two Spanish ships-of-the-line and a frigate were
sighted closing fast. Unable to outrun them, Nelson initially
determined to fight but Culverhouse and Hardy raised the British
colours and sailed northeast, drawing the Spanish ships after them
until being captured, giving Nelson the opportunity to escape. Nelson
went on to rendezvous with the British fleet at Elba, where he spent
Christmas. He sailed for
BATTLE OF CAPE ST VINCENT
Main article: Battle of Cape St Vincent (1797) _ Nelson receives the surrender of the San Nicholas_, an 1806 portrait by Richard Westall
Nelson joined Jervis's fleet off Cape St Vincent , and reported the Spanish movements. Jervis decided to give battle and the two fleets met on 14 February. Nelson found himself towards the rear of the British line and realised that it would be a long time before he could bring _Captain_ into action. Instead of continuing to follow the line, Nelson disobeyed orders and wore ship , breaking from the line and heading to engage the Spanish van, which consisted of the 112-gun _San Josef_, the 80-gun _San Nicolas_ and the 130-gun _Santísima Trinidad_ . _Captain_ engaged all three, assisted by HMS _Culloden_ which had come to Nelson's aid. After an hour of exchanging broadsides which left both _Captain_ and _Culloden_ badly damaged, Nelson found himself alongside _San Nicolas_. He led a boarding party across, crying "Westminster Abbey or glorious victory!" and forced her to surrender. _San Josef_ attempted to come to the _San Nicolas_’s aid, but became entangled with her compatriot and was left immobile. Nelson led his party from the deck of _San Nicolas_ onto _San Josef_ and captured her as well. As night fell, the Spanish fleet broke off and sailed for Cadiz. Four ships had surrendered to the British and two of them were Nelson's.
Nelson was victorious, but had disobeyed direct orders. Jervis liked Nelson and so did not officially reprimand him, but did not mention Nelson's actions in his official report of the battle. He did write a private letter to George Spencer in which he said that Nelson "contributed very much to the fortune of the day". Nelson also wrote several letters about his victory, reporting that his action was being referred to amongst the fleet as "Nelson's Patent Bridge for boarding first rates". Nelson's account was later challenged by Rear Admiral William Parker , who had been aboard HMS _Prince George_ . Parker claimed that Nelson had been supported by several more ships than he acknowledged, and that _San Josef_ had already struck her colours by the time Nelson boarded her. Nelson's account of his role prevailed, and the victory was well received in Britain: Jervis was made Earl St Vincent and Nelson was made a Knight of the Bath . On 20 February, in a standard promotion according to his seniority and unrelated to the battle, he was promoted to Rear Admiral of the Blue .
ACTION OFF CADIZ
Main article: Blockade of Cádiz (1797)
Nelson was given HMS _Theseus_ as his flagship , and on 27 May 1797 was ordered to lie off Cadiz, monitoring the Spanish fleet and awaiting the arrival of Spanish treasure ships from the American colonies. He carried out a bombardment and personally led an amphibious assault on 3 July. During the action Nelson's barge collided with that of the Spanish commander, and a hand-to-hand struggle ensued between the two crews. Twice Nelson was nearly cut down and both times his life was saved by a seaman named John Sykes who took the blows and was badly wounded. The British raiding force captured the Spanish boat and towed her back to _Theseus_. During this period Nelson developed a scheme to capture Santa Cruz de Tenerife , aiming to seize a large quantity of specie from the treasure ship _Principe de Asturias_, which was reported to have recently arrived.
BATTLE OF SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFE
The battle plan called for a combination of naval bombardments and an amphibious landing. The initial attempt was called off after adverse currents hampered the assault and the element of surprise was lost. Nelson immediately ordered another assault but this was beaten back. He prepared for a third attempt, to take place during the night. Although he personally led one of the battalions, the operation ended in failure: the Spanish were better prepared than had been expected and had secured strong defensive positions. Several of the boats failed to land at the correct positions in the confusion, while those that did were swept by gunfire and grapeshot. Nelson's boat reached its intended landing point but as he stepped ashore he was hit in the right arm by a musketball, which fractured his humerus bone in multiple places. He was rowed back to _Theseus_ to be attended to by the surgeon, Thomas Eshelby. On arriving at his ship he refused to be helped aboard, declaring "Let me alone! I have got my legs left and one arm." He was taken to surgeon Eshelby, instructing him to prepare his instruments and "the sooner it was off the better". Most of the right arm was amputated and within half an hour Nelson had returned to issuing orders to his captains. Years later he would excuse himself to Commodore John Thomas Duckworth for not writing longer letters due to not being naturally left-handed. He developed the sensation of phantom limb in his lost arm later on and declared that he had 'found the direct evidence of the existence of soul'.
Meanwhile, a force under Sir Thomas Troubridge had fought their way to the main square but could go no further. Unable to return to the fleet because their boats had been sunk, Troubridge was forced to enter into negotiations with the Spanish commander, and the British were subsequently allowed to withdraw. The expedition had failed to achieve any of its objectives and had left a quarter of the landing force dead or wounded. The squadron remained off Tenerife for a further three days and by 16 August had rejoined Jervis's fleet off Cadiz. Despondently Nelson wrote to Jervis: "A left-handed Admiral will never again be considered as useful, therefore the sooner I get to a very humble cottage the better, and make room for a better man to serve the state". He returned to England aboard HMS _Seahorse_, arriving at Spithead on 1 September. He was met with a hero's welcome: the British public had lionised Nelson after Cape St Vincent and his wound earned him sympathy. They refused to attribute the defeat at Tenerife to him, preferring instead to blame poor planning on the part of St Vincent, the Secretary at War or even William Pitt .
RETURN TO ENGLAND
Nelson returned to Bath with Fanny, before moving to London in October to seek expert medical attention concerning his amputated arm. Whilst in London news reached him that Admiral Duncan had defeated the Dutch fleet at the Battle of Camperdown . Nelson exclaimed that he would have given his other arm to have been present. He spent the last months of 1797 recuperating in London, during which he was awarded the Freedom of the City of London and an annual pension of £1,000 a year. He used the money to buy Round Wood Farm near Ipswich , and intended to retire there with Fanny. Despite his plans, Nelson was never to live there.
Although surgeons had been unable to remove the central ligature in
his amputated arm, which had caused considerable inflammation and
poisoning, in early December it came out of its own accord and Nelson
rapidly began to recover. Eager to return to sea, he began agitating
for a command and was promised the 80-gun HMS _Foudroyant_ . As she
was not yet ready for sea, Nelson was instead given command of the
74-gun HMS _Vanguard_ , to which he appointed Edward Berry as his flag
captain . French activities in the
HUNTING THE FRENCH
Nelson passed through the Straits of
Brueys then anchored his fleet in Aboukir Bay , ready to support
THE BATTLE OF THE NILE
Battle of the Nile
Nelson immediately prepared for battle, repeating a sentiment he had
expressed at the battle of
Cape St Vincent that "Before this time
tomorrow, I shall have gained a peerage or Westminster Abbey." It was
late by the time the British arrived and the French, anchored in a
strong position with a combined firepower greater than that of
Nelson's fleet, did not expect them to attack. Nelson however
immediately ordered his ships to advance. The French line was anchored
close to a line of shoals, in the belief that this would secure their
port side from attack; Brueys had assumed the British would follow
convention and attack his centre from the starboard side. However,
Captain Thomas Foley aboard HMS _Goliath_ discovered a gap between the
shoals and the French ships, and took _Goliath_ into the channel. The
unprepared French found themselves attacked on both sides, the British
fleet splitting, with some following Foley and others passing down the
starboard side of the French line. The
Battle of the Nile
The British fleet was soon heavily engaged, passing down the French line and engaging their ships one by one. Nelson on _Vanguard_ personally engaged _Spartiate_ , also coming under fire from _Aquilon_ . At about eight o'clock, he was with Berry on the quarter-deck when a piece of French shot struck him in his forehead. He fell to the deck, a flap of torn skin obscuring his good eye. Blinded and half stunned, he felt sure he would die and cried out "I am killed. Remember me to my wife." He was taken below to be seen by the surgeon. After examining Nelson, the surgeon pronounced the wound non-threatening and applied a temporary bandage.
The French van, pounded by British fire from both sides, had begun to surrender, and the victorious British ships continued to move down the line, bringing Brueys's 118-gun flagship _Orient_ under constant heavy fire. _Orient_ caught fire under this bombardment, and later exploded. Nelson briefly came on deck to direct the battle, but returned to the surgeon after watching the destruction of _Orient_.
Battle of the Nile
Emma Hamilton , Nelson's mistress and mother of his daughter Horatia , in a 1782–84 portrait by George Romney , depicting Emma at the height of her beauty
Nelson wrote dispatches to the Admiralty and oversaw temporary
repairs to the _Vanguard_, before sailing to Naples where he was met
with enthusiastic celebrations. The King of Naples, in company with
the Hamiltons, greeted him in person when he arrived at the port and
William Hamilton invited Nelson to stay at their house. Celebrations
were held in honour of Nelson's birthday that September, and he
attended a banquet at the Hamiltons', where other officers had begun
to notice his attention to Emma. Jervis himself had begun to grow
concerned about reports of Nelson's behaviour, but in early October
word of Nelson's victory had reached London. The First Lord of the
Admiralty, Earl Spencer , fainted on hearing the news. Scenes of
celebration erupted across the country, balls and victory feasts were
held and church bells were rung. The City of London awarded Nelson and
his captains swords, whilst the King ordered them to be presented with
special medals. The Tsar of Russia sent him a gift, and
Selim III ,
Nelson was dismayed by Spencer's decision, and declared that he would
rather have received no title than that of a mere barony. He was
however cheered by the attention showered on him by the citizens of
Naples, the prestige accorded him by the kingdom's elite, and the
comforts he received at the Hamiltons' residence. He made frequent
visits to attend functions in his honour, or to tour nearby
attractions with Emma, with whom he had by now fallen deeply in love,
almost constantly at his side. Orders arrived from the Admiralty to
blockade the French forces in Alexandria and Malta, a task Nelson
delegated to his captains, Samuel Hood and
Alexander Ball . Despite
enjoying his lifestyle in Naples, Nelson began to think of returning
to England, but King Ferdinand of Naples, after a long period of
pressure from his wife
Maria Carolina of Austria and Sir William
Hamilton, finally agreed to declare war on France. The Neapolitan
army, led by the Austrian General Mack and supported by Nelson's
fleet, retook Rome from the French in late November, but the French
regrouped outside the city and, after being reinforced, routed the
Neapolitans. In disarray, the Neapolitan army fled back to Naples,
with the pursuing French close behind. Nelson hastily organised the
evacuation of the Royal Family, several nobles and the British
nationals, including the Hamiltons. The evacuation got under way on 23
December and sailed through heavy gales before reaching the safety of
With the departure of the Royal Family, Naples descended into anarchy
and news reached
Nelson returned to
You will be more likely to recover your health and strength in England than in any inactive situation at a foreign Court, however pleasing the respect and gratitude shown to you for your services may be.
RETURN TO ENGLAND
The recall of Sir William Hamilton to Britain was a further incentive
for Nelson to return, although he and the Hamiltons initially sailed
from Naples on a brief cruise around
Nelson, the Hamiltons and several other British travellers left
I love you sincerely but I cannot forget my obligations to Lady Hamilton or speak of her otherwise than with affection and admiration.
The two never lived together again after this.
PARKER AND THE BALTIC
Shortly after his arrival in England Nelson was appointed to be
second-in-command of the
Channel Fleet under Lord St Vincent. He was
Vice Admiral of the Blue on 1 January 1801, and travelled
Plymouth , where on 22 January he was granted the freedom of the
city, and on 29 January Emma gave birth to their daughter, Horatia.
Nelson was delighted, but subsequently disappointed when he was
instructed to move his flag from HMS _San Josef_ to HMS _St George_ in
preparation for a planned expedition to the Baltic. Tired of British
ships imposing a blockade against French trade and stopping and
searching their merchantmen, the Russian, Prussian, Danish and Swedish
governments had formed an alliance to break the blockade. Nelson
joined Admiral Sir Hyde Parker 's fleet at Yarmouth, from where they
sailed for the Danish coast in March. On their arrival, Parker was
inclined to blockade Denmark and control the entrance to the Baltic,
but Nelson urged a pre-emptive attack on the Danish fleet at harbour
Battle Of Copenhagen
Battle of Copenhagen (1801) _
On the morning of 2 April 1801, Nelson began to advance into
I will make the signal for recall for Nelson's sake. If he is in a condition to continue the action he will disregard it; if he is not, it will be an excuse for his retreat and no blame can be attached to him.
Nelson, directing action aboard HMS _Elephant_ , was informed of the
signal by the signal lieutenant, Frederick Langford, but angrily
responded: 'I told you to look out on the Danish commodore and let me
know when he surrendered. Keep your eyes fixed on him.' He then
turned to his flag captain, Thomas Foley , and said 'You know, Foley,
I have only one eye. I have a right to be blind sometimes.' He raised
the telescope to his blind eye, and said 'I really do not see the
signal.' The battle lasted three hours, leaving both Danish and
British fleets heavily damaged. At length Nelson dispatched a letter
to the Danish commander, Crown Prince Frederick , calling for a truce,
which the Prince accepted. Parker approved of Nelson's actions in
retrospect, and Nelson was given the honour of going into Copenhagen
the next day to open formal negotiations. At a banquet that evening,
he told Prince Frederick that the battle had been the most severe he
had ever been in. The outcome of the battle and several weeks of
ensuing negotiations was a 14-week armistice, and on Parker's recall
in May, Nelson became commander-in-chief in the
Baltic Sea . As a
reward for the victory, he was created
LEAVE IN ENGLAND
RETURN TO SEA
Main article: Trafalgar Campaign
Nelson was appointed commander-in-chief of the
Nelson gave chase, but after arriving in the Caribbean, spent June in
a fruitless search for the fleet. Villeneuve had briefly cruised
around the islands before heading back to Europe, in contravention of
Napoleon's orders. The returning French fleet was intercepted by a
British fleet under Sir
Robert Calder and engaged in the Battle of
Cape Finisterre , but managed to reach Ferrol with only minor losses.
Nelson returned to
Captain Henry Blackwood arrived at Merton early on 2 September, bringing news that the French and Spanish fleets had combined and were currently at anchor in Cádiz. Nelson hurried to London where he met cabinet ministers and was given command of the fleet blockading Cádiz. It was while attending one of these meetings on 12 September, with Lord Castlereagh, the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, that Nelson and Major General Arthur Wellesley , the future Duke of Wellington, met briefly in a waiting room. Wellington was waiting to be debriefed on his Indian operations, and Nelson on his chase and future plans. Wellington later recalled, 'He (Nelson) entered at once into conversation with me, if I can call it conversation, for it was almost all on his side and all about himself and, in reality, a style so vain and so silly as to surprise and almost disgust me.' However, after a few minutes Nelson left the room and having been told who his companion was, returned and entered into an earnest and intelligent discussion with the young Wellesley which lasted for a quarter of an hour, on the war, the state of the colonies and the geopolitical situation, that left a marked impression upon Wellesley. This was the only meeting between the two men.
Nelson returned briefly to Merton to set his affairs in order and bid farewell to Emma, before travelling back to London and then on to Portsmouth, arriving there early in the morning of 14 September. He breakfasted at the George Inn with his friends George Rose , the Vice-President of the Board of Trade , and George Canning , the Treasurer of the Navy . During the breakfast word spread of Nelson's presence at the inn and a large crowd of well wishers gathered. They accompanied Nelson to his barge and cheered him off, which Nelson acknowledged by raising his hat. Nelson was recorded as having turned to his colleague and stated, "I had their huzzas before: I have their hearts now". Robert Southey reported that of the onlookers for Nelson's walk to the dock, "Many were in tears and many knelt down before him and blessed him as he passed".
_Victory_ joined the British fleet off Cádiz on 27 September, Nelson taking over from Rear Admiral Collingwood. He spent the following weeks preparing and refining his tactics for the anticipated battle and dining with his captains to ensure they understood his intentions. Nelson had devised a plan of attack that anticipated the allied fleet would form up in a traditional line of battle . Drawing on his own experience from the Nile and Copenhagen, and the examples of Duncan at Camperdown and Rodney at the Saintes , Nelson decided to split his fleet into squadrons rather than forming it into a similar line parallel to the enemy. These squadrons would then cut the enemy's line in a number of places, allowing a pell-mell battle to develop in which the British ships could overwhelm and destroy parts of their opponents' formation, before the unengaged enemy ships could come to their aid.
BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR
Battle of Trafalgar
The combined French and Spanish fleet under Villeneuve's command
numbered 33 ships of the line.
At four o'clock in the morning of 21 October Nelson ordered the _Victory_ to turn towards the approaching enemy fleet, and signalled the rest of his force to battle stations. He then went below and made his will, before returning to the quarterdeck to carry out an inspection. Despite having 27 ships to Villeneuve's 33, Nelson was confident of success, declaring that he would not be satisfied with taking fewer than 20 prizes. He returned briefly to his cabin to write a final prayer, after which he joined _Victory_’s signal lieutenant, John Pasco .
Mr Pasco, I wish to say to the fleet "England confides that every man will do his duty". You must be quick, for I have one more signal to make, which is for close action.
Pasco suggested changing _confides_ to _expects_ which, being in the Signal Book, could be signalled by the use of a single flag, whereas _confides_ would have to be spelt out letter by letter. Nelson agreed, and the signal was hoisted .
As the fleets converged, the _Victory_’s captain, Thomas Hardy, suggested that Nelson remove the decorations on his coat, so that he would not be so easily identified by enemy sharpshooters. Nelson replied that it was too late "to be shifting a coat", adding that they were 'military orders and he did not fear to show them to the enemy'. Captain Henry Blackwood , of the frigate HMS _Euryalus_ , suggested Nelson come aboard his ship to better observe the battle. Nelson refused, and also turned down Hardy's suggestion to let Eliab Harvey 's HMS _Temeraire_ come ahead of the _Victory_ and lead the line into battle.
BATTLE IS JOINED
_Victory_ came under fire, initially passing wide, but then with greater accuracy as the distances decreased. A cannonball struck and killed Nelson's secretary, John Scott, nearly cutting him in two. Hardy's clerk took over, but he too was almost immediately killed. _Victory_’s wheel was shot away, and another cannonball cut down eight marines. Hardy, standing next to Nelson on the quarterdeck, had his shoe buckle dented by a splinter. Nelson observed, "This is too warm work to last long." The _Victory_ had by now reached the enemy line, and Hardy asked Nelson which ship to engage first. Nelson told him to take his pick, and Hardy moved _Victory_ across the stern of the 80-gun French flagship _Bucentaure_ . _Victory_ then came under fire from the 74-gun _Redoutable_ , lying off the _Bucentaure_’s stern, and the 130-gun _Santísima Trinidad_ . As sharpshooters from the enemy ships fired onto _Victory_’s deck from their rigging, Nelson and Hardy continued to walk about, directing and giving orders.
WOUNDING AND DEATH
Nelson is shot on the quarterdeck , painted by Denis Dighton , c. 1825
Shortly after 1:00, Hardy realised that Nelson was not by his side. He turned to see Nelson kneeling on the deck, supporting himself with his hand, before falling onto his side. Hardy rushed to him, at which point Nelson smiled
Hardy, I do believe they have done it at last… my backbone is shot through.
He had been hit by a marksman from the _Redoutable_, firing at a range of 50 feet (15 m). The bullet had entered his left shoulder, passed through his spine at the sixth and seventh thoracic vertebrae, and lodged two inches (5 cm) below his right shoulder blade in the muscles of his back. Nelson was carried below by sergeant-major of marines Robert Adair and two seamen. As he was being carried down, he asked them to pause while he gave some advice to a midshipman on the handling of the tiller. He then draped a handkerchief over his face to avoid causing alarm amongst the crew. He was taken to the surgeon William Beatty , telling him
You can do nothing for me. I have but a short time to live. My back is shot through.
Nelson was made comfortable, fanned and brought lemonade and watered wine to drink after he complained of feeling hot and thirsty. He asked several times to see Hardy, who was on deck supervising the battle, and asked Beatty to remember him to Emma, his daughter and his friends.
Hardy came belowdecks to see Nelson just after half-past two, and
informed him that a number of enemy ships had surrendered. Nelson told
him that he was sure to die, and begged him to pass his possessions to
Emma. With Nelson at this point were the chaplain Alexander Scott ,
the purser Walter Burke , Nelson's steward, Chevalier, and Beatty.
Nelson, fearing that a gale was blowing up, instructed Hardy to be
sure to anchor. After reminding him to "take care of poor Lady
Hamilton", Nelson said "Kiss me, Hardy". Beatty recorded that Hardy
knelt and kissed Nelson on the cheek. He then stood for a minute or
two before kissing him on the forehead. Nelson asked, "Who is that?",
and on hearing that it was Hardy, he replied "God bless you, Hardy."
By now very weak, Nelson continued to murmur instructions to Burke and
Scott, "fan, fan … rub, rub … drink, drink." Beatty heard Nelson
murmur, "Thank God I have done my duty", and when he returned,
Nelson's voice had faded and his pulse was very weak. He looked up as
Beatty took his pulse, then closed his eyes. Scott, who remained by
Nelson as he died, recorded his last words as "God and my country".
Nelson died at half-past four, three hours after he had been shot.
_ The Death of Nelson_ by
RETURN TO ENGLAND
Nelson's body was placed in a cask of brandy mixed with camphor and
myrrh , which was then lashed to the _Victory's_ mainmast and placed
under guard. _Victory_ was towed to
They brought me word, Mr Whitby from the Admiralty. "Show him in directly", I said. He came in, and with a pale countenance and faint voice, said, "We have gained a great Victory." – "Never mind your Victory", I said. "My letters – give me my letters" – Captain Whitby was unable to speak – tears in his eyes and a deathly paleness over his face made me comprehend him. I believe I gave a scream and fell back, and for ten hours I could neither speak nor shed a tear.
We do not know whether we should mourn or rejoice. The country has gained the most splendid and decisive Victory that has ever graced the naval annals of England; but it has been dearly purchased.
Nelson's coffin in the crossing of St Paul's during the funeral service, with the dome hung with captured French and Spanish flags The sarcophagus of Nelson in the crypt of St Paul's
Nelson's body was unloaded from the _Victory_ at the
Nore . It was
conveyed upriver in
_ Scott Pierre Nicolas Legrand\'s Apotheosis of Nelson_, c. 1805–18. Nelson ascends into immortality as the Battle of Trafalgar rages in the background. He is supported by Neptune , whilst Fame holds a crown of stars as a symbol of immortality over Nelson's head. A grieving Britannia holds out her arms, whilst Hercules , Mars , Minerva and Jupiter look on.
Nelson was regarded as a highly effective leader, and someone who was
able to sympathise with the needs of his men. He based his command on
love rather than authority, inspiring both his superiors and his
subordinates with his considerable courage, commitment and charisma,
dubbed 'the Nelson touch '. Nelson combined this talent with an
adept grasp of strategy and politics, making him a highly successful
naval commander. However, Nelson's personality was complex, often
characterised by a desire to be noticed, both by his superiors, and
the public. He was easily flattered by praise, and dismayed when he
felt he was not given sufficient credit for his actions. This led him
to take risks, and to enthusiastically publicise his resultant
successes. Nelson was also highly confident in his abilities,
determined and able to make important decisions. His active career
meant that he was considerably experienced in combat, and was a shrewd
judge of his opponents, able to identify and exploit his enemies'
weaknesses. He was often prone to insecurities however, as well as
violent mood swings, and was extremely vain: he loved to receive
decorations, tributes and praise. Despite his personality, he
remained a highly professional leader and was driven all his life by a
strong sense of duty. Nelson's fame reached new heights after his
death, and he came to be regarded as one of Britain's greatest
military heroes, ranked alongside the Duke of Marlborough and the Duke
of Wellington . In the
Aspects of Nelson's life and career were controversial, both during his lifetime and after his death. His affair with Emma Hamilton was widely remarked upon and disapproved of, to the extent that Emma was denied permission to attend Nelson's funeral and was subsequently ignored by the government, which awarded money and titles to Nelson's legitimate family. Nelson's actions during the reoccupation of Naples have also been the subject of debate: his approval of the wave of reprisals against the Jacobins who had surrendered under the terms agreed by Cardinal Ruffo , and his personal intervention in securing the execution of Caracciolo, are considered by some biographers, such as Robert Southey , to have been a shameful breach of honour. Prominent contemporary politician Charles James Fox was among those who attacked Nelson for his actions at Naples, declaring in the House of Commons
I wish that the atrocities of which we hear so much and which I abhor as much as any man, were indeed unexampled. I fear that they do not belong exclusively to the French – Naples for instance has been what is called "delivered", and yet, if I am rightly informed, it has been stained and polluted by murders so ferocious, and by cruelties of every kind so abhorrent, that the heart shudders at the recital … demanded that a British officer should be brought forward, and to him they capitulated. They made terms with him under the sanction of the British name. Before they sailed their property was confiscated, numbers were thrown into dungeons, and some of them, I understand, notwithstanding the British guarantee, were actually executed.
Other pro-republican writers produced books and pamphlets decrying the events in Naples as atrocities. Later assessments, including one by Andrew Lambert , have stressed that the armistice had not been authorised by the King of Naples, and that the retribution meted out by the Neapolitans was not unusual for the time. Lambert also suggests that Nelson in fact acted to put an end to the bloodshed, using his ships and men to restore order in the city.
Main articles: Legacy of Horatio Nelson, 1st
Nelson's influence continued long after his death, and saw periodic
revivals of interest, especially during times of crisis in Britain. In
Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson appealed to the image and
tradition of Nelson, in order to oppose the defence cuts being made by
A number of monuments and memorials were constructed across the country, and abroad, to honour his memory and achievements, with work beginning on Dublin 's monument to Nelson, Nelson\'s Pillar , in 1808, subsequently destroyed in 1966. In Montreal , a statue was started in 1808 and completed in 1809. Others followed around the world, with London's Trafalgar Square being created in his memory in 1835 and the centrepiece, Nelson\'s Column , finished in 1843. A Royal Society of Arts blue plaque was unveiled in 1876 to commemorate Nelson at 147 New Bond Street .
The Most Noble Lord Horatio Nelson,
He was a Colonel of the
Royal Marines and voted a Freeman of Bath ,
In July 1799, Nelson was created
Duke of Bronté (_Duca di Bronté_),
Kingdom of Sicily (after 1816, existing in the nobility of the
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ), by King Ferdinand , and after briefly
experimenting with the signature "Brontë Nelson of the Nile" signed
himself "Nelson his daughter, Horatia , subsequently married the Rev.
Philip Ward, with whom she had ten children before her death in 1881.
Because Lord Nelson died without legitimate issue, his viscountcy and
his barony created in 1798, both "of the Nile and of
Burnham Thorpe in
the County of Norfolk", became extinct upon his death. However, the
barony created in 1801, "of the Nile and of
Hilborough in the County
of Norfolk", passed by a special remainder, which included Lord
Nelson's father and sisters and their male issue, to Lord Nelson's
brother, The Reverend William Nelson . William Nelson was created Earl
Arms were originally granted and confirmed on 20 October 1797. The
original Nelson family arms were altered to accommodate his naval
victories. After the Battle of
Cape St Vincent in 1797, Nelson was
Knight of the Bath and granted heraldic supporters of a
sailor and a lion . In honour of the
Battle of the Nile
Original Nelson family arms ("Or, a cross flory sable, over all a bendlet gules", bendlet last not shown here) and the final version with all augmentations. *
Contemporary drawing depicting the arms of Admiral Nelson before Trafalgar.
* ^ Sugden, 2004, p. 36
* ^ Pettigrew 1849, p. 1
* ^ _A_ _B_ _Britannica_ 11th edition, p. 352
* ^ Nicolas, The Despatches and Letters of Lord Nelson, Vol, I p.
* ^ Sugden, 2004, p. 56
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 13
* ^ "Joining the Royal Navy". _Nelson, Trafalgar and those who
served_. National Archives. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
* ^ Pettigrew 1849, p. 4
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 75.
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 81
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 464
* ^ Sugden 2004, pp. 92–93
* ^ Sugden 2004, pp. 95–97
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 103
* ^ "No. 11550". _
The London Gazette _. 1775-04-04. p. 2.
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 106
* ^ Sugden 2004, pp. 109–11
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 113
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 126
* ^ White 2006, p. 87
* ^ Nelson. _Nelson: The New Letters (2008)_. p. 166.
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 128
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 131
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 135
* ^ Goodwin 2002, p. 81
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 143
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 145
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 147
* ^ Oman 1987, p. 30
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 163
* ^ Report from Colonel Polson on the capture of the fort at San
Juan. "No. 12101". _
The London Gazette _. 1780-07-18. p. 3.
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 168
* ^ Hill, Richard (1855). _A week at Port Royal_. Cornwall
Chronicle Office. pp. 2–5. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 182
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 187
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 190
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 195
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 197
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 202
* ^ Sugden 2004, pp. 204–05
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 206
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 209
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 215
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 219
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 220
* ^ Sugden 2004, pp. 222–23
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 224
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 225
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 227
* ^ Sugden 2004, pp. 241–43
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 243
* ^ Sugden 2004
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 265
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 292
* ^ Coleman 2001, p. 67
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 307
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 351
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 366
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 371
* ^ Sugden 2004, pp. 378–80
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 397
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 412
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 422
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 427
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 429
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 431
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 434
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 437
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 444
* ^ Sugden 2004, pp. 445–46
* ^ _A_ _B_ Sugden 2004, pp. 446–47
* ^ Sugden 2004, pp. 452–53
* ^ _A_ _B_ Sugden 2004, p. 455
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 461
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 471
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 487
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 493
* ^ Oman 1987, p. 127
* ^ Sugden 2004, pp. 509–10
* ^ Sugden 2004, pp. 513–14
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 515
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 522
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 533
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 537
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 546
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 550
* ^ _A_ _B_ Sugden 2004, p. 556
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 574
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 579
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 584
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 588
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 594
* ^ _A_ _B_ Sugden 2004, p. 603
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 641
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 647
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 683
* ^ Sugden 2004, pp. 21–22
* ^ Sugden 2004, p. 685
* ^ Oman 1987, p. 174
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Coleman 2001, p. 126
* ^ _A_ _B_ Coleman 2001, p. 128
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Coleman 2001, p. 127
* ^ Report of the battle from Jervis. "No. 13987". _The London
Gazette _. 1797-03-03. pp. 211–13.
* ^ Coleman 2001, p. 120
* ^ Coleman 2001, p. 130
* ^ "No. 14012". _
The London Gazette _. 1797-05-23. p. 474.
* ^ Coleman 2001, p. 131
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hibbert 1994, p. 118
* ^ Reports of the attack from Jervis and Nelson. "No. 14032". _The
London Gazette _. 1797-08-01. pp. 716–17.
* ^ Coleman 2001, pp. 133–34
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 121
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Hibbert 1994, p. 122
* ^ "."
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 123
* ^ p. 251, Nelson
* ^ Neurology Clinics.1998; 16(4):919–35
* ^ _A_ _B_ Bradford 2005, p. 160
* ^ Reports of the battle from
Earl St Vincent and Nelson. "No.
The London Gazette _. 1797-0902. pp. 835–36. Check date
values in: date= (help )
* ^ Bradford 2005, p. 162
* ^ _A_ _B_ Bradford 2005, p. 164
* ^ _A_ _B_ Bradford 2005, p. 166
* ^ _A_ _B_ Bradford 2005, p. 167
* ^ Bradford 2005, p. 168
* ^ Bradford 2005, p. 172
* ^ Lavery 2003, pp. 65–66
* ^ Lavery 2003, p. 101
* ^ Bradford 2005, pp. 176–77
* ^ Bradford 2005, pp. 188–89
* ^ Bradford 2005, p. 192
* ^ Bradford 2005, pp. 193–94
* ^ Bradford 2005, p. 196
* ^ Oman 1987, p. 252
* ^ Bradford 2005, p. 198
* ^ Bradford 2005, p. 200
* ^ _A_ _B_ Bradford 2005, p. 203
* ^ Bradford 2005, p. 205
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 142
* ^ Bradford 2005, p. 209
* ^ Reports of the battle from Nelson. "No. 15065". _The London
Gazette _. 1798-10-02. pp. 915–17.
* ^ Bradford 2005, p. 209. Bradford describes it as "the most
complete victory ever recorded in naval history".
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 147
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 153
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 156
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 159
* ^ "No. 15067". _
The London Gazette _. 1798-10-06. p. 931.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hibbert 1994, p. 160
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hibbert 1994, p. 162
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 165
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 170
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 178
* ^ "No. 15107". _
The London Gazette _. 1799-02-16. pp. 146–47.
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 181
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 184
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 186
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 187
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 190
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 193
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 194
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 197
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 203
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 204
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 205
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 207
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 211
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 212
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 216
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 224
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 230
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hibbert 1994, p. 235
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 237
* ^ "No. 15324". _
The London Gazette _. 1800-12-30. pp. 8–9.
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 242
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 246
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 254
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 256
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 260
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hibbert 1994, p. 261
* ^ Pocock 1987, p. 237
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 263
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 264
* ^ Report of the battle from Nelson. "No. 15354". _The London
Gazette _. 1801-04-19. pp. 402–04.
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 265
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 268
* ^ "No. 15366". _
The London Gazette _. 1801-05-19. p. 549.
* ^ "No. 15393". _
The London Gazette _. 1801-08-04. p. 948.
* ^ David Beamish. "List of Peerages". Retrieved 2011-06-02.
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 272
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 279
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hibbert 1994, p. 281
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 298
* ^ Coleman 2001, p. 298
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 323
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 326
* ^ "No. 15695". _
The London Gazette _. 1804-04-23. p. 495.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hibbert 1994, p. 336
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 337
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 338
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hibbert 1994, p. 339
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 350
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 351
* ^ Nicolas, The Despatches and Letters of Lord Nelson, Vol, VII p.
35 idem p. 36
* ^ Tom Pocock, Horatio Nelson p. 316
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 356
* ^ Southey 1922, The Life of Nelson, (1922 edition) p. 296
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Hibbert 1994, p. 362
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 360
* ^ _A_ _B_ Adkin 2007, p. 411
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 363
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hibbert 1994, p. 365
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hibbert 1994, p. 366
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hibbert 1994, p. 368
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Hibbert 1994, p. 370
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 371
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hibbert 1994, p. 372
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Hibbert 1994, p. 376
* ^ Hayward 2003, p. 63
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hibbert 1994, p. 378
* ^ Hibbert 1994, p. 379
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hibbert 1994, p. 381
* ^ von Pivka 1980, p. 101; Senyavin had previously served in the
* ^ The spelling of the name was widely varied, and numerous versions exist even in current literature. Variations include _Hinchinbroke_, _Hinchinbrooke_, _Hinchingbroke_, _Hinchingbrook_ and _Hinchingbrooke_.
* Adkin, Mark (2007). _The Trafalgar Companion: A Guide to History's
Most Famous Sea Battle and the Life of Admiral Lord Nelson_. London:
Aurum Press. ISBN 1-84513-018-9 .
* Bradford, Ernle (2005). _Nelson: The Essential Hero_. Wordsworth
Military Library. ISBN 1-84022-202-6 .
* Coleman, Terry (2001). _Nelson: The man and the legend_.
Bloomsbury. ISBN 0-7475-5900-7 .
* Goodwin, Peter (2002). _Nelson's Ships: A History Of The Vessels
In Which He Served: 1771–1805_. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN
* Haydn, Joseph (1851). _The Book of Dignities_. Longmans, Brown,
Green, and Longmans.
* Hayward, Joel S. A. (2003). _For God and Glory: Lord Nelson and
His Way of War_. ISBN 1-59114-351-9 .
* Hibbert, Christopher (1994). _Nelson A Personal History_. Basic
Books. ISBN 0-201-40800-7 .
* Lambert, Andrew (2004). _Nelson – Britannia's God of War_.
London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-21222-0 .
* Lavery, Brian (2003). _Nelson and the Nile_. London: Caxton
Editions. ISBN 1-84067-5225 .
* Lee, Christopher (2005). _Nelson and Napoleon, The Long Haul to
Trafalgar_. headline books. p. 560. ISBN 0-7553-1041-1 .
* Nelson, Horatio, Lord Viscount, _The Dispatches and Letters of
Vice Admiral Lord
* _Victory_, a novel ISBN 9780340961193 by
Julian Stockwin in the
Kydd Series features Nelson and the chase, along with the events
culminating in the
Battle of Trafalgar
Find more aboutHORATIO NELSON, 1ST VISCOUNT NELSONat's sister projects
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