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Rita Fan
Independent

Elected President

Rita Fan
Independent

The 2004 Hong Kong Legislative Council election was held on 12 September 2004 for members of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong (LegCo). The election returned 30 members from directly elected geographical constituencies and 30 members from functional constituencies, of which 11 were unopposed.

A record number of 3.2 million people registered to vote in the election. The turnout rate was an unprecedented 55.6% with 1,784,406 voters casting ballots, beating the previous record set in 1998 by 200,000 votes.[1] While pro-democratic opposition candidates gained new seats in the legislature, their gains fell short of their expectations.

In the geographical constituencies, candidates from the pro-democratic camp secured 60 percent of the seats in the geographical sectors of the election, taking 18 seats (up from 17) in this category, and 62 percent of the popular vote. On the other hand, the pro-Beijing and pro-business candidates made greater gains, winning 12 directly elected seats (up from 7). Ironically, in the functional constituencies which the pro-democratic camp sought to abolish, the camp made more gains (from 5 to 7 seats).

Overall, the democrats took 25 seats and the pro-government camp 35 seats. Bills initiated by the government can still be passed on pro-government support alone, but bills originated by members cannot be passed without democratic support, since these bills require absolute majorities in each sector (geographical and functional) of the legislature.[2] Constitutional amendments require a two-thirds vote and thereby also require support from the democratic camp.

Despite the increase in the number of seats returned by geographical constituencies and the record turnout, the Democratic Party lost the status of being the largest political party in the Legislative Council to the pro-government Democratic Alliance for Betterment of Hong Kong, DAB, who secured 12 seats if including the two members who ran under the banner of the Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions, and pro-business Liberal Party who secured 10 seats, thereby becoming only the third-largest party. Some attributed the poor performance of the pro-democratic camp to tactical miscalculation in vote allocation. This was not helped by some of the democratic parties' personal scandals.

The pro-Beijing and pro-business parties succeeded in retaining the majority in the legislature. However, pro-democracy candidates have maintained the threshold to block changes, if necessary, to the Basic Law of Hong Kong, since a two-thirds vote is required for amendment. The current Legislative Council also saw the entry of more radical members of the democratic camp.

Change in composition

According to the Annex II of the Basic Law of Hong Kong, the 6-seat Election Committee constituency indirectly elected by the 800-member Election Committee would be abolished, while the directly elected geographical constituency seats would increase from 24 to 30,[3] same number of the indirectly elected functional constituencies. As a result, Hong Kong Island and Kowloon East was added one extra seat each, from five to six and four to five respectively, and the New Territories West and New Territories East was added two extra seats each, from six to eight and five to seven respectively, while the number of seats in Kowloon West remained four.

Background

The election came amidst the deteriorating governance and intense debates over constitutional reforms in Hong Kong. The Tung Chee-hwa administration had been embattling with economic recession brought by the 1997 financial crisis and the more prominent SARS outbreak in 2003. Nevertheless, the Tung administration push forward the controversial Hong Kong Basic Law Article 23 legislation which outlawed "treason" and "subversive activities" and raised concerns on its potential threats against Hong Kong people's civil liberties. A group of barristers formed the Basic Law Article 23 Concern Group and rallied against the national security legislation. Over 500,000 people to protested on 1 July 2003, the sixth anniversary of the establishment of the HKSAR, against the legislation, the largest demonstration since the handover.[4] The Article 23 legislation further crippled the Tung administration as the government saw its popularity dropped to a new low. The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB), the largest pro-Beijing party saw its largest defeat in the District Council elections in November 2003, which alarmed the Beijing and the Hong Kong government.

The Annex I and Annex II of the Basic Law state that the method for selecting the Chief Executive and for forming the Legislative Council could be amended after 2007. The pro-democracy camp argued that the third term of Chief Executive and fourth term of Legislative Council should be elected on the basis of universal suffrage in 2007 and 2008 as stipulated in the Article 45 and 68 of the Basic Law respectively.[5] In 2004, the Article 23 Concern Group transformed into the Article 45 Concern Group calling for the early implementation of the universal suffrage. Facing the pro-democracy pressure for full democratisation, in April 2004, the National People's Congress Standing Committee (NPCSC) ruled out the 2007/08 universal suffrage.

Retiring incumbents

With the cancellation of the Election Committee constituency, there were total of twelve incumbents chose not to run for re-election. Ip Kwok-him lost his seat in the Central and Western District Council therefore was not qualified for running in the District Council functional constituency.

Constituency Departing incumbents Party
Kowloon East Szeto Wah Democratic
New Territories West Tang Siu-tong Progressive Alliance
Accountancy Eric Li Ka-cheung Independent
Labour Leung Fu-wah FTU
Social Welfare Law Chi-kwong Democratic
Import and Export Hui Cheung-ching Progressive Alliance
District Council (First) Ip Kwok-him DAB
Election Committee David Chu Yu-lin Progressive Alliance
Ng Leung-sing Nonpartisan
Yeung Yiu-chung DAB
Ambrose Lau Hon-chuen Progressive Alliance
Ma Fung-kwok New Forum

Opinion polling

2004 Legislative Council opinion polling.png

Results

Before election:

22 38
Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing

Change in composition:

25 35
Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing


e • d Summary of the 12 September 2004 Legislative Council of Hong Kong election results
Parties and allegiances Geographical constituencies Functional constituencies Total
seats
±
Votes % ±pp Seats Votes % ±pp Seats
Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong 402,420 22.73 Decrease5.67 8 2 10 Steady0
Liberal Party 118,997 6.72 Increase4.84 2 6,126 4.71 Decrease0.25 8 10 Increase2
Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions 52,564 2.97 N/A 1 566 0.44 N/A 2 3 Increase2
Hong Kong Progressive Alliance 14,174 0.80 Decrease1.15 0 17 0.01 Decrease0.14 0 0 Decrease4
New Century Forum 4,511 0.25 Decrease1.35 0 0 Decrease1
Pro-government individuals and others 69,306 3.92 1 36,313 27.91 11 12
Total for pro-Beijing camp 661,972 37.40 Increase2.46 12 43,022 33.07 Decrease6.78 23 35 Decrease4
Democratic Party 445,988 25.19 Decrease6.47 7 48,323 37.15 Decrease8.48 2 9 Decrease2
Article 45 Concern Group 117,216 6.62 N/A 3 2,597 2.00 N/A 1 4 Increase2
The Frontier 121,900 6.89 Increase0.11 1 1 Decrease1
Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood 74,671 4.22 Decrease0.53 1 1 Steady0
Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions 69,844 3.95 Decrease3.38 1 1 Steady0
April Fifth Action 60,925 3.44 Increase2.06 1 1 Increase1
Neighbourhood and Worker's Service Centre 59,033 3.33 Decrease1.17 1 1 Steady0
Hong Kong Social Workers' General Union 3,199 2.46 N/A 0 0 Steady0
Pro democracy individuals and others 155,812 8.80 3 27,594 21.21 4 7
Total for pro-democracy camp 1,105,388 62.44 Increase1.88 18 81,713 62.81 Increase7.00 7 25 Increase4
Non-partisan individuals and others 2,830 0.16 0 5,351 4.11 0 0
Total 1,770,190 100.00 30 130,086 100.00 30 60 Steady0
Valid votes 1,770,190 99.22 Increase0.08 130,086 96.41 Decrease0.25
Invalid votes 13,941 0.78 Decrease0.08 4,849 3.59 Increase0.25
Votes cast / turnout 1,784,131 55.63 Increase12.06 134,935 70.14 Increase13.64
Registered voters 3,207,227 100.00 Increase4.97 192,374 100.00 Increase18.00
Source turnout: Electoral Affairs Commission. 11 candidates in 11 functional constituencies were elected unopposed to the Legislative Council.

Note: For the joint list of pro-democrats in Hong Kong Island, Kowloon East and New Territories East, the votes are divided equally to each candidate.


Overview

The election was largely seen as a contest between the pro-democracy coalition and the pro-business and pro-Beijing coalitions. There were 162 candidates for 60 seats in the LegCo. Before the election, the pro-democratic camp was widely expected to gain the most votes and increase its representation from 22 seats in the LegCo. Some members of the pro-democratic camp aimed at securing an absolute majority of the seats in the legislature so that they would have the power to veto all government proposals.

The democratic camp called for direct elections for the Chief Executive of Hong Kong in 2007 and for LegCo in 2008, as well as rapid political reform. In contrast, the pro-Beijing and pro-business candidates placed more emphasis on economic growth and social stability. Most of the political parties are now setting 2012 as the ideal time for electoral reform.

While the democratic camp hoped to play up the issue of universal suffrage as a prominent issue in the election, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress ruled out universal suffrage for the Chief Executive election in 2007 and for LegCo elections in 2008 in April 2004 before the election. Despite this, the pro-democratic camp insisted on promoting their agenda, which seemed to backfire when the campaign lost its original momentum. This was not helped by various sex and financial scandals of a few pro-democracy candidates. There were some allegations by the pro-democracy camp of Mainland Chinese influence behind this.

Some of the developments include:

  • Some reports in phone-in radio programmes that some officials in the Mainland requested businessmen to take photographs of their completed ballots with their mobile phones to prove that they have voted for pro-Beijing candidates. In response, the government removed curtains from polling booths to deter such activities.
  • The entry into the election race of popular radio show host Albert Cheng, who had accused Beijing of pressuring him to leave his radio program.
  • The arrest and sentence (by re-education through labour) of the Democratic Party candidate Alex Ho in Guangdong province of China for (allegedly) being caught and pictured in a hotel bedroom having relations with a prostitute. Although there were some initial predictions that Ho's arrest would help the Democratic Party by highlighting deficiencies in the PRC's judicial system, it is generally agreed that his arrest greatly hurt the party among women voter support in Hong Kong.
  • The involvement of Democratic Party James To and The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions Chan Yuen-han in scandals relating to the use of public funds for the benefit of their respective political groups.
  • Human Rights Watch issued a report a few days before the election, accusing the PRC government of creating a "climate of fear" to influence the election. In response, the Hong Kong government claimed that the report was distorted.
  • The assault of a candidate of the Democratic Party in the New Territories East, Wong Sing-chi. The suspect was arrested and reportedly found to be mentally ill.
  • The election of radical activist "Long Hair" Leung Kwok-hung, who ran as an independent but who is expected to side with pro-democracy representatives despite his revolutionary leanings.

Irregularities

There were a few reports of irregularities. Some polling stations ran out of ballot boxes, causing long delays in voting. To fit more ballots into the ballot boxes, some election workers forcefully stuffed ballots into the box using objects such as barbecue forks and metal rulers. Some stations also used random cardboard boxes without official seals. Some ballot boxes were opened before the close of polling.

The polling station operating manual had mistakes in it, so some candidate representatives were kicked out after the closing of the poll and were prevented from witnessing the counting, as required by law.

Some candidates have tried to challenge the election results, but have remained unsuccessful thus far.

A report on the election process was published shortly after the election.[1] Another report was commissioned by the government to suggest future improvements.[6]

Votes summary

Ring charts of the election results showing popular vote against seats won, coloured in green (Pro-democracy camp) and red (Pro-Beijing camp) on the left and the party colours on the right. Seats won in the election (outer ring) against number of votes (inner ring).
Popular vote
Democratic
25.19%
DAB
22.73%
Frontier
6.89%
Liberal
6.72%
A45
6.62%
ADPL
4.22%
CTU
3.95%
AFA
3.44%
NWSC
3.33%
FTU
2.97%
PA
0.80%
NCF
0.25%
Independent
13.93%

Seat summary

Seats
DAB
16.67%
Liberal
16.67%
Democratic
15.00%
A45
6.67%
FTU
5.00%
Frontier
1.67%
ADPL
1.67%
CTU
1.67%
AFA
1.67%
NWSC
1.67%
Independent
31.67%

Incumbents defeated

Eight incumbents lost re-election

Party Name Constituency Remarks
Democratic Wong Sing-chi New Territories East placed fourth on the list
The Frontier/Civic Act-up Cyd Ho Sau-lan Hong Kong Island placed second on the list;
running for New Territories East constituency in the last election
Independent Andrew Wong Wang-fat New Territories East
Lo Wing-lok Medical
Kaizer Lau Ping-cheung Architectural, Surveying and Planning
Michael Mak Kwok-fung Health Services
Chan Kwok-keung Labour
Wu King-cheong Financial Services

Candidate lists and results

Geographical Constituencies (30 seats)

Voting system: Party-list proportional representation with largest remainder method and Hare quota.

Results of the Geographical Constituencies
Hong Kong Island (香港島)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 DAB Ma Lik
Choy So-yuk
Christopher Chung Shu-kun
Yeung Wai-foon
Lee Yuen-kwong
Cheung Kwok-kwan
74,659 21.1
2
2 Independent Rita Fan Hsu Lai-tai 65,661 18.5
1
3 Independent Tsang Kin-shing
Chung Chung-fai
Tang Chui-chung
5,313 1.5
4 Democratic Yeung Sum
Martin Lee Chu-ming
Joseph Lai Chi-keong
131,788 37.2
2
5 Independent Kelvin Wong Kam-fai 2,830 0.8
6 Independent/Civic Act-up Audrey Eu Yuet-mee
(Article 45 Concern Group)
Cyd Ho Sau-lan
(The Frontier, Civic Act-up)
73,844 20.9
1
TOTAL (Quota: 59,016 votes, 16.67%) 354,095 100.0
6
Kowloon West (九龍西)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 Independent Lau Yuk-shing
Leung Suet-fong
Lau Po-kwan
1,824 0.8
2 ADPL Frederick Fung Kin-kee 46,649 20.5
1
3 Independent Lau Chin-shek 43,460 19.1
1
4 DAB Jasper Tsang Yok-sing
Chung Kong-mo
Starry Lee Wai-king
61,770 27.1
1
5 Democratic James To Kun-sun
Chan Ka-wai
Lam Ho-yeung
Ma Kee
60,539 26.6
1
6 ADPL Liu Sing-lee 13,452 5.9
TOTAL (Quota: 56,923 votes, 25%) 227,694 100.0
4
Kowloon East (九龍東)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 Democratic Fred Li Wah-ming
Wu Chi-wai
Ho Wai-to
56,462 19.2
1
2 DAB/FTU Chan Kam-lam
Choi Chun-wa
Chan Tak-ming
55,306 18.8
1
3 Independent Albert Cheng Jing-han
Andrew To Kwan-hang
(The Frontier)
73,479 25.0
1
4 Independent Alan Leong Kah-kit
(Article 45 Concern Group)
56,175 19.1
1
5 FTU/DAB Chan Yuen-han
Lam Man-fai
Tang Ka-piu
(Independent)
52,564 17.9
1
TOTAL (Quota: 58,797 votes, 20.00%) 293,986 100.0
5
New Territories West (新界西)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 Independent Albert Chan Wai-yip 36,278 7.83
1
2 Democratic Lee Wing-tat
Chan Yuen-sum
62,500 13.49
1
3 Democratic Albert Ho Chun-yan
Cheung Yin-tung
62,342 13.45
1
4 NWSC Leung Yiu-chung
Andrew Wan Siu-kin
59,033 12.74
1
5 Independent Chow Ping-tim 1,725 0.37
6 Independent Stephen Char Shik-ngor 9,116 1.97
7 DAB Tam Yiu-chung
Cheung Hok-ming
Leung Che-cheung
Au Yeung Po-chun
Tsui Fan
Chan Han-pan
Andy Lo Kwong-sing
Philip Ng King-wah
115,251 24.87
2
8 Independent Ng Tak-leung 1,920 0.41
9 Liberal Selina Chow Liang Shuk-yee
Kenneth Ting Woo-shou
50,437 10.88
1
10 New Century Forum Lui Hau-tuen
Siu Shing-choi
Chan Choi-hi
4,511 0.97
11 CTU Lee Cheuk-yan
Ip Ngok-fung
45,725 9.87
1
12 ADPL Yim Tim-sang
Kong Fung-yi
Tai Yin-chiu
Kwun Tung-wing
14,570 3.14
TOTAL (Quota: 57,926 votes, 12.50%) 463,408 100.0
8
New Territories East (新界東)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 April Fifth Action Leung Kwok-hung 60,925 14.14
1
2 Progressive Alliance Tso Wung-wai 14,174 3.29
3 7.1 United Front Andrew Cheng Kar-foo
(Democratic)
Emily Lau Wai-hing
(The Frontier)
Tong Ka-wah
(Article 45 Concern Group)
Wong Sing-chi
(Democratic)
Richard Tsoi Yiu-cheong
(HKCTU)
Shirley Ho Suk-ping
(Democratic)
Ricky Or Yiu-lam
(The Frontier)
168,833 39.17
3
4 Liberal James Tien Pei-chun
68,560 15.91
1
5 Independent Andrew Wong Wang-fat 23,081 5.36
6 DAB Lau Kong-wah
Li Kwok-ying
Mok Kam-kwai
Chan Kwok-kai
So Sai-chi
Wong Pik-kiu
Chan Hak-kan
95,434 22.14
2
TOTAL (Quota: 61,572 votes, 14.29%) 431,007 100.0
7

Functional Constituencies (30 seats)

Voting systems: Different voting systems apply to different functional constituencies, namely for the Heung Yee Kuk, Agriculture and Fisheries, Insurance and Transport, the preferential elimination system of voting; and for the remaining 24 FCs used the first-past-the-post voting system.[7]

Results of the Functional Constituencies
Constituency Incumbent Result Candidate(s)
Heung Yee Kuk Lau Wong-fat
(Liberal)
Incumbent ran for DC FC
Nonpartisan gain
Lam Wai-keung
uncontested
Agriculture and Fisheries Wong Yung-kan
(DAB)
Incumbent hold Wong Yung-kan (DAB)
uncontested
Insurance Bernard Charnwut Chan Incumbent hold Bernard Charnwut Chan
uncontested
Transport Miriam Lau Kin-yee
(Liberal)
Incumbent re-elected Miriam Lau Kin-yee (Liberal)
uncontested
Education Cheung Man-kwong
(PTU/Democratic)
Incumbent re-elected Cheung Man-kwong (PTU/Democratic) 82.94%
Yu Kai-chun 17.06%
Legal Margaret Ng Ngoi-yee
(Independent)
Incumbent hold Margaret Ng Ngoi-yee (Independent) 74.73%
Kwong Ka-yin (Independent) 17.21%
Judy Tong Kei-yuk (Independent) 8.06%
Accountancy Eric Li Ka-cheung
(Independent)
Incumbent retired
Independent gain
Tam Heung-man (Independent) 29.05%
Chan Mo-po (Independent) 28.74%
Elve Kung Yiu-fai (Independent) 15.54%
Edward Chow Kwong-fai 9.13%
Louis Leung Wing-on (Independent) 5.17%
Peter Chan Po-fun 5.16%
Choi Sau-yuk (Independent) 3.80%
Wilfred Wu Shek-chun 2.09%
Wilfred Wong Wang-tai 1.32%
Medical Lo Wing-lok
(Independent)
Incumbent lost re-election
Independent gain
Kwok Ka-ki (Independent) 50.88%
Lo Wing-lok (Independent) 42.45%
Johnny Ma Kam-chuen 6.67%
Health Services Michael Mak Kwok-fung
(Independent)
Incumbent lost re-election
Independent gain
Joseph Lee Kok-long (Independent) 43.01%
Michael Mak Kwok-fung (Independent democrat) 30.14%
Scarlett Pong Oi-lan 14.27%
Siu Kwai-fung (Independent) 12.58%
Engineering Raymond Ho Chung-tai
Incumbent re-elected Raymond Ho Chung-tai 57.29%
Luk Wang-kwong 42.71%
Architectural, Surveying and Planning Kaizer Lau Ping-cheung Incumbent lost re-election
Independent gain
Patrick Lau Sau-shing (Independent) 28.36%
Kenneth Chan Jor-kin (Independent) 16.29%
Kaizer Lau Ping-cheung 15.46%
Roger Anthony Nissim (Independent) 13.73%
Stanley Ng Wing-fai (Democratic) 13.23%
Chan Yiu-fai (Independent) 12.93%
Labour (3 seats) Li Fung-ying
(Nonpartisan)
Incumbent re-elected Li Fung-ying 32.43%
Kwong Chi-kin (FTU) 29.00%
Wong Kwok-hing (FTU) 28.00%
Chan Kwok-keung 10.57%
Leung Fu-wah
(FTU)
Incumbent retired
FTU hold
Chan Kwok-keung
(DAB)
Incumbent lost re-election
FTU gain
Social Welfare Law Chi-kwong
(Democratic)
Incumbent retired
Nonpartisan gain
Cheung Chiu-hung 39.01%
Cheung Kwok-che (SWGU) 38.24%
Christine Fong Meng-sang 22.75%
Real Estate and Construction Abraham Shek Lai-him
(Independent)
Incumbent hold Abraham Shek Lai-him (Independent)
uncontested
Tourism Howard Young
(Liberal)
Incumbent re-elected Howard Young 48.20%
Paul Tse Wai-chun 40.75%
Freddy Yip Hing-ning 11.05%
Commercial (First) James Tien Pei-chun
(Liberal)
Incumbent ran for NTE GC
Liberal hold
Jeffrey Lam Kin-fung (Liberal)
uncontested
Commercial (Second) Philip Wong Yu-hong Incumbent hold Philip Wong Yu-hong
uncontested
Industrial (First) Kenneth Ting Woo-shou
(Liberal)
Incumbent ran for NTW GC
Liberal hold
Andrew Leung Kwan-yuen (Liberal)
uncontested
Industrial (Second) Lui Ming-wah Incumbent hold Lui Ming-wah
uncontested
Finance David Li Kwok-po Incumbent hold David Li Kwok-po
uncontested
Financial Services Wu King-cheong Incumbent lost re-election
Nonpartisan gain
Chim Pui-chung 51.69%
Christopher Cheung Wah-fung 17.29%
Wu King-cheong 16.35%
Fung Ka-pun (Liberal) 11.47%
Fung Chi-kin (Progressive Alliance) 3.20%
Sports, Performing Arts, Culture and Publication Timothy Fok Tsun-ting Incumbent hold Timothy Fok Tsun-ting 69.08%
Lam Hon-kin (Democratic) 30.92%
Import and Export Hui Cheung-ching
(Progressive Alliance)
Incumbent retired
DAB gain
Wong Ting-kwong (DAB)
uncontested
Textiles and Garment Sophie Lau Yau-fun
(Liberal)
Incumbent re-elected Sophie Lau Yau-fun (Liberal) 77.94%
Kwan Kam-yuen 22.06%
Wholesale and Retail Selina Chow Liang Shuk-yee
(Liberal)
Incumbent ran for NTW GC
Liberal hold
Vincent Fang Kang (Liberal) 46.85%
Fung Leung-lo 36.66%
Samuel Chan Tim-shing 16.49%
Information Technology Sin Chung-kai
(Democratic)
Incumbent re-elected Sin Chung-kai (Democratic) 52.59%
Tam Wai-ho 42.65%
Leung Mun-yee (Independent) 4.76%
Catering Tommy Cheung Yu-yan
(Liberal)
Incumbent re-elected Tommy Cheung Yu-yan (Liberal) 63.75%
Josephine Chan Shu-ying 21.75%
Wong Sin-ying 14.50%
District Council Ip Kwok-him
(DAB)
Incumbent retired
Liberal gain
Lau Wong-fat (Liberal) 61.24%
Cosmas Kwong Kwok-chuen (Democratic) 28.90%
Au Chi-yuen 9.86%

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b "2004 Legislative Council Election" (PDF). Electoral Affairs Commission. Retrieved 19 February 2009. 
  2. ^ Sing, Ming (2009). Politics and Government in Hong Kong. Taylor & Francis. 
  3. ^ "Annex II : Method for the Formation of the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Its Voting Procedures". The Basic Law. 
  4. ^ Wong, Yiu-Chung. One Country, Two Systems in Crisis: Hong Kong's Transformation Since the Handover. Lexington books.
  5. ^ Kuan, Hsin-chi (2006). The 2004 Legislative Council Elections in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. 
  6. ^ "Report of the Independent Committee of Experts for the Review on the Management, Planning and Conduct of Elections". Government Information Centre. 6 May 2005. Retrieved 19 February 2009. 
  7. ^ "2004 LegCo Election- Facts about the Election". Elections.gov.hk. 

External links