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Rita Fan
Independent

Elected President

Rita Fan
Independent

The 1998 Hong Kong Legislative Council election was held on 24 May 1998 for members of the 1st Legislative Council of Hong Kong (LegCo) since the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) in 1997. Replacing the Provisional Legislative Council (PLC) strictly controlled by the Beijing government and boycotted by the pro-democracy camp, the elections returned 20 members from directly elected geographical constituencies, 10 seats from the Election Committee constituency and 30 members from functional constituencies, of which 10 were uncontested.

Taking the advantage of the proportional representation system installed by Beijing, the pro-Beijing party, the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB), the weaker side compared to the more developed pro-democratic party, the Democratic Party recorded a clearer increase in the number of seats in the election.[1]

The Democratic Party returned to the Legislative Council as the largest party with 13 seats, while the Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood, a pro-democratic party joined the Beijing-controlled Provisional Legislative Council lost all its seats.

Electoral method

The electoral method for the first Hong Kong Special Administrative Region was crafted by the Provisional Legislative Council (PLC) installed by the Beijing government during the intense Sino-British confrontation over the democratic reform carried out by the last colonial governor Chris Patten.[2] According to the Hong Kong Basic Law promulgated by Beijing in April 1990, the first legislature would be composed of 60 members, with 20 members returned by geographical constituencies through direct elections, 10 members returned by an election committee and 30 members returned by functional constituencies.

For the geographical constituencies, A proportional representation system was adopted by the SAR government in replacement of the first-past-the-post system introduced in 1995. Under the system Hong Kong was divided into five large districts instead of 20 small ones, with voters in each district choosing three to five persons from candidate lists. It was designed to reward the weaker pro-Beijing candidates and dilute the electoral strength of the majority democrats.[3]

For the functional constituencies, the corporate voting was restored after it was abolished in 1995. It reduced the number of eligible voters by almost 90 percent, from over 1.1 million in 1995 to fewer than 140,000 in 1998. There were also vast disparities in the number of eligible voters among the functional constituencies, ranging from highs of approximately 50,000 in the Education constituency to a few hundred or less in the Agriculture and Fisheries Transport, Insurance, Urban Council and Regional Council constituencies.

For the election committee, the 10 seats would be elected by the 800-member Election Committee, successor to the 400-member Selection Committee which elected the SAR's first Chief Executive in 1996. The committee was predominantly composed of conservative, pro-Beijing business, industrial and professional elites.[4]

Campaign

The proportional representation system induced the contesting parties to practice strategic voting, to encourage split voting among their supporters. In New Territories East, Martin Lee's Democratic Party reportedly advised its supporters to split their family members' votes between the Democratic Party and its ally The Frontier to help ensure of a third pro-democracy candidate. In Hong Kong Island, the Democratic Party picked a relatively unknown candidate in the third place of its party list, a move reportedly intended to help Christine Loh of the pro-democratic Citizens Party to finish ahead of the second candidate Ip Kwok-him of the rival pro-Beijing Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB).[5]

Results

Overview

Ring charts of the election results showing popular vote against seats won, coloured in green (Pro-democracy camp) and red (Pro-Beijing camp) on the left and the party colours on the right. Seats won in the election (outer ring) against number of votes (inner ring).

The results saw the pro-democratic camp once again collectively gained over 60 percent of the popular vote, but their share of directly elected seats shrink form 85 percent (17/20) to 65 percent (14/20), due to the new electoral system. The leading pro-Beijing party, the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB) which had suffered from the underrepresentation under the single-member plurality system, picked up one seat in each geographical constituency for its 25 percent share of the popular vote.[6] The Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood (ADPL), a pro-democratic party joined the Beijing-controlled Provisional Legislative Council lost all its seats, while two other pro-democratic parties, The Frontier and Citizens Party won 3 and 1 seat respectively.

The pro-business Liberal Party won most seats in the functional constituencies by taking 9 seats in the trade-based sectors, but failed to win any seat in the geographical constituency direct election. Its chairman Allen Lee could not save his seat in New Territories East which he won in the 1995 election. Some 77,813 voters (65 percent of those eligible) cast votes in the 20 functional constituencies while ten others ran uncontested. Reflecting the built-in conservative bias in the majority of the functional constituencies, pro-government parties and their unaffiliated allies dominated the sectors. Due to the pro-Beijing composition of the Election Committee, the pro-Beijing candidates won all 10 seats in the sector.


e • d Overall Summary of the 24 May 1998 Legislative Council of Hong Kong election results
Parties Geographical
constituencies
Functional
constituencies
ECC
seats
Total
seats
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Liberal Party 50,335 3.40 0 1,316 1.73 9 1 10
Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong 373,428 25.23 5 293 0.38 2 2 9
Hong Kong Progressive Alliance 430 0.56 2 3 5
Pro-government individuals and others 25,905 1.75 0 22,442 29.44 12 4 16
Total for pro-Beijing camp 449,668 30.38 5 24,481 32.11 25 10 40
Democratic Party 634,635 42.87 9 48,085 63.07 4 13
The Frontier 148,507 10.03 3 3
Citizens Party 41,633 2.81 1 1
Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood 59,034 3.99 0 0 0.00 0 0 0
123 Democratic Alliance 3,050 0.21 0 0
Pro-democracy individuals and others 95,390 6.44 2 1,889 2.48 1 0 3
Total for pro-democracy camp 982,249 66.36 15 49,974 65.55 5 0 20
Individuals and others 48,323 3.26 0 1,781 2.34 0 0 0
Total 1,480,240 100.00 20 76,236 100.00 30 10 60
Valid votes 1,480,240 99.36 76,236 97.97
Invalid votes 9,465 0.64 1,577 2.13
Vote cast / turnout 1,489,705 53.29 77,813 63.50
Registered voters 2,795,371 100.00 122,540 100.00
10 candidates in 10 functional constituencies were elected unopposed to the Legislative Council.

(Total votes added up by this reference)

Vote summary

Popular vote
Democratic
42.87%
DAB
25.23%
Frontier
10.03%
ADPL
3.99%
Liberal
3.40%
Citizens
2.81%
123DA
0.21%
Independents
11.45%

Seat summary

Seats
Democratic
21.67%
Liberal
16.67%
DAB
15.00%
PA
8.33%
Frontier
5.00%
Citizens
1.67%
Independents
31.67%

Result breakdown

Geographical constituencies (20 seats)

Voting System: Closed party-list proportional representation with the Largest remainder method and Hare Quota.

Hong Kong Island (4 seats)
List
Party/
Allegiance
Votes
Received
% Elected Not elected
1 Citizens 39,251 12.76 Christine Loh Kung-wai  
2 Nonpartisan 12,377 4.02   Chong Chan-yau
3 DAB 90,182 29.32 Gary Cheng Kai-nam Ip Kwok-him, Suen Kai-cheong, Christopher Chung Shu-kun
4 Liberal 7,485 2.43   Ada Wong Ying-kay, Alice Tso Shing-yuk, Alice Lam Chui-lin
5 Democratic 143,843 46.76 Martin Lee Chu-ming, Yeung Sum Yuen Bun-keung, Chan Kwok-leung
6 Nonpartisan 2,588 0.84   Louis Leong Wing-on
7 Nonpartisan 10,950 3.56   Jennifer Chow Kit-bing
8 Nonpartisan 935 0.30   Li Hung
Total 307,611 100.00  
Kowloon West (3 seats)
List
Party/
Allegiance
Votes
Received
% Elected Not elected
1 Democratic 113,079 55.05 Lau Chin-shek, James To Kun-sun Eric Wong Chong-ki
2 ADPL 39,534 19.25   Frederick Fung Kin-kee, Liu Sing-lee, Tam Kwok-kiu
3   Atlas Alliance 2,302 1.12   Helen Chung Yee-fong
4 Liberal 5,854 2.85   Chiang Sai-cheong, Chan Noi-yue, Edward Li King-wah
5 DAB 44,632 21.73 Jasper Tsang Yok-sing Ip Kwok-chung, Wen Choy-bon
Total 205,401 100.00  
Kowloon East (3 seats)
List
Party/
Allegiance
Votes
Received
% Elected Not elected
1 Democratic 145,986 55.80 Szeto Wah, Li Wah-ming Mak Hoi-wah
2 DAB 109,296 41.78 Chan Yuen-han Kwok Bit-chun, Lam Man-fai
3 Nonpartisan 6,339 2.42   Fok Pui-yee
Total 261,621 100.00  
New Territories West (5 seats)
List
Party/
Allegiance
Votes
Received
% Elected Not elected
1 Democratic 147,098 39.21 Lee Wing-tat, Ho Chun-yan Zachary Wong Wai-yin, Josephine Chan Shu-ying
2 Nonpartisan 25,905 6.91 Lam Wai-keung, Tai Kuen, Chow Ping-tim, Carmen Chan Ka-mun, Tso Shiu-wai
3 Nonpartisan 38,627 10.30 Leung Yiu-chung  
4 Frontier 46,696 12.45 Lee Cheuk-yan Ip Kwok-fun
5 Nonpartisan 11,176 2.98   Ting Yin-wah
6 Liberal 3,138 0.84   Paul Chan Sing-kong, Liu Kwong-sang, Wong Kwok-keung
7 DAB 72,587 19.35 Tam Yiu-chung Leung Che-cheung, Chau Chuen-heung, Chan Wan-sang, Hui Chiu-fai
8 ADPL 19,500 5.20   Yim Tin-sang
9 Pioneer 968 0.26   Lam Chi-leung
10 123DA 3,050 0.81   Yum Sin-ling, Christopher Chu Cho-yan, Mak Ip-sing, Shung King-fai
11 Nonpartisan 6428 1.71   Yeung Fuk-kwong
Total 375,173 100.00  
New Territories East (5 seats)
List
Party/
Allegiance
Votes
Received
% Elected Not elected
1 Liberal 33,858 10.25   Allen Lee Peng-fei, Wong Yiu-chee, Cheng Chee-kwok
2 Nonpartisan 44,386 13.43 Andrew Wong Wang-fat  
3 Citizens 2,382 0.72   Lui Yat-ming
4 Frontier 101,811 30.81 Emily Lau Wai-hing, Cyd Ho Sau-lan  
5 DAB 56,731 17.17 Lau Kong-wah Cheung Hon-chung, Chan Ping, Wan Yuet-kau, Wong Mo-tai
6 Democratic 84,629 25.61 Andrew Cheng Kar-foo Wong Sing-chi, Lam Wing-yin, Shirley Ho Suk-ping
7 Nonpartisan 6,637 2.01   Brian Kan Ping-chee
Total 330,434 100.00  

Functional Constituencies (30 seats)

Voting systems: Different voting systems apply to different functional constituencies, namely for the Heung Yee Kuk, Agriculture and Fisheries, Insurance and Transport, the preferential elimination system of voting; and for the remaining 24 FCs used the first-past-the-post voting system.[7]

Constituency Candidate(s) Affiliation Votes %
Urban Council Ambrose Cheung Wing-sum Independent 26 56.52
Ronnie Wong Man-chiu Nonpartisan 20 43.48
Mok Ying-fan ADPL 0 0.00
Regional Council Tang Siu-tong Nonpartisan (PA) 25 51.02
Chiang Lai-wan Nonpartisan 24 48.98
Ngan Kam-chuen DAB 0 0.00
Heung Yee Kuk Lau Wong-fat Nonpartisan (Liberal) Uncontested
Agriculture and Fisheries Wong Yung-kan Nonpartisan (DAB) 81 65.32
Lawrence Lee Hay-yue Nonpartisan 43 34.68
Insurance Bernard Charnwut Chan Nonpartisan 94 53.11
Chan Yim-kwong Liberal 83 46.89
Alex Wong Po-hang Nonpartisan 0 0.00
Steven Lau Hon-keung Nonpartisan 0 0.00
Transport Miriam Lau Kin-yee Liberal 82 69.49
Yuen Mo Nonpartisan 36 30.51
Education Cheung Man-kwong Democratic 34,864 70.89
Li Sze-yuen Nonpartisan 5,319 29.11
Legal Margaret Ng Ngoi-yee Nonpartisan 1,741 81.55
Sylvia Siu Wing-yee Nonpartisan 394 18.45
Accountancy Eric Li Ka-cheung Independent 3,556 65.04
Edward Chow Kwong-fai Nonpartisan 1,302 23.82
Peter Chan Po-fun Nonpartisan 609 11.14
Medical Edward Leong Che-hung Nonpartisan 2,759 70.19
Chan Ki-tak Independent 1,172 29.81
Health Services Michael Ho Mun-ka Democratic 11,420 82.21
Peter Chua Sek-chon Nonpartisan 2,472 17.79
Engineering Raymond Ho Chung-tai Nonpartisan 2,036 55.95
Wong King-keung Independent 1,112 30.56
Luk Wang-kwong Nonpartisan 491 13.49
Architectural, Surveying and Planning Edward Ho Sing-tin Liberal Uncontested
Labour (3 seats) Chan Wing-chan DAB 212 27.32
Lee Kai-ming Nonpartisan 212 27.32
Chan Kwok-keung Nonpartisan 204 26.29
Chan Yun-che Nonpartisan 99 12.76
Ng Yat-wah Nonpartisan 49 6.31
Social Welfare Law Chi-kwong Democratic Uncontested
Real Estate and Construction Ronald Joseph Arculli Liberal 206 69.13
Jimmy Tse Lai-leung Nonpartisan 92 30.87
Tourism Howard Young Liberal Uncontested
Commercial (First) James Tien Pei-chun Liberal Uncontested
Commercial (Second) Wong Yu-hong Nonpartisan Uncontested
Industrial (First) Kenneth Ting Liberal Uncontested
Industrial (Second) Lui Ming-wah Nonpartisan 186 63.48
Ngai Shiu-kit Progressive Alliance 107 36.52
Finance David Li Kwok-po Independent Uncontested
Financial Services Chim Pui-chung Nonpartisan 125 40.85
Fung Chi-kin Nonpartisan 117 38.24
Wu King-cheong Progressive Alliance 47 15.36
Syed Bagh Ali Sah Bokhary Nonpartisan 17 5.56
Sports, Performing Arts, Culture and Publication Timothy Fok Tsun-ting Nonpartisan 561 68.50
Wu Chi-wai Democratic 258 31.50
Import and Export Hui Cheung-ching Progressive Alliance Uncontested
Textiles and Garment Sophie Leung Lau Yau-fun Liberal Uncontested
Whole and Retail Selina Chow Liang Shuk-yee Liberal 945 66.41
Wong Siu-yee Progressive Alliance 276 19.40
Chan Choi-hi Nonpartisan 202 14.20
Information Technology Sin Chung-kai Democratic 1,543 63.71
Yung Kai-ning Nonpartisan 456 18.83
Ringo Chan Kei-fu Nonpartisan 423 17.46

Election Committee (10 seats)

Party Candidate Votes
DAB Yeung Yiu-chung 441
Nonpartisan Lee Kwong-lam 83
DAB Thomas Pang Cheung-wai 226
Nonpartisan Ng Leung-sing 539
Liberal Ho Sai-chu 386
Nonpartisan Ma Fung-kwok 466
Nonpartisan Kan Fook-yee 300
Nonpartisan James Chiu 141
Independent Peggy Lam Pei 346
Progressive Alliance Charles Yeung Chun-kam 380
Nonpartisan Rita Fan Hsu Lai-tai 628
Nonpartisan Ng Ching-fai 530
Nonpartisan Maria Joyce Chang Sau-han 149
Nonpartisan Ho Ka-cheong 97
Nonpartisan Lee Kwong-lam 83
ADPL Law Cheung-kwok 259
Nonpartisan Cheung Hok-ming 273
Nonpartisan Siu See-kong 56
Heung Yee Kuk Pang Hang-yin 212
Progressive Alliance David Chu Yu-lin 469
Nonpartisan Stephen Yam Chi-ming 137
DAB Chan Kam-lam 432
Nonpartisan Joseph Hui Tak-fai 214
Progressive Alliance Choy So-yuk 397
Nonpartisan Leung Tsz-leung 85
Progressive Alliance Lau Hon-chuen 504

Implication

The 1998 election is the first election after the Handover in 1997. Some observers believed the generally free and fair election was crucial for the consolidation of the newly established HKSAR and the political setting of "One Country, Two Systems" after widespread criticism on the PLC.[8]

References

  1. ^ Kwong, Bruce Kam-kwan (2009). Patron-Client Politics and Elections in Hong Kong. Routledge. p. 79. 
  2. ^ Kuan, Hsin-chi (1999). Power Transfer and Electoral Politics: The First Legislative Election in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Chinese University Press. p. 3. 
  3. ^ Diamond, Larry; Myers, Ramon H. (2001). Elections and Democracy in Greater China. OUP Oxford. p. 1985–6. 
  4. ^ Diamond 2001, p. 1986.
  5. ^ Diamond 2001, p. 1985–6.
  6. ^ Diamond 2001, p. 1985.
  7. ^ "1998 LegCo Election- Facts about the Election". Elections.gov.hk. 
  8. ^ Wong, Timothy Ka-ying (1998). "The First Legislative Council Election of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region: Meaning and Impact". Issues & Studies. 34 (9): 133. 

External links