Coordinates: 15°00′N 86°30′W / 15.000°N 86.500°W /
Republic of Honduras
República de Honduras (Spanish)
Coat of arms
"Libre, Soberana e Independiente" (Spanish)
"Free, Sovereign and Independent"
Anthem: "Himno Nacional de Honduras"
"National Anthem of Honduras"
and largest city
14°6′N 87°13′W / 14.100°N 87.217°W / 14.100; -87.217
Ethnic groups ()
Juan Orlando Hernández
• Vice President
Ricardo Álvarez Arias
• President of National Congress
• Declaredb from Spain
15 September 1821
• Declared from the
First Mexican Empire
1 July 1823
• Declared, as Honduras, from the Federal
Republic of Central
5 November 1838
112,492 km2 (43,433 sq mi) (101st)
• 2016 estimate
• 2007 census
64/km2 (165.8/sq mi) (128th)
• Per capita
• Per capita
medium · 131st
Drives on the
ISO 3166 code
Mixture of European and American Indian.
As part of the Federal
Republic of Central America.
Population estimates explicitly take into account the effects of
excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life
expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population
and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age
and sex than would otherwise be expected, as of July 2007.
Honduras (/hɒnˈdʊərəs/ ( listen);
Spanish: [onˈduɾas]), officially the
Republic of Honduras
(Spanish: República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
It has at times been referred to as Spanish
Honduras to differentiate
it from British Honduras, which became modern-day Belize. Honduras
is bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the southwest by El Salvador,
to the southeast by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean at
the Gulf of Fonseca, and to the north by the Gulf of Honduras, a large
inlet of the Caribbean Sea.
Honduras was home to several important
Mesoamerican cultures, most
notably the Maya, before the Spanish invaded in the sixteenth century.
The Spanish introduced Roman Catholicism and the now predominant
Spanish language, along with numerous customs that have blended with
the indigenous culture.
Honduras became independent in 1821 and has
since been a republic, although it has consistently endured much
social strife and political instability, and remains one of the
poorest countries in the western hemisphere. In 1960, the northern
part of what was the
Mosquito Coast was transferred from
Honduras by the International Court of Justice.
The nation's economy is primarily agricultural, making it especially
vulnerable to natural disasters such as
Hurricane Mitch in 1998.
The lower class is primarily agriculturally based while wealth is
concentrated in the country's urban centers.
Honduras has a Human
Development Index of .625, classifying it as a nation with medium
development. When the Index is adjusted for income inequality, its
Human Development Index
Human Development Index is .443.
Honduran society is predominately Mestizo; however, American Indian,
Black and White individuals also live in
Honduras (2017). The
nation had a relatively high political stability until its 2009 coup
and again with the 2017 presidential election.
Honduras has the
world's highest murder rate and high levels of sexual
Honduras spans about 112,492 km2 and has a population exceeding 9
million. Its northern portions are part of the Western Caribbean
Zone, as reflected in the area's demographics and culture.
known for its rich natural resources, including minerals, coffee,
tropical fruit, and sugar cane, as well as for its growing textiles
industry, which serves the international market.
2.1 Pre-colonial period
2.2 Spanish conquest (1524–1539)
2.5 20th century
2.6 21st century
3.3 Environmental issues
4 Government and politics
4.1 Political culture
4.3 Foreign relations
4.5 Administrative divisions
5.2 Poverty reduction strategies
5.3 Economic inequality
5.7 Water supply and sanitation
6.1 Race and Ethnicity
6.4 Largest cities
7.6 National symbols
Nobel Prize nominations
8 See also
10 External links
The literal meaning of the term "Honduras" is "depths" in Spanish. The
name could either refer to the bay of Trujillo as an anchorage,
fondura in the
Leonese dialect of Spanish, or to Columbus's alleged
quote that "Gracias a Dios que hemos salido de esas Honduras" ("Thank
God we have departed from those depths").
It was not until the end of the 16th century that
Honduras was used
for the whole province. Prior to 1580,
Honduras only referred to the
eastern part of the province, and Higueras referred to the western
part. Another early name is Guaymuras, revived as the name for the
political dialogue in 2009 that took place in
Honduras as opposed to
Costa Rica. 
Hondurans are often referred to as
Catracho or Catracha (fem) in
Spanish. The word was coined by
Nicaraguans and derives from the last
name of the Spanish Honduran General Florencio Xatruch, who in 1857
led Honduran armed forces against an attempted invasion by North
American adventurer William Walker. The nickname is considered
complimentary, not derogatory.
Main article: History of Honduras
A Maya stela, an emblematic symbol of the Honduran Mayan civilization
See also: Bajo Aguán
In pre-Columbian times, modern
Honduras was part of the Mesoamerican
cultural area. In the west, Mayan civilization flourished for hundreds
of years. The dominant state within Honduras' borders was in Copán.
Copán fell with the other
Lowland centres during the conflagrations
of the Terminal Classic in the 9th century. The Maya of this
civilization survive in western
Honduras as the Ch'orti', isolated
from their Choltian linguistic peers to the west.
Remnants of other Pre-Columbian cultures are found throughout the
country. Archaeologists have studied sites such as Naco (es) and
La Sierra in the Naco Valley, Los Naranjos on Lake Yojoa,
La Ceiba and Salitron Viejo (both now
under the Cajon Dam reservoir), Selin Farm and Cuyamel in the Aguan
valley, Cerro Palenque, Travesia, Curruste, Ticamaya, Despoloncal in
the lower Ulua river valley, and many others.
Spanish conquest (1524–1539)
Main article: Spanish conquest of Honduras
Hernán Cortés, one of the conquerors of Honduras.
On his fourth and the final voyage to the
New World in 1502,
Christopher Columbus landed near the modern town of Trujillo, near
Guaimoreto Lagoon, becaming the first European to visit the Bay
Islands on the coast of Honduras. On 30 July 1502 Columbus sent
his brother Bartholomew to explore the islands and Bartholomew
encountered a Mayan trading vessel from Yucatán, carrying
well-dressed Maya and a rich cargo. Bartholomew's men stole the
cargo they wanted and kidnapped the ship's elderly captain to serve as
an interpreter in the first recorded encounter between the Spanish
and the Maya.
In March 1524,
Gil González Dávila
Gil González Dávila became the first Spaniard to
Honduras as a conquistador. followed by Hernán Cortés,
who had brought forces down from Mexico. Much of the conquest took
place in the following two decades, first by groups loyal to
Cristóbal de Olid, and then by those loyal to
Francisco Montejo but
most particularly by those following Alvarado[who?]. In addition to
Spanish resources, the conquerors relied heavily on armed forces from
Tlaxcalans and Mexica armies of thousands who remained
garrisoned in the region.
Resistance to conquest was led in particular by Lempira. Many regions
in the north of
Honduras never fell to the Spanish, notably the
Miskito Kingdom. After the Spanish conquest,
Honduras became part of
Spain's vast empire in the
New World within the Kingdom of Guatemala.
Trujillo and Gracias were the first city-capitals. The Spanish ruled
the region for approximately three centuries.
Honduras was organized as a province of the Kingdom of
the capital was fixed, first at Trujillo on the Atlantic coast, and
later at Comayagua, and finally at
Tegucigalpa in the central part of
Silver mining was a key factor in the Spanish conquest and settlement
of Honduras. Initially the mines were worked by local people
through the encomienda system, but as disease and resistance made this
option less available, slaves from other parts of
Central America were
brought in. When local slave trading stopped at the end of the
sixteenth century, African slaves, mostly from Angola, were
imported. After about 1650, very few slaves or other outside
workers arrived in Honduras.
Although the Spanish conquered the southern or Pacific portion of
Honduras fairly quickly, they were less successful on the northern, or
Atlantic side. They managed to found a few towns along the coast, at
Puerto Caballos and Trujillo in particular, but failed to conquer the
eastern portion of the region and many pockets of independent
indigenous people as well. The Miskito Kingdom in the northeast was
particularly effective at resisting conquest. The Miskito Kingdom
found support from northern European privateers, pirates and
especially the British formerly English colony of Jamaica, which
placed much of the area under its protection after 1740.
The Fortaleza de San Fernando de Omoa was built by the Spanish to
protect the coast of
Honduras from English pirates.
Honduras gained independence from
Spain in 1821 and was a part of the
First Mexican Empire
First Mexican Empire until 1823, when it became part of the United
Provinces of Central America. It has been an independent republic and
has held regular elections since 1838. In the 1840s and 1850s Honduras
participated in several failed attempts at Central American unity,
such as the Confederation of
Central America (1842–1845), the
Guatemala (1842), the Diet of Sonsonate (1846), the Diet
of Nacaome (1847) and National Representation in Central America
Honduras eventually adopted the name Republic
of Honduras, the unionist ideal never waned, and
Honduras was one of
the Central American countries that pushed the hardest for a policy of
Neoliberal policies favoring international trade and investment began
in the 1870s, and soon foreign interests became involved, first in
shipping from the north coast, especially tropical fruit and most
notably bananas, and then in building railroads. In 1888, a projected
railroad line from the Caribbean coast to the capital, Tegucigalpa,
ran out of money when it reached San Pedro Sula. As a result, San
Pedro grew into the nation's primary industrial center and
Comayagua was the capital of
Honduras until 1880,
when the capital moved to Tegucigalpa.
Since independence, nearly 300 small internal rebellions and civil
wars have occurred in the country, including some changes of
In the late nineteenth century,
Honduras granted land and substantial
exemptions to several US-based fruit and infrastructure companies in
return for developing the country's northern regions. Thousands of
workers came to the north coast as a result to work in banana
plantations and other businesses that grew up around the export
industry. Banana-exporting companies, dominated until 1930 by the
Cuyamel Fruit Company, as well as the United Fruit Company, and
Standard Fruit Company, built an enclave economy in northern Honduras,
controlling infrastructure and creating self-sufficient, tax-exempt
sectors that contributed relatively little to economic growth.
American troops landed in
Honduras in 1903, 1907, 1911, 1912, 1919,
1924 and 1925.
In 1904 the writer
O. Henry coined the term "banana republic" to
describe Honduras, publishing a book called Cabbages and Kings,
about a fictional country, Anchuria, inspired by his experiences in
Honduras, where he had lived for six months. In The Admiral,
O.Henry refers to the nation as a "small maritime banana republic";
naturally, the fruit was the entire basis of its economy.
According to a literary analyst writing for The Economist, "his phrase
neatly conjures up the image of a tropical, agrarian country. But its
real meaning is sharper: it refers to the fruit companies from the
United States that came to exert extraordinary influence over the
Honduras and its neighbors." In addition to
drawing Central American workers north, the fruit companies encouraged
immigration of workers from the English-speaking Caribbean, notably
Jamaica and Belize, which introduced an African-descended,
English-speaking and largely
Protestant population into the country,
although many of these workers left following changes to immigration
law in 1939.
Honduras joined the Allied Nations after Pearl
Harbor, on 8 December 1941, and signed the Declaration by United
Nations on 1 January 1942 along with twenty-five other governments.
Constitutional crises in the 1940s led to reforms in the 1950s. One
reform gave workers permission to organize, and a 1954 general strike
paralyzed the northern part of the country for more than two months,
but led to reforms. In 1963 a military coup unseated democratically
elected President Ramón Villeda Morales.
In 1960, the northern part of what was the
Mosquito Coast was
Honduras by the International Court of
El Salvador fought what became known as the
Football War. Border tensions led to acrimony between the two
countries after Oswaldo López Arellano, the president of Honduras,
blamed the deteriorating Honduran economy on immigrants from El
Salvador. The relationship reached a low when
El Salvador met Honduras
for a three-round football elimination match preliminary to the World
Tensions escalated and on 14 July 1969, the Salvadoran army launched
an attack on the Honduran army[where?]. The Organization of American
States negotiated a cease-fire which took effect on 20 July and
brought about a withdrawal of Salvadoran troops in early August.
Contributing factors to the conflict were a boundary dispute and the
presence of thousands of Salvadorans living in
After the week-long war as many as 130,000 Salvadoran immigrants were
Hurricane Fifi caused severe damage when it skimmed the northern coast
Honduras on 18 and 19 September 1974. Melgar Castro (1975–78) and
Paz Garcia (1978–82) largely built the current physical
infrastructure and telecommunications system of Honduras.
Part of the massive damage caused by
Hurricane Mitch in Tegucigalpa,
In 1979, the country returned to civilian rule . A constituent
assembly was popularly elected in April 1980 to write a new
constitution, and general elections were held in November 1981. The
constitution was approved in 1982 and the PLH government of Roberto
Suazo won the election with a promise to carry out an ambitious
program of economic and social development to tackle the recession
Honduras was in. He launched ambitious social and economic development
projects sponsored by American development aid.
Honduras became host
to the largest
Peace Corps mission in the world, and nongovernmental
and international voluntary agencies proliferated. The Peace Corps
withdrew its volunteers in 2012, citing safety concerns.
During the early 1980s the United States established a continuing
military presence in
Honduras to support El Salvador, the Contra
guerrillas fighting the Nicaraguan government, and also develop an air
strip and modern port in Honduras. Though spared the bloody civil wars
wracking its neighbors, the Honduran army quietly waged campaigns
Marxist-Leninist militias such as the Cinchoneros Popular
Liberation Movement, notorious for kidnappings and bombings, and
against many non-militants as well. The operation included a
CIA-backed campaign of extrajudicial killings by government-backed
units, most notably Battalion 316.
Hurricane Mitch caused massive and widespread destruction.
Carlos Roberto Flores
Carlos Roberto Flores said that fifty years of
progress in the country had been reversed. Mitch destroyed about 70%
of the country's crops and an estimated 70–80% of the transportation
infrastructure, including nearly all bridges and secondary roads.
Honduras 33,000 houses were destroyed, and an additional 50,000
damaged. Some 5,000 people killed, and 12,000 more injured. Total
losses were estimated at $3 billion USD.
The 2008 Honduran floods were severe and damaged or destroyed around
half of the roads as a result.
In 2009, a constitutional crisis resulted when power transferred in a
coup from the president to the head of Congress. The Organization of
American States (OAS) suspended
Honduras because it did not feel its
government was legitimate.
Countries around the world, the OAS, and the United Nations
formally and unanimously condemned the action as a coup d'état,
refusing to recognize the de facto government, even though the lawyers
consulted by the
Library of Congress
Library of Congress submitted to the United States
Congress an opinion that declared the coup legal. The
Honduran Supreme Court
Honduran Supreme Court also ruled that the proceedings had been legal.
The government that followed the de facto government established a
truth and reconciliation commission, Comisión de la Verdad y
Reconciliación, which after more than a year of research and debate
concluded that the ousting had been a coup d'état, and illegal in the
Main article: Geography of Honduras
A map of Honduras.
The north coast of
Honduras borders the
Caribbean Sea and the Pacific
Ocean lies south through the Gulf of Fonseca.
Honduras consists mainly
of mountains, with narrow plains along the coasts. A large undeveloped
La Mosquitia lies in the northeast, and the heavily
populated lowland Sula valley in the northwest. In
La Mosquitia lies
UNESCO world-heritage site Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve, with
Coco River which divides
Honduras from Nicaragua.
Islas de la Bahía
Islas de la Bahía and the Swan Islands are off the north coast.
Misteriosa Bank and Rosario Bank, 130 to 130 to 150 kilometres (81 to
93 miles) north of the Swan Islands, fall within the Exclusive
Economic Zone (EEZ) of Honduras.
Natural resources include timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc,
iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, shrimp, and hydropower.
Köppen climate types of Honduras
The climate varies from tropical in the lowlands to temperate in the
mountains. The central and southern regions are relatively hotter and
less humid than the northern coast.
List of birds of Honduras
List of birds of Honduras and Baja Aguán
The region is considered a biodiversity hotspot because of the many
plant and animal species found there. Like other countries in the
region, it contains vast biological resources.
Honduras hosts more
than 6,000 species of vascular plants, of which 630 (described so far)
are orchids; around 250 reptiles and amphibians, more than 700 bird
species, and 110 mammalian species, of which half are bats.
In the northeastern region of
La Mosquitia lies the Río Plátano
Biosphere Reserve, a lowland rainforest which is home to a great
diversity of life. The reserve was added to the
UNESCO World Heritage
Sites List in 1982.
Honduras has rain forests, cloud forests (which can rise up to nearly
three thousand metres or 9,800 feet above sea level), mangroves,
savannas and mountain ranges with pine and oak trees, and the
Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System. In the Bay Islands there are
bottlenose dolphins, manta rays, parrot fish, schools of blue tang and
Deforestation resulting from logging is rampant in
The clearing of land for agriculture is prevalent in the largely
La Mosquitia region, causing land degradation and soil
Lake Yojoa, which is Honduras' largest source of fresh water, is
polluted by heavy metals produced from mining activities. Some
rivers and streams are also polluted by mining.
Government and politics
Main article: Politics of Honduras
Honduras is governed within a framework of a presidential
representative democratic republic. The
President of Honduras
President of Honduras is both
head of state and head of government.
Executive power is exercised by
the Honduran government.
Legislative power is vested in the National
Congress of Honduras. The judiciary is independent of both the
executive branch and the legislature.
National Congress of Honduras
National Congress of Honduras (Congreso Nacional) has 128 members
(diputados), elected for a four-year term by proportional
representation. Congressional seats are assigned the parties'
candidates on a departmental basis in proportion to the number of
votes each party receives.
Incumbent President Juan Orlando Hernández
In 1963, a military coup removed the democratically elected president,
Ramón Villeda Morales. A string of authoritarian military governments
held power uninterrupted until 1981, when
Roberto Suazo Córdova
Roberto Suazo Córdova was
The party system was dominated by the conservative National Party of
Honduras (Partido Nacional de Honduras: PNH) and the liberal Liberal
Honduras (Partido Liberal de Honduras: PLH) until the 2009
Honduran coup d'état removed
Manuel Zelaya from office and put
Roberto Micheletti in his place.
Current Honduran president
Juan Orlando Hernández
Juan Orlando Hernández took office on 27
January 2014. After managing to stand for a second term, a very
close election in 2017 left uncertainty as to whether Hernandez or his
main challenger, television personality Salvador Nasralla, had
Two Honduran names that surfaced in the
Panama Papers disclosures
belong to highly successful businessmen from some of Honduras' most
prominent families. Jaime Rosenthal and Gilberto Goldstein are among
the elite of Honduras, both successful businessmen and politicians.
Rosenthal was a vice-president in the 1980s administration of José
Azcona del Hoyo. His son César Rosenthal was, according to the Panama
Papers, the sole stockholder of Renton Management S.A., a Panamanian
entity created to purchase airplanes.
Further information: Foreign relations of Honduras
Nicaragua had tense relations throughout 2000 and early
2001 due to a boundary dispute off the Atlantic coast. Nicaragua
imposed a 35% tariff against Honduran goods due to the
In June 2009 a coup d'état ousted President Manuel Zelaya; he was
taken in a military aircraft to neighboring Costa Rica. The General
Assembly of the
United Nations voted to denounce the coup and called
for the restoration of Zelaya. Several Latin American nations
Mexico temporarily severed diplomatic relations with
Honduras. In July 2010, full diplomatic relations were once again
re-established with Mexico.
The United States
The United States sent out mixed
messages after the coup; Obama called the ouster a coup and expressed
support for Zelaya's return to power. US Secretary of State Hillary
Clinton, advised by John Negroponte, the former Reagan-era to
Honduras implicated in the
Iran-Contra affair, refrained
from expressing support. She has since explained that the US would
have had to cut aid if it called Zelaya's ouster a military coup,
although the US has a record of ignoring these events when it
chooses. Zelaya had expressed an interest in Hugo Chávez'
Bolivarian Alliance for Peoples of our America (ALBA), and had
actually joined in 2008. After the 2009 coup,
Honduras withdrew its
This interest in regional agreements may have increased the alarm of
establishment politicians. When Zelaya began calling for a "fourth
ballot box" to determine whether Hondurans wished to convoke a special
constitutional congress, this sounded a lot to some like the
constitutional amendments that had extended the terms of both Hugo
Chavez and Evo Morales. "Chavez has served as a role model for
like-minded leaders intent on cementing their power. These presidents
are barely in office when they typically convene a constitutional
convention to guarantee their reelection," said a 2009 Spiegel
International analysis, which noted that one reason to join ALBA
was discounted Venezuelan oil. In addition to Chavez and Morales,
Carlos Menem of Argentina,
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Fernando Henrique Cardoso of Brazil and
Álvaro Uribe had all taken this step, and
Washington and the EU were both accusing the
Sandanista government in
Nicaragua of tampering with election results. Politicians of all
stripes expressed opposition to Zelaya's referendum proposal, and the
Attorney-General accused him of violating the constitution. The
Honduran Supreme Court
Honduran Supreme Court agreed, saying that the constitution had put
the Supreme Electoral Tribunal in charge of elections and referenda,
not the National Statistics Institute, which Zelaya had proposed to
have run the count. Whether or not Zelaya's removal from power had
constitutional elements, the Honduran constitution explicitly protects
all Hondurans from forced expulsion for Honduras.
The United States
The United States maintains a small military presence at one Honduran
base. The two countries conduct joint peacekeeping, counter-narcotics,
humanitarian, disaster relief, humanitarian, medical and civic action
exercises. U.S. troops conduct and provide logistics support for a
variety of bilateral and multilateral exercises.
The United States
The United States is
Honduras' chief trading partner.
Further information: Military of Honduras
Honduras has a military with the Honduran Army, Honduran Navy and
Honduran Air Force.
Departments of Honduras
Departments of Honduras and Municipalities of
The departmental divisions of Honduras.
Honduras is divided into 18 departments. The capital city is
Tegucigalpa in the Central District within the department of Francisco
Gracias a Dios
Islas de la Bahía
A new administrative division called ZEDE (Zonas de empleo y
desarrollo económico) was created in 2013. ZEDEs have a high level of
autonomy with their own political system at a judicial, economic and
administrative level, and are based on free market capitalism.
See also: Economy of Honduras
Rural Honduran Children
A proportional representation of Honduran exports
Downtown San Pedro Sula
World Bank categorizes
Honduras as a low middle-income nation.
The nation’s per capita income sits at around 600 US dollars making
it one of the lowest in North America.
In 2010, 50% of the population were still living below the poverty
line. By 2016 more than 66% was living below the poverty line.
Estimates put unemployment at about 27.9%, which is more than 1.2
Economic growth in the last few years has averaged 7% a year, one of
the highest rates in
Latin America (2010). Despite this, Honduras
has seen the least development amongst all Central American
Honduras is ranked 130 of 188 countries with a Human
Development Index of .625 that classifies the nation as having medium
development (2015). The three factors that go into Honduras' HDI
(an extended and healthy life, accessibility of knowledge and standard
of living) have all improved since 1990 but still remain relatively
low with life expectancy at birth being 73.3, expected years of
schooling being 11.2 (mean of 6.2 years) and GNI per capita being
$4,466 (2015). The HDI for
Latin America and the Caribbean overall
is 0.751 with life expectancy at birth being 68.6, expected years of
schooling being 11.5 (mean of 6.6) and GNI per capita being $6,281
2009 Honduran coup d'état
2009 Honduran coup d'état led to a variety of economic trends in
the nation. Overall growth has slowed, averaging 5.7 percent from
2006–2008 but slowing to 3.5 percent annually between 2010 and
2013. Following the coup trends of decreasing poverty and extreme
poverty were reversed. The nation saw a poverty increase of 13.2
percent and in extreme poverty of 26.3 percent in just 3 years.
Furthermore, unemployment grew between 2008 and 2012 from 6.8 percent
to 14.1 percent.
Because much of the Honduran economy is based on small scale
agriculture of only a few exports, natural disasters have a
particularly devastating impact. Natural disasters such as 1998
Hurricane Mitch have contributed to this inequality as they
particularly affecting poor rural areas. Additionally, they are a
large contributor to food insecurity in the country as farmers are
left unable to provide for their families. A study done by
Honduras NGO, World Neighbors, determined the tems "increased
workload, decreased basic grains, expensive food, and fear" were most
associated with Hurricane Mitch.
The rural and urban poor were hit hardest by Hurricane Mitch.
Those in Southern and Western regions specifically were considered
most vulnerable as they both subject environmental destruction and
home to many sustenance farmers. Due to disasters such as
Hurricane Mitch, the agricultural economic sector has declined a third
in the past twenty years. This is mostly due to a decline in
exports such as banana and coffee that were affected by factors such
as natural disasters. Indigenous communities along the Patuca
River were hit extremely hard as well. The mid-Pataca region was
almost completely destroyed. Over 80% of rice harvest and all of
banana, plantain, and manioc harvests were lost. Relief and
reconstruction efforts following the storm were partial and incomplete
reinforcing existing levels of poverty rather than reversing it,
especially for indigenous communities. The period between the end
food donations and the following harvest led to extreme hunger causing
deaths amongst the Tawahka population. Those that were considered
the most “land-rich” lost 36% of their total land on average.
Those that were the most “land-poor,” lost less total land but a
greater share of their overall total. This meant that those hit
hardest were single women as their constitute the majority of this
Poverty reduction strategies
Since the 1970s when
Honduras was designated a “food priority
country” by the UN, organizations such as The World Food Program
(WFP) have worked to decrease malnutrition and food insecurity. A
large majority of Honduran famers live in extreme poverty, or below
180 US dollars per capita. Currently one fourth of children are
affected by chronic malnutrition. WFP is currently working with
the Honduran government on a School Feeding Program which provides
meals for 21,000 Honduran schools, reaching 1.4 million school
children. WFP also participates in disaster relief through
reparations and emergency response in order to aid in quick recovery
that tackles the effects of natural disasters on agricultural
Honduras’ Poverty Reduction Strategy was implemented in 1999 and
aimed to cut extreme poverty in half by 2015. While spending on
poverty-reduction aid increased there was only a 2.5% increase in GDP
between 1999 and 2002. This improvement left
Honduras still below
that of countries that lacked aid through Poverty Reduction Strategy
behind those without it. The
World Bank believes that this
inefficiency stems from a lack of focus on infrastructure and rural
Extreme poverty saw a low of 36.2 percent only two
years after the implementation of the strategy but then increased to
66.5 percent by 2012.
Poverty Reduction Strategies were also intended to affect social
policy through increased investment in education and health
sectors. This was expected to lift poor communities out of poverty
while also increasing the work force as a means of stimulating the
Honduran economy. Conditional cash transfers were used to do this
by the Family Assistance Program. This program was restructured in
1998 in an attempt to increase effectiveness of cash transfers for
health and education specifically for those in extreme poverty.
Overall spending within Poverty Reduction Strategies have been focused
on education and health sectors increasing social spending from 44% of
Honduras' GDP in 2000 to 51% in 2004.
Critics of aid from International Finance Institutions believe that
the World Bank's Poverty Reduction Strategy result in little
substantive change to Honduran policy. Poverty Reduction
Strategies also excluded clear priorities, specific intervention
strategy, strong commitment to the strategy and more effective
macro-level economic reforms according to Jose Cuesta of Cambridge
University. Due to this he believes that the strategy did not
provide a pathway for economic development that could lift Honduras
out of poverty resulting in neither lasting economic growth of poverty
Prior to its 2009 coup
Honduras widely expanded social spending and an
extreme increase in minimum wage. Efforts to decrease inequality
were swiftly reversed following the coup. When Zelaya was removed
from office social spending as a percent of GDP decreased from 13.3
percent in 2009 to 10.9 recent in 2012. This decrease in social
spending exacerbated the effects of the recession, which the nation
was previously relatively well equipped to deal with.
World Bank Group Executive Board approved a plan known as the new
Country Partnership Framework (CPF). This plan’s objectives are
to expand social program coverage, strengthen infrastructure, increase
financing accessibility, strengthen regulatory framework and
institutional capacity, improve the productivity of rural areas,
strengthen natural disaster and climate change resiliency, and the
buildup local governments so that violence and crime rates will
decrease. The overall aim of the initiative is to decrease
inequality and vulnerability of certain populations while increasing
economic growth. Additionally the signing of the U.S.-Central
America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) was meant to diversify the
economy in order to promote growth and expand the range of exports the
country is reliant on.
Levels of income inequality in
Honduras are higher than in any other
Latin American country. Unlike other Latin American countries,
inequality steadily increased in
Honduras between 1991 and 2005.
Between 2006 and 2010 inequality saw a decrease but increased again in
Human Development Index
Human Development Index is adjusted for inequality
(known as the IHDI) Honduras' development index is reduced to
.443. The levels of inequality in each aspect of development can
also be assessed. In 2015 inequality of life expectancy at birth
was 19.6%, inequality in education was 24.4% and inequality in income
was 41.5%  The overall loss in human development due to inequality
The IHDI for
Latin America and the Caribbean overall is 0.575 with an
overall loss of 23.4%. In 2015 for the entire region, inequality
of life expectancy at birth was 22.9%, inequality in education was
14.0% and inequality in income was 34.9%. While
Honduras has a
higher life expectancy than other countries in the region (before and
after inequality adjustments), its quality of education and economic
standard of living are lower. Income inequality and education
inequality have a large impact on the overall development of the
Inequality also exists between rural and urban areas as it relates to
the distribution of resources. Poverty is concentrated in
southern, eastern, and western regions where rural and indigenous
peoples live. North and central
Honduras are home to the country's
industries and infrastructure, resulting in low levels of poverty.
Poverty is concentrated in rural Honduras, a pattern that is reflected
throughout Latin America. The effects of poverty on rural
communities are vast. Poor communities typically live in adobe homes,
lack material resources, have limited access to medical resources, and
live off of basics such as rice, maize and beans.
The lower class predominantly consists of rural subsistence farmers
and landless peasants. Since 1965 there has been an increase in
the number of landless peasants in
Honduras which has led to a growing
class of urban poor individuals. These individuals often migrate
to urban centers in search of work in the service sector,
manufacturing, or construction. Demographers believe that without
social and economic reform, rural to urban migration will increase,
resulting in the expansion of urban centers. Within the lower
class, underemployment is a major issue. Individuals that are
underemployed often only work as part-time laborers on seasonal farms
meaning their annual income remains low. In the 1980s peasant
organizations and labor unions such as the National Federation of
Honduran Peasants, The National Association of Honduran Peasants and
the National Union of Peasants formed.
It is not uncommon for rural individuals to voluntarily enlist in the
military, however this often does not offer stable or promising career
opportunities. The majority of high-ranking officials in the
Honduran army are recruited from elite military academies.
Additionally, the majority of enlistment in the military is
forced. Forced recruitment largely relies on an alliance between
the Honduran government, military and upper class Honduran
society. In urban areas males are often sought out from secondary
schools while in rural areas roadblocks aided the military in
handpicking recruits. Higher socio-economic status enables
individuals to more easily evade the draft.
Honduras is a small group defines by relatively low
membership and income levels. Movement from lower to middle class
is typically facilitated by higher education. Professionals,
students, farmers, merchants, business employees, and civil servants
are all considered a part of the Honduran middle class.
Opportunities for employment and the industrial and commercial sectors
are slow growing, limiting middle class membership.
The Honduran upper class has much higher income levels than the rest
of the Honduran population reflecting large amounts of income
inequality. Much of the upper class affords their success to the
growth of cotton and livestock exports post-World War II. The
wealthy are not politically unified and differ in political and
The currency is the Honduran lempira.
The government operates both the electrical grid, Empresa Nacional de
Energía Eléctrica (ENEE) and the land-line telephone service,
ENEE receives heavy subsidies to counter its chronic
financial problems, but
Hondutel is no longer a monopoly. The
telecommunication sector was opened to private investment on 25
December 2005, as required under CAFTA. The price of petroleum is
regulated, and the Congress often ratifies temporary price regulation
for basic commodities.
Gold, silver, lead and zinc are mined.
Honduras signed CAFTA, a free trade agreement with the United
States. In December 2005, Puerto Cortes, the primary seaport of
Honduras, was included in the U.S. Container Security Initiative.
In 2006 the
U.S. Department of Homeland Security
U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the Department of
Energy announced the first phase of the Secure Freight Initiative
(SFI), which built upon existing port security measures. SFI gave the
U.S. government enhanced authority, allowing it to scan containers
from overseas[clarification needed] for nuclear and radiological
materials in order to improve the risk assessment of individual
US-bound containers. The initial phase of Secure Freight involved
deploying of nuclear detection and other devices to six foreign ports:
Port Qasim in Pakistan;
Puerto Cortes in Honduras;
Southampton in the United Kingdom;
Port of Salalah
Port of Salalah in Oman;
Port of Singapore;
Gamman Terminal at Port Busan, Korea.
Containers in these ports have been scanned since 2007 for radiation
and other risk factors before they are allowed to depart for the
For economic development a 2012 memorandum of understanding with a
group of international investors obtained Honduran government approval
to build a zone (city) with its own laws, tax system, judiciary and
police, but opponents brought a suit against it in the Supreme Court,
calling it a "state within a state". In 2013, Honduras' Congress
ratified Decree 120, which led to the establishment of ZEDEs. The
government began construction of the first zones in June 2015.
Further information: Electricity sector in Honduras
About half of the electricity sector in
Honduras is privately owned.
The remaining generation capacity is run by
ENEE (Empresa Nacional de
Energía Eléctrica). Key challenges in the sector are:
Financing investments in generation and transmission without either a
financially healthy utility or concessionary funds from external
Re-balancing tariffs, cutting arrears and reducing losses, including
electricity theft, without social unrest
Reconciling environmental concerns with government objectives – two
large new dams and associated hydropower plants.
Improving access to electricity in rural areas.
A highway in Honduras
Infrastructure for transportation in
Honduras consists of: 699
kilometres (434 miles) of railways; 13,603 kilometres (8,453 miles) of
roadways; seven ports and harbors; and 112
airports altogether (12 Paved, 100 unpaved). The Ministry of Public
Works, Transport and Housing (SOPRTRAVI in Spanish acronym) is
responsible for transport sector policy.
Water supply and sanitation
Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Honduras
Water supply and sanitation in Honduras
Water supply and sanitation in Honduras differ greatly from urban
centers to rural villages. Larger population centers generally have
modernized water treatment and distribution systems, but water quality
is often poor because of lack of proper maintenance and treatment.
Rural areas generally have basic drinking water systems with limited
capacity for water treatment. Many urban areas have sewer systems in
place to collect wastewater, but proper treatment of wastewater is
rare. In rural areas sanitary facilities are generally limited to
latrines and basic septic pits.
Water and sanitation services were historically provided by the
Servicio Autónomo de Alcantarillas y Aqueductos (es) (SANAA). In
2003, the government enacted a new "water law" which called for the
decentralization of water services. Under the 2003 law, local
communities have both the right and the responsibility to own,
operate, and control their own drinking water and wastewater systems.
Since this law passed, many communities have joined together to
address water and sanitation issues on a regional basis.
Many national and international non-government organizations have a
history of working on water and sanitation projects in Honduras.
International groups include the Red Cross, Water 1st, Rotary Club,
Catholic Relief Services, Water for People, EcoLogic Development Fund,
Canadian Executive Service Organization (CESO-SACO),
Engineers Without Borders – USA, Flood The Nations, Students Helping
Honduras (SHH), Global Brigades, and Agua para el Pueblo in
AguaClara at Cornell University.
In addition, many government organizations work on projects in
Honduras, including the European Union, the USAID, the Army Corps of
Engineers, Cooperacion Andalucia, the government of Japan, and others.
Main article: Demographics of Honduras
Honduras had a population of 9,112,867 in 2016. The proportion of
the population below the age of 15 in 2010 was 36.8%, 58.9% were
between 15 and 65 years old, and 4.3% were 65 years old or older.
Since 1975, emigration from
Honduras has accelerated as economic
migrants and political refugees sought a better life elsewhere. A
majority of expatriate Hondurans live in the United States. A 2012 US
State Department estimate suggested that between 800,000 and one
million Hondurans lived in the United States at that time, nearly 15%
of the Honduran population. The large uncertainty about numbers is
because numerous Hondurans live in the United States without a visa.
In the 2010 census in the United States, 617,392 residents identified
as Hondurans, up from 217,569 in 2000.
Race and Ethnicity
The ethnic breakdown of Honduran society was 90% Mestizo, 7% American
Indian, 2% Black and 1% White (2017). The 1927 Honduran census
provides no racial data but in 1930 five classifications were created:
white, Indian, Negro, yellow, and mestizo. This system was used in
the 1935 and 1940 census.
Mestizo was used to describe individuals
that did not fit neatly into the categories of white, Indian, negro or
yellow or who are of mixed white-Indian descent.
John Gillin considers
Honduras to be one of thirteen "Mestizo
countries" (Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama,
Colombia, Venezuela, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay). He
claims that in much as Spanish America little attention is paid to
race and race mixture resulting in social status having little
reliance on one's physical features. However, in "Mestizo
countries" such as Honduras, this is not the case. Social
Spain was able to develop in these countries
During colonization the majority of Honduras' indigenous population
was killed or died of disease resulting in a more homogenous
indigenous population compared to other colonies. Nine indigenous
and African American groups are recognized by the government in
Honduras. The majority of Amerindians in
Honduras are Lenca,
followed by the Miskito, Cho’rti’, Tolupan, Pech and Sumo.
Lenca individuals live in the west and western interior
Honduras while the other small native groups are located throughout
The majority of blacks in Honduran are culturally ladino, meaning they
are culturally Hispanic. Non-ladino groups in
Honduras include the
Black Carib, Miskito, Arab immigrants and the black population of the
Islas de la Bahía The
Black Carib population descended from freed
slaves from Saint Vincent. The Miskito population (about 10,000
individuals) are the descendants of African and British immigrants and
are extremely racially diverse. While the
Black Carib and Miskito
populations have similar origins, Black Caribs are considered black
while Miskitos are considered indigenous. This is largely a
reflection of cultural differences, as Black Caribs have retained much
of their original African culture. The majority of Arab Hondurans
are of Palestinian and Lebanese descent. They are known as
Honduras because of migration during the rule of the
Ottoman Empire. They have maintained cultural distinctiveness and
See also: Gender inequality in Honduras
The male to female ratio of the Honduran population is 1.01. This
ratio stands at 1.05 at birth, 1.04 from 15–24 years old, 1.02 from
25–54 years old, .88 from 55–64 years old, and .77 for those 65
years or older.
Gender Development Index (GDI) was .942 in 2015 with an HDI of
.600 for females and .637 for males. Life expectancy at birth for
males is 70.9 and 75.9 for females. Expected years of schooling in
Honduras is 10.9 years for males (mean of 6.1) and 11.6 for females
(mean of 6.2). These measures do not reveal a large disparity
between male and female development levels, however, GNI per capita is
vastly different by gender. Males have a GNI per capita of $6,254
while that of females is only $2,680. Honduras' overall GDI is
higher than that of other medium HDI nations (.871) but lower than the
overall HDI for
Latin America and the Caribbean (.981).
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) ranks
Honduras 116th for
measures including women’s political power, and female access to
Gender Inequality Index
Gender Inequality Index (GII) depicts gender-based
Honduras according to reproductive health,
empowerment, and economic activity.
Honduras has a GII of .461 and
ranked 101 of 159 countries in 2015. 25.8% of Honduras' parliament
is female and 33.4% of adult females have a secondary education of
higher while only 31.1% of adult males do. Despite this, while
male participation in the labor market is 84.4, female participation
is 47.2%. Honduras' maternal mortality ratio is 129 and the
adolescent birth rate is 65.0 for women ages 15–19.
Familialism and machismo carry a lot of weight within Honduran
Familialism refers to the idea of individual interests
being second to that of the family, most often in relation to dating
and marriage, abstinence, and parental approval and supervision of
dating. Aggression and proof of masculinity through physical
dominance are characteristic of machismo.
Honduras has historically functioned with a patriarchal system like
many other Latin American countries. Honduran men claim
responsibility for family decisions including reproductive health
Honduras has seen an increase in challenges to
this notion as feminist movements and access to global media
increases. There has been an increase in educational attainment,
labor force participating, urban migration, late-age marriage, and
contraceptive use amongst Honduran women.
Between 1971 and 2001 Honduran total fertility rate decreased from 7.4
births to 4.4 births. This is largely attributable to an increase
in educational attainment and workforce participation by women, as
well as more widespread use of contraceptives. In 1996 50% of
women were using at least one type of contraceptive. By 2001 62%
were largely due to female sterilization, birth control in the form of
a pill, injectable birth control, and IUDs. A study done in 2001
of Honduran men and women reflect conceptualization of reproductive
health and decision making in Honduras. 28% of men and 25% of
women surveyed believed men were responsible for decisions regarding
family size and family planning uses. 21% of men believed men were
responsible for both.
Sexual violence against women has proven to be a large issue in
Honduras that has caused many to migrate to the U.S. The
prevalence of child sexual abuse was 7.8% in
Honduras with the
majority of reports being from children under the age of 11. Women
that experienced sexual abuse as children were found to be twice as
likely to be in violent relationships. Femicide is widespread in
Honduras. In 2014, 40% of unaccompanied refugee minors were
female. Gangs are largely responsible for sexual violence against
women as they often use sexual violence. Between 2005 and 2013
according to the UN
Special Repporteur on Violence Against Women,
violent deaths increased 263.4 percent. Impunity for sexual
violence and femicide crimes was 95 percent in 2014. Additionally,
many girls are forced into human trafficking and prostitution.
Between 1995 and 1997
Honduras recognized domestic violence as both a
public health issue and a punishable offense due to efforts by the Pan
American Health Organization (PAHO). PAHO’s subcommittee on
Women, Health and Development was used as a guide to develop programs
that aid in domestic violence prevention and victim assistance
programs  However, a study done in 2009 showed that while the
policy requires health care providers to report cases of sexual
violence, emergency contraception, and victim referral to legal
institutions and support groups, very few other regulations exist
within the realm of registry, examination and follow-up. Unlike
other Central American countries such as El Salvador,
Honduras does not have detailed guidelines requiring
service providers to be extensively trained and respect the rights of
sexual violence victims. Since the study was done the UNFPA and
the Health Secretariat of
Honduras have worked to develop and
implement improved guidelines for handling cases of sexual
An educational program in
Honduras known as Sistema de Aprendizaje
Tutorial (SAT) has attempted to "undo gender" through focusing on
gender equality in everyday interactions. Honduras' SAT program is
one of the largest in the world, second only to Colombia's with 6,000
students. It is currently sponsored by Asociacion Bayan, a
Honduran NGO, and the Honduran Ministry of Education. It functions
by integrating gender into curriculum topics, linking gender to the
ideas of justice and equality, encouraging reflection, dialogue and
debate and emphasizing the need for individual and social change.
This program was found to increase gender consciousness and a desire
for gender equality amongst Honduran women through encouraging
discourse surrounding existing gender inequality in the Honduran
In addition to Spanish a number of indigenous languages are spoken in
Honduras, as well as Honduran sign language and Bay Islands Creole
The main indigenous languages are:
Garifuna (Arawakan) (almost 100,000 speakers in
Mískito (Misumalpan) (29,000 speakers in Honduras)
Mayangna (Misumalpan) (less than 1000 speakers in Honduras, more in
Pech/Paya, (Chibchan) (less than 1000 speakers)
Tol (isolate) (less than 500 speakers)
Ch’orti’ (Mayan) (less than 50 speakers)
Lenca isolate lost all its fluent native speakers in the 20th
century but is currently undergoing revival efforts among the members
of the ethnic population of about 100,000. The largest immigrant
languages are Arabic (42,000), Armenian (1,300), Turkish (900), Yue
Further information: List of cities in Honduras
Largest cities or towns in Honduras
San Pedro Sula
San Pedro Sula
Main article: Religion in Honduras
Óscar Andrés Rodríguez
Óscar Andrés Rodríguez is
Tegucigalpa and a
figure of national and international note
Although most Hondurans are nominally
Roman Catholic (which would be
considered the main religion), membership in the
Roman Catholic Church
is declining while membership in
Protestant churches is increasing.
The International Religious Freedom Report, 2008, notes that a CID
Gallup poll reported that 51.4% of the population identified
themselves as Catholic, 36.2% as evangelical Protestant, 1.3% claiming
to be from other religions, including Muslims, Buddhists, Jews,
Rastafarians, etc. and 11.1% do not belong to any religion or
Catholic church tallies and membership
Catholic where the priest (in more than 185 parishes) is
required to fill out a pastoral account of the parish each
The CIA Factbook lists
Honduras as 97%
Catholic and 3% Protestant.
Commenting on statistical variations everywhere, John Green of Pew
Forum on Religion and Public Life notes that: "It isn't that ...
numbers are more right than [someone else's] numbers ... but how one
conceptualizes the group." Often people attend one church without
giving up their "home" church. Many who attend evangelical
megachurches in the US, for example, attend more than one church.
This shifting and fluidity is common in Brazil where two-fifths of
those who were raised evangelical are no longer evangelical and
Catholics seem to shift in and out of various churches, often while
still remaining Catholic.
Most pollsters suggest an annual poll taken over a number of years
would provide the best method of knowing religious demographics and
variations in any single country. Still, in
Honduras are thriving
Anglican, Presbyterian, Methodist, Seventh-day Adventist, Lutheran,
Latter-day Saint (Mormon) and
Pentecostal churches. There are
Protestant seminaries. The
Catholic Church, still the only "church"
that is recognized, is also thriving in the number of schools,
hospitals, and pastoral institutions (including its own medical
school) that it operates. Its archbishop, Oscar Andres Rodriguez
Maradiaga, is also very popular, both with the government, other
churches, and in his own church. Practitioners of the Buddhist,
Jewish, Islamic, Bahá'í, Rastafari and indigenous denominations and
The fertility rate is approximately 3.7 per woman. The under-five
mortality rate is at 40 per 1,000 live births. The health
expenditure was US$ (PPP) 197 per person in 2004. There are about
57 physicians per 100,000 people.
Main article: Education in Honduras
About 83.6% of the population are literate and the net primary
enrollment rate was 94% in 2004. In 2014, the primary school
completion rate was 90.7%.
Honduras has bilingual (Spanish and
English) and even trilingual (Spanish with English, Arabic, and/or
German) schools and numerous universities.
The higher education is governed by the National Autonomous University
Honduras which has centers in the most important cities of
Main article: Crime in Honduras
Owing to insufficient law enforcement resources, crime in
rampant and criminals operate with a high degree of impunity.
Honduras has one of the highest murder rates in the
world. Official statistics from the Honduran Observatory on National
Violence show Honduras’ homicide rate was 60 per 100,000 in 2015
with the majority of homicide cases unprosecuted.
Highway assaults and carjackings at roadblocks or checkpoints set up
by criminals with police uniforms and equipment occur frequently.
Although reports of kidnappings of foreigners are not common, families
of kidnapping victims often pay ransoms without reporting the crime to
police out of fear of retribution, so kidnapping figures may be
Owing to measures taken by government and business in 2014 to improve
tourist safety, Roatan and the Bay Islands have lower crime rates than
the Honduran mainland.
In the less populated region of Gracias a Dios, narcotics-trafficking
is rampant and police presence is scarce. Threats against U.S.
citizens by drug traffickers and other criminal organizations have
resulted in the U.S. Embassy placing restrictions on the travel of
U.S. officials through the region.
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Main article: Culture of Honduras
Main article: Art of Honduras
The Cathedral of Comayagua
The most renowned Honduran painter is José Antonio
Velásquez (es). Other important painters include Carlos Garay,
and Roque Zelaya. Some of Honduras' most notable writers are Lucila
Gamero de Medina, Froylán Turcios,
Ramón Amaya Amador and Juan Pablo
Suazo Euceda, Marco Antonio Rosa, Roberto Sosa, Eduardo Bähr,
Amanda Castro, Javier Abril Espinoza, Teófilo Trejo, and Roberto
The José Francisco Saybe theater in
San Pedro Sula
San Pedro Sula is home to the
Círculo Teatral Sampedrano (Theatrical Circle of San Pedro Sula)
Further information: Honduran cuisine
"Olla" Soup, made with beef broth, squash, yucca and common Central
Honduran cuisine is a fusion of indigenous
Lenca cuisine, Spanish
Caribbean cuisine and African cuisine. There are also dishes
from the Garifuna people.
Coconut and coconut milk are featured in
both sweet and savory dishes. Regional specialties include fried fish,
tamales, carne asada and baleadas.
Other popular dishes include: meat roasted with chismol and carne
asada, chicken with rice and corn, and fried fish with pickled onions
and jalapeños. Some of the ways seafood and some meats are prepared
in coastal areas and in the Bay Islands involve coconut milk.
The soups Hondurans enjoy include bean soup, mondongo soup tripe soup,
seafood soups and beef soups. Generally these soups are served mixed
with plantains, yuca, and cabbage, and served with corn tortillas.
Other typical dishes are the montucas or corn tamales, stuffed
tortillas, and tamales wrapped in plantain leaves. Honduran typical
dishes also include an abundant selection of tropical fruits such as
papaya, pineapple, plum, sapote, passion fruit and bananas which are
prepared in many ways while they are still green.
Further information: Media of Honduras
At least half of Honduran households have at least one television.
Public television has a far smaller role than in most other countries.
Honduras' main newspapers are La Prensa, El Heraldo,
La Tribuna and
Diario Tiempo. The official newspaper is La Gaceta
Further information: Music of Honduras
Punta is the main music of Honduras, with other sounds such as
Caribbean salsa, merengue, reggae, and reggaeton all widely heard,
especially in the north, and Mexican rancheras heard in the rural
interior of the country.
Further information: Public holidays in Honduras
Sawdust carpets of
Some of Honduras' national holidays include
on 15 September and Children's Day or Día del Niño, which is
celebrated in homes, schools and churches on 10 September; on this
day, children receive presents and have parties similar to Christmas
or birthday celebrations. Some neighborhoods have piñatas on the
street. Other holidays are Easter, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, Day
of the Soldier (3 October to celebrate the birth of Francisco
Morazán), Christmas, El Dia de Lempira on 20 July, and New
Independence Day festivities start early in the morning with
marching bands. Each band wears different colors and features
cheerleaders. Fiesta Catracha takes place this same day: typical
Honduran foods such as beans, tamales, baleadas, cassava with
chicharron, and tortillas are offered.
On Christmas Eve people reunite with their families and close friends
to have dinner, then give out presents at midnight. In some cities
fireworks are seen and heard at midnight. On New Year's Eve there is
food and "cohetes", fireworks and festivities. Birthdays are also
great events, and include piñatas filled with candies and surprises
for the children.
La Ceiba Carnival is celebrated in La Ceiba, a city located in the
north coast, in the second half of May to celebrate the day of the
city's patron saint Saint Isidore. People from all over the world come
for one week of festivities. Every night there is a little carnaval
(carnavalito) in a neighborhood. On Saturday there is a big parade
with floats and displays with people from many countries. This
celebration is also accompanied by the Milk Fair, where many Hondurans
come to show off their farm products and animals.
The national bird, Ara macao
The flag of
Honduras is composed of three equal horizontal stripes.
The blue upper and lower stripes represent the Pacific Ocean and the
Caribbean Sea. The central stripe is white. It contains five blue
stars representing the five states of the Central American Union. The
middle star represents Honduras, located in the center of the Central
The coat of arms was established in 1945. It is an equilateral
triangle, at the base is a volcano between three castles, over which
is a rainbow and the sun shining. The triangle is placed on an area
that symbolizes being bathed by both seas. Around all of this an oval
containing in golden lettering: "
Republic of Honduras, Free, Sovereign
The "National Anthem of Honduras" is a result of a contest carried out
in 1914 during the presidency of Manuel Bonilla. In the end, it was
Augusto Coello that ended up writing the anthem, with
German-born Honduran composer
Carlos Hartling writing the music. The
anthem was officially adopted on 15 November 1915, during the
presidency of Alberto de Jesús Membreño (es). The anthem is
composed of a choir and seven stroonduran[clarification needed].
The national flower is the famous orchid,
(formerly known as Brassavola digbyana), which replaced the rose in
1969. The change of the national flower was carried out during the
administration of general Oswaldo López Arellano, thinking that
Brassavola digbiana "is an indigenous plant of Honduras; having this
flower exceptional characteristics of beauty, vigor and distinction",
as the decree dictates it.
The national tree of
Honduras was declared in 1928 to be simply "the
Pine that appears symbolically in our Coat of Arms" (el Pino que
figura simbólicamente en nuestro Escudo), even though pines
comprise a genus and not a species, and even though legally there's no
specification as for what kind of pine should appear in the coat of
arms either. Because of its commonality in the country, the Pinus
oocarpa species has become since then the species most strongly
associated as the national tree, but legally it is not so. Another
species associated as the national tree is the Pinus caribaea.
The national mammal is the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus),
which was adopted as a measure to avoid excessive
depredation[clarification needed]. It is one of two species of deer
that live in Honduras. The national bird of
Honduras is the scarlet
macaw (Ara macao). This bird was much valued by the pre-Columbian
civilizations of Honduras.
Legends and fairy tales are paramount in Honduran culture. Lluvia de
Peces (Rain of Fish) is an example of this. The legends of El Cadejo
La Llorona are also popular.
Nobel Prize nominations
The Honduran nation, has in its history had two nominations for the
Nobel Prize.[clarification needed]
1971 Argentina Diaz Lozano
1998 Salvador Moncada
The major sports in
Honduras are football, basketball, rugby,
volleyball and cycling, with smaller followings for athletics,
softball and handball. Information about some of the sports
Honduras are listed below:
Football in Honduras
Honduran Football Federation
Honduras national baseball team
Honduras national football team
Honduras national under-20 football team
Honduras U-17 national football team
Rugby union in Honduras
North America portal
Central America portal
Latin America portal
Outline of Honduras
Index of Honduras-related articles
^ a b c d e "Honduras". The World Fact Book. 5 January 2016. Retrieved
9 February 2016.
^ a b c "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org
(custom data acquired via website).
United Nations Department of
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