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A homeland for the Jewish people is an idea rooted in Jewish culture and religion. In the early 19th century, the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
led to the idea of Jewish emancipation.[1] This unleashed a number of religious and secular cultural streams and political philosophies among the Jews
Jews
in Europe, covering everything from Marxism to Chassidism. Among these movements was Zionism
Zionism
as promoted by Theodore Herzl.[2] In the late 19th century, Herzl set out his vision of a Jewish state and homeland for the Jewish people in his book Der Judenstaat. Herzl was later hailed by the Zionist political parties as the founding father of the State of Israel.[3][4][5] In the Balfour Declaration
Balfour Declaration
of 1917, the United Kingdom became the first world power to endorse the establishment in Palestine of a "national home for the Jewish people." The British government confirmed this commitment by accepting the British Mandate for Palestine in 1922 (along with their colonial control of the Pirate Coast, Southern Coast of Persia, Iraq and from 1922 a separate area called Transjordan, all of the Middle-Eastern territory except the French territory). The European powers mandated the creation of a Jewish homeland at the San Remo conference
San Remo conference
of 19–26 April 1920.[6] In 1948, the State of Israel
State of Israel
was established.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Relation to Zionism 1.2 Other possibilities

2 Moves to statehood 3 Founding of the State 4 Jewish state or a state of Jews? 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History The Jewish aspiration to return to Zion
Zion
is part of Jewish religious thought that dates back to the destruction of the First Temple.[7] However, the modern movement for the creation of a secular homeland within the confines of modern international law was perceived as a solution to the widespread persecution of Jews
Jews
within Europe. This became the centerpiece of secular political Zionism. Anti-Semitism was not limited to Europe. The Zionist movement was preceded by several Jewish groups that had already popularized the move to Israel. For example, Israel
Israel
ben Pereẓ of Polotsk[8] and hundreds of other Jewish groups settled in Israel
Israel
from Europe, developing communities in Jerusalem, Hebron and around much of the country. This was in addition to the already existing communities of Sephardi and Ashkenazim in Tiberias, Tsfat and across the rest of the Jewish "Holy Land". Zionists, however, worked within the existing international legal framework, obtaining international legal rights in 1922. They also armed and defended themselves. The modern legal attempts to establish a national homeland for the Jewish people began in 1839 with a petition by Sir Moses Montefiore
Sir Moses Montefiore
to Sa'id, Khedive of Egypt, for a Jewish homeland in the region of Palestine. Relation to Zionism

Part of a series on

Aliyah

Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel

Concepts

Promised Land Gathering of Israel Diaspora

Negation

Homeland
Homeland
for the Jewish people Zionism Jewish question Law of Return

Pre-Modern Aliyah

Return to Zion Old Yishuv Perushim

Aliyah
Aliyah
in modern times

First Second during World War I Third Fourth Fifth Aliyah
Aliyah
Bet Bricha from Muslim countries

Yemen Iraq Morocco Lebanon

from the Soviet Union

post-Soviet

from Ethiopia from Latin America

Absorption

Revival of the Hebrew language

Ulpan Hebraization of surnames

Kibbutz Youth village Immigrant camps Ma'abarot Development town Austerity

Organizations

World Zionist Organization Jewish National Fund Jewish Agency for Israel Youth Aliyah Mossad Le Aliyah
Aliyah
Bet El Al Ministry of Immigrant Absorption Nefesh B'Nefesh Am Yisrael Foundation

Related topics

Yishuv Sabra Yerida Jewish refugees History of the Jews
Jews
in the Land of Israel Demographic history of Palestine (region) Historical Jewish population comparisons Yom HaAliyah

v t e

The book Der Judenstaat
Der Judenstaat
(The Jewish State, 1896) by Theodor Herzl

In 1896, Theodore Herzl
Theodore Herzl
set out his vision of a Jewish state and homeland for the Jewish people in his book Der Judenstaat.[9] He then proceeded to found the Zionist Organisation. The draft of the objective of the modern Zionist movement submitted to the First Zionist Congress
First Zionist Congress
of the Zionist Organization
Zionist Organization
in 1897 read: " Zionism
Zionism
seeks to establish a home for the Jewish people in Palestine secured under public law." One delegate sought to insert the phrase "by international law",[10] which was opposed by others. A compromise formula was adopted, which came to be known as the Basel program, and read:

Zionism
Zionism
aims at establishing for the Jewish people a publicly and legally assured home in Palestine.[11]

The Sykes–Picot Agreement
Sykes–Picot Agreement
of 16 May 1916 set aside the region of Palestine for "international administration" under British control.[12] The first official use of the phrase "national home for the Jewish people" was in the Balfour Declaration
Balfour Declaration
of 1917, the final version of which referred to:

the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.

The phrase "national home" was intentionally used instead of "state" because of opposition to the Zionist program within the British Cabinet. The initial draft of the declaration referred to the principle "that Palestine should be reconstituted as the National Home of the Jewish people."[13] In 1919 the general secretary (and future President) of the Zionist Organization, Nahum Sokolow, published a History of Zionism (1600–1918)[14] He also represented the Zionist Organization
Zionist Organization
at the Paris Peace Conference. He explained:

The object of Zionism
Zionism
is to establish for the Jewish people a home in Palestine secured by public law. "... It has been said and is still being obstinately repeated by anti-Zionists again and again, that Zionism
Zionism
aims at the creation of an independent "Jewish State" But this is wholly fallacious. The "Jewish State" was never part of the Zionist programme. The Jewish State was the title of Herzl's first pamphlet, which had the supreme merit of forcing people to think. This pamphlet was followed by the first Zionist Congress, which accepted the Basle programme – the only programme in existence."[15]

Britain officially committed itself to the objective set out in the Balfour Declaration
Balfour Declaration
by insisting on its forming the basis of the Mandate of Palestine
Mandate of Palestine
(which it could have avoided), which was formally approved by the League of Nations
League of Nations
in June 1922, and which formalised British rule in Palestine which had started in 1917. The preamble of the Mandate declared:

Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have also agreed that the Mandatory should be responsible for putting into effect the declaration originally made on 2 November 1917, by the Government of His Britannic Majesty, and adopted by the said Powers, in favour of the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people...[16]

Other possibilities Main article: Proposals for a Jewish state After a wave of pogroms in Russia, Joseph Chamberlain
Joseph Chamberlain
offered Theodor Herzl the establishment of a Jewish state in Uganda, East Africa.[17] In 1903 Herzl presented the British Uganda Programm at the Sixth Zionist Congress in Basel.[18] The Jewish Autonomous Oblast, set up in the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
in 1934, represented a Soviet approach to providing a Jewish homeland. In the late 1930s, the British Zionist League considered a number of other places where a Jewish homeland could be established. The Kimberley region in Australia was considered until the Curtin government (in office 1941–45) rejected the possibility.[19] With the support of the then Premier of Tasmania, Robert Cosgrove (in office from 1939), Critchley Parker proposed a Jewish settlement at Port Davey, in south west Tasmania.[20] Parker surveyed the area, but his death in 1942 put an end to the idea. Moves to statehood In 1942, the Biltmore Program was adopted as the platform of the Zionist Organization, with an explicit call "that Palestine be established as a Jewish Commonwealth." In 1946, the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, also known as the Grady-Morrison Committee, noted that the demand for a Jewish State went beyond the obligations of either the Balfour Declaration
Balfour Declaration
or the Mandate and had been expressly disowned by the Chairman of the Jewish Agency as recently as 1932.[21] The United Nations Special
Special
Committee on Palestine said the Jewish National Home, which derived from the formulation of Zionist aspirations in the 1897 Basle program has provoked many discussions concerning its meaning, scope and legal character, especially since it had no known legal connotation and there are no precedents in international law for its interpretation. It was used in the Balfour Declaration and in the Mandate, both of which promised the establishment of a "Jewish National Home" without, however, defining its meaning. A statement on "British Policy in Palestine," issued on 3 June 1922 by the Colonial Office, placed a restrictive construction upon the Balfour Declaration. The statement excluded "the disappearance or subordination of the Arabic population, language or customs in Palestine" or "the imposition of Jewish nationality upon the inhabitants of Palestine as a whole", and made it clear that in the eyes of the mandatory Power, the Jewish National Home was to be founded in Palestine and not that Palestine as a whole was to be converted into a Jewish National Home. The Committee noted that the construction, which restricted considerably the scope of the National Home, was made prior to the confirmation of the Mandate by the Council of the League of Nations
League of Nations
and was formally accepted at the time by the Executive of the Zionist Organization.[22] The Partition Resolution of the UN General Assembly died at birth when rejected by the Arabs. The UNGA has only the power to recommend. In 1919 Harry Sacher wrote "A Jewish Palestine the Jewish case for a British trusteeship. In 1920 at San Remo the Allied Principal war powers selected this method. The Palestine Mandate is the trust agreement. Evidence of the intention of the settlors of the trust shows it was their intent to permit the Jews
Jews
to settle immediately but not to rule until the defined territory contained a Jewish population majority and the capability to exercise sovereignty. Such evidence is the lodestar of the interpretation of the trust. Legal dominion in the collective political rights to self-determination vested in the Jewish People, the trust beneficiary, partly in 1948 and partly in 1967. Founding of the State The concept of a national homeland for the Jewish people in the British Mandate of Palestine
Mandate of Palestine
was enshrined in Israeli national policy and reflected in many of Israel's public and national institutions. The concept was expressed in the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel
State of Israel
on 14 May 1948 and given concrete expression in the Law of Return, passed by the Knesset
Knesset
on 5 July 1950, which declared: "Every Jew
Jew
has the right to come to this country as an oleh."[23] This was extended in 1970 to include non- Jews
Jews
with a Jewish grandparent, and their spouses. These declarations were widely condemned and considered racist by Palestinians.[citation needed] While nowadays the concept of a Jewish homeland means almost always the State of Israel
State of Israel
under some variation of its current borders, in the course of Jewish history
Jewish history
after ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah there have been other proposals. While some of those have come into existence, others never came to be implemented. Jewish state or a state of Jews? See also: Jewish state

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There has been ongoing debate in Israel
Israel
on the character of the state, regarding whether it should enshrine more Jewish culture, encourage Judaism
Judaism
in schools, and enshrine certain laws of Kashrut
Kashrut
and Shabbat observance. This debate reflects a historical divide within Zionism and among the Jewish citizens of Israel, which has large secular and traditional/Orthodox minorities as well as a majority of people who lie somewhere in between. Secular Zionism, the historically dominant stream, is rooted in a concept of the Jews
Jews
as a people that have a right to self-determination. Another reason sometimes submitted for such establishment was to have a state where Jews
Jews
would not be afraid of antisemitic attacks and live in peace. But such a reason is not a requirement of the self-determination right and so is subsidiary to it in secular Zionist thinking. Religious Zionists, who believe that religious beliefs and traditional practices are central to Jewish peoplehood, counter that assimilating to be a secular "nation like any other" would be oxymoronic in nature, and harm more than help the Jewish people. They seek instead to establish what they see as an "authentic Jewish commonwealth" which preserves and encourages Jewish heritage.[citation needed] Drawing an analogy to diaspora Jews
Jews
who assimilated into other cultures and abandoned Jewish culture, whether voluntary or otherwise, they argue that the creation of a secular state in Israel
Israel
is tantamount to establishing a state where Jews
Jews
assimilate en masse as a nation, and therefore anathema to what they view as Jewish national aspirations. Zionism
Zionism
is rooted in a concept of the Jews
Jews
as a nation, in this capacity, they believe that Israel
Israel
has a mandate to promote Judaism, to be the center of Jewish culture
Jewish culture
and center of its population, perhaps even the sole legitimate representative of Jews worldwide.[citation needed] Partisans of the first view are predominantly, though by no means exclusively, secular or less traditional. Partisans of the second view are almost exclusively traditional or Orthodox, although they also include supporters who follow other streams of Judaism
Judaism
or are less traditional but conservative and would not object to a more prominent state role in promoting Jewish beliefs – although not to the point of creating a purely Halachic state. The debate is therefore characterised by significant polarities. Secular and religious Zionists argue passionately about what a Jewish state should represent. Post-Zionists and Zionists argue about whether a Jewish state should exist at all. Because Israel
Israel
was created within the sphere of international law as the instrument for Jewish self-determination, these polarities are captured by the questions Should Israel
Israel
maintain and strengthen its status as a state for the Jewish people, or become a state purely for "all of its citizens", or identify as both? And, if both, how to resolve any tensions that arise from their coexistence. To date, Israel
Israel
has steered a course between secularism and Jewish identity, usually depending on who controls the Israeli High Court of Justice. On 19 November 2008, Israeli Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni
Tzipi Livni
addressed the United Jewish Communities
United Jewish Communities
General Assembly in Jerusalem. In her speech, she argued: "These two goals of Israel
Israel
as a Jewish and a democratic state must coexist and not contradict each other. So, what does that mean, a Jewish state? It is not only a matter of the number of Jews
Jews
who live in Israel. It is not just a matter of numbers but a matter of values. The Jewish state is a matter of values, but it is not just a matter of religion, it is also a matter of nationality. And a Jewish state is not a monopoly of rabbis. It is not. It is about the nature of the State of Israel. It is about Jewish tradition. It is about Jewish history, regardless of the question of what each and every Israeli citizen does in his own home on Saturdays and what he does on the Jewish holidays. We need to maintain the nature of the State of Israel, the character of the State of Israel, because this is the raison d'etre of the State of Israel."[24] See also

Proposals for a Jewish state Jewish Autonomous Oblast Jewish and democratic state Jewish state Land of Israel
Land of Israel
/ Palestine History of Israel
History of Israel
/ History of the Palestinian people Binational solution Jewish Agency for Israel 1947 UN Partition Plan Christian Zionism

References

^ Napoleon and the Jews: Ben Weider, CM, PhD: Conference given at: International Congress of the International Napoleonic Society Allessandria, Italy June 21–26, 1997 ^ William Bridgwater, editor-in-chief and focused on a homeland for Jews. The Columbia-Viking Desk Encyclopedia Jews, p. 906. Second Edition, Dell Publishing Co. [New York] 1964. ^ "The Avalon Project : Declaration of Israel's Independence 1948". Retrieved 21 May 2016.  ^ "Rights and obligations". ynet. Retrieved 21 May 2016.  ^ Butcher, Tim (28 June 2006). "Hamas U-turn on Israel's right to exist". The Daily Telegraph. London.  ^ Sovereignty over the old city of Jerusalem: a study of the historical, religious, political and legal aspects of the question of the old city: Gauthier, Jacques Paul – Genève : Institut universitaire de hautes études internationales, 2007. 1142 pp. ^ Berlin, Adele (2011). The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. Oxford University Press. p. 813. ISBN 9780199730049.  ^ A. Arnin, in: B. Karu (ed.), Sefer Vitebsk (1957), 209–12; S. Ogurski (ed.), 1905 in Vaysrusland (1925), 164–71; Prestupleniya nemetsko-fashistskikh okkupantov v Belorussii (1963), 285–86. ^ Herzl, Theodor (1988) [1896]. "Biography, by Alex Bein". Der Judenstaat [The Jewish state]. transl. Sylvie d'Avigdor (republication ed.). New York: Courier Dover. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-486-25849-2. Retrieved 28 September 2010.  ^ Jubilee Publication (1947). The Jubilee of the first Zionist Congress, 1897–1947. Jerusalem: Executive of the Zionist Organisation. pp. 108 pages, 2 leaves of platesPublished simultaneously in Hebrew, French, Spanish and Yiddish  ^ "Jewish Virtual Library: The First Zionist Congress
First Zionist Congress
and the Basel Program".  ^ "Sykes-Picot Agreement". Retrieved 21 May 2016.  ^ Stein, Leonard (1961). The Balfour Declaration. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 470.  ^ "History of Zionism : 1600–1918". Internet Archive. Retrieved 21 May 2016.  ^ History of Zionism
Zionism
(1600–1918), Volume I, Nahum Sokolow, 1919, Longmans, Green, and Company, London, pp. xxiv–xxv ^ "The Avalon Project : The Palestine Mandate". Retrieved 21 May 2016.  ^ "The Uganda Proposal (1903)". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org.  ^ "First to Twelfth Zionist Congress (1897–1921)". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org.  ^ "Haven". Retrieved 6 November 2010.  ^ Duffy, Conor (18 January 2010). "The plan for a Jewish homeland in Tasmania". The 7.30 Report. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 6 November 2010.  ^ See Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry
Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry
– Chapter V, the Jewish Attitude, [1] ^ See the report of the United Nations Special
Special
Committee on Palestine, UN Document A/364, 3 September 1947 ^ "Text of Law of Return".  ^ [2]

External links

Jewish State.com Zionism, News, Links Israeli Jewish scene from ynetnews Israel
Israel
as a Jewish state from the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Center for Public Affairs ' Israel
Israel
a Jewish state first', says former High Court Justice Dalia Dorner

v t e

Zionism

Concepts

Zion Land of Israel Aliyah Yerida Homeland (proposals) Jewish state Law of Return Yishuv Territorialism Promised Land Gathering of Israel Settlement Negation of the Diaspora Revival of the Hebrew language Hebraization of surnames Judaization

Ideologies

General Labor Revisionist Reform Religious Cultural Federal Post-Zionism Proto-Zionism Neo-Zionism Non-Zionism Christian Muslim Kahanism Arab Green

Organizations

Histadrut World Zionist Organization Zionist General Council Zionist Federation of Germany Zionist Organization
Zionist Organization
of America Religious Zionists of America Jewish National Fund Poale Zion Jewish Agency for Israel Jewish National Council Bnei Akiva Habonim Dror Hashomer Hatzair Haganah Hanoar Hatzioni World Agudath Israel Irgun Betar Lehi Jewish Party Jewish Resistance Movement Palmach Women's International Zionist Organization Hadassah Women's Zionist Organization
Zionist Organization
of America Aytzim American Zionist Movement Am Yisrael Foundation Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland Institute for Zionist Strategies International Fellowship of Christians and Jews Nefesh B'Nefesh

History and timelines

History of Israel Chronology of Aliyah History of Zionism Balfour Declaration UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 UN General Assembly Resolution 46/86 Timeline of Zionism Israeli–Palestinian peace process History of the Arab–Israeli conflict

Related topics

List of Zionists Anti-Zionism The Holocaust Antisemitism New antisemitism Jewish Autonomism Jewish emancipation Jewish political movements Greater Israel Muscular Judaism Zionist political vi

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