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The Info List - Home Video Game Console


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A home video game console, or simply home console, is a video game device that is primarily used for home gamers, as opposed to in arcades or some other commercial establishment. Home consoles are one type of video game consoles, in contrast to the handheld game consoles which are smaller and portable, allowing people to carry them and play them at any time or place, along with microconsoles and dedicated consoles.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Timeline overview 1.2 First generation 1.3 Second generation 1.4 Third generation 1.5 Fourth generation 1.6 Fifth generation 1.7 Sixth generation 1.8 Seventh generation 1.9 Eighth generation

2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

History[edit] Timeline overview[edit] Further information: List of best-selling game consoles Below is a timeline of each generation with the top three home video consoles of each generation based on worldwide sales. For a complete list of home video consoles released in each generation please see the respective article of each generation.

Legend      – Unit with the highest sales of its generation.      – Unit with the second highest sales of its generation.      – Unit with the third highest sales of its generation.      – Manufacturer released a home video console during this generation but did not sell the most units.  –  – Manufacturer didn't release a home video game console during this generation.  †  – Indicates the current generation consoles on the market.

Developer Generation

First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth

Atari Home Pong (150,000)[1][2] Atari
Atari
2600 (30 million)[note 1] Atari
Atari
7800 (1 million)[note 2] – Atari
Atari
Jaguar (250,000)[7] – – –

Coleco Telstar (1 million)[note 3] ColecoVision (2+ million)[note 4] – – – – – –

Nintendo Color TV-Game
Color TV-Game
series (3 million)[12] – NES (61.91 million)[13] Super NES (49.1 million)[13] Nintendo
Nintendo
64 (32.93 million)[13] GameCube (21.74 million)[13] Wii (101.63 million)[13] Nintendo
Nintendo
Switch† (14.86 million)[note 5]

Magnavox/ Philips Odyssey (330,000)[15] Odyssey² (2 million)[16] Videopac + G7400 (N/A) CD-i (570,000)[17] – – – –

Mattel – Intellivision (3 million)[18] – – – – HyperScan (N/A) –

Sega – – Master System (10–13 million)[note 6] Sega
Sega
Genesis (33.75 million)[note 7] Sega
Sega
Saturn (9.26 million)[26] Dreamcast (9.13 million)[note 8] – –

NEC – – – TurboGrafx-16 (10 million)[note 9] PC-FX (400,000)[34] – – –

Sony – – – – PlayStation (102.49 million)[35] PlayStation
PlayStation
2 (>155 million)[note 10] PlayStation
PlayStation
3 (83.8 million)[note 10] PlayStation
PlayStation
4† (70.6 million)[44]

Microsoft – – – – – Xbox (24 million)[45] Xbox 360 (84 million)[note 11] Xbox One† est. 25–30 million[note 11]

First generation[edit] See also: First generation of video game consoles
First generation of video game consoles
and First video game

The Magnavox
Magnavox
Odyssey was the first video game console, released in 1972.

Although the first video games appeared in the 1950s,[52] they were played on massive computers connected to vector displays, not analog televisions. Ralph H. Baer
Ralph H. Baer
conceived the idea of a home video game in 1951. In the late 1960s while working for Sanders Associates
Sanders Associates
he created a series of video game console designs. One of these designs, which gained the nickname of the "Brown Box", featured changeable game modes and was demonstrated to several TV manufactures ultimately leading to an agreement between Sanders Associates
Sanders Associates
and Magnavox.[53] In 1972 Magnavox
Magnavox
released the Magnavox
Magnavox
Odyssey, the first home video game console which could be connected to a TV set. Ralph Baer's initial design had called for a huge row of switches that would allow gamers to turn on and off certain components of the console (the Odyssey lacked a CPU) to create slightly different games like tennis, volleyball, hockey, and chase. Magnavox
Magnavox
replaced the switch design with separate cartridges for each game. Although Baer had sketched up ideas for cartridges that could include new components for new games, the carts released by Magnavox
Magnavox
all served the same function as the switches and allowed gamers to choose from the Odyssey's built-in games. The Odyssey only initially sold about 100,000 units,[54] making it moderately successful, and it was not until Atari's arcade game Pong popularized video games, that the public began to take more notice of the emerging industry. By autumn 1975, Magnavox, bowing to the popularity of Pong, cancelled the Odyssey and released a scaled-down version that played only Pong
Pong
and hockey, the Odyssey 100. A second, "higher end" console, the Odyssey 200, was released with the 100 and added on-screen scoring, up to four players, and a third game—Smash. Almost simultaneously released with Atari's own home Pong
Pong
console through Sears, these consoles jump-started the consumer market. All three of the new consoles used simpler designs than the original Odyssey with no board game pieces or extra cartridges. In the years that followed, the market saw many companies rushing similar consoles to market. After General Instrument
General Instrument
released their inexpensive microchips, each containing a complete console on a single chip, many small developers began releasing consoles that looked different externally, but internally were playing exactly the same games. Most of the consoles from this era were dedicated consoles only playing the games that came with the console. These video game consoles were often just called video games, because there was little reason to distinguish the two yet. While a few companies like Atari, Magnavox, and newcomer Coleco
Coleco
pushed the envelope, the market became flooded with simple, similar video games.

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Second generation[edit] See also: Second generation of video game consoles

The Atari
Atari
2600 became the most popular game console of the second generation.

Fairchild released the Fairchild Video Entertainment System (VES) in 1976. While there had been previous game consoles that used cartridges, either the cartridges had no information and served the same function as flipping switches (the Odyssey) or the console itself was empty ( Coleco
Coleco
Telstar) and the cartridge contained all of the game components. The VES, however, contained a programmable microprocessor so its cartridges only needed a single ROM chip to store microprocessor instructions. RCA and Atari
Atari
soon released their own cartridge-based consoles, the RCA Studio II
RCA Studio II
and the Atari
Atari
2600 (originally branded as the Atari Video Computer System), respectively. Both Bally (with their Home Library Computer in 1977) and Magnavox
Magnavox
(with the Odyssey² in 1978) also brought their own programmable cartridge-based consoles to the market. However, it was not until Atari
Atari
released a conversion of the golden age arcade hit Space Invaders
Space Invaders
in 1980 for the Atari
Atari
2600 that the home console industry took off. Many consumers bought an Atari console so they could play Space Invaders
Space Invaders
at home. Space Invaders' unprecedented success started the trend of console manufacturers trying to get exclusive rights to arcade titles, and the trend of advertisements for game consoles claiming to bring the arcade experience home. Throughout the early 1980s, other companies released video game consoles of their own. Many of the video game systems were technically superior to the Atari
Atari
2600, and marketed as improvements over the Atari
Atari
2600, but Atari
Atari
dominated the console market in the early 1980s. However, a severe crash occurred in 1983 in the video game business.

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Third generation[edit] See also: Third generation of video game consoles

The NES made video games popular again after the 1983 crash.

In 1983, Nintendo
Nintendo
released the Family Computer (or Famicom) in Japan. The Famicom supported high-resolution sprites, larger color palettes, and tiled backgrounds. This allowed Famicom games to be longer and have more detailed graphics. Nintendo
Nintendo
began attempts to bring their Famicom to the U.S. after the video game market had crashed. In the U.S., video games were seen as a fad that had already passed. To distinguish its product from older game consoles, Nintendo
Nintendo
released their Famicom as the Nintendo
Nintendo
Entertainment System (NES) which used a front-loading cartridge port similar to a VCR, included a plastic "robot" (R.O.B., and was initially advertised as a toy). The NES was the highest selling console in the history of North America and revitalized the video game market. Mario of Super Mario Bros. became a global icon starting with his NES games. Nintendo
Nintendo
took an unusual stance with third-party developers for its console. Nintendo
Nintendo
contractually restricted third-party developers to three NES titles per year and forbade them from developing for other video game consoles. The practice ensured Nintendo's market dominance and prevented the flood of trash titles that had helped kill the Atari, but was ruled illegal late in the console's life cycle. Sega's Master System
Master System
was intended to compete with the NES, but never gained any significant market share in the US or Japan and was barely profitable. It fared notably better in PAL
PAL
territories. In Europe and South America, the Master System
Master System
competed with the NES and saw new game releases even after Sega's next-generation Mega Drive was released. In Brazil where strict importation laws and rampant piracy kept out competitors, the Master System
Master System
outsold the NES by a massive margin and remained popular into the '90s.[55] Jack Tramiel, after buying Atari, downsizing its staff, and settling its legal disputes, attempted to bring Atari
Atari
back into the home console market. Atari
Atari
released a smaller, sleeker, cheaper version of their popular Atari
Atari
2600. They also released the Atari
Atari
7800, a console technologically comparable with the NES and backwards compatible with the 2600. Finally Atari
Atari
repackaged its 8-bit XE home computer as the XEGS game console. The new consoles helped Atari
Atari
claw its way out of debt, but failed to gain much market share from Nintendo. Atari's lack of funds meant that its consoles saw fewer releases, lower production values (both the manuals and the game labels were frequently black and white), and limited distribution.

Japan North America Europe

Family Computer/ Nintendo
Nintendo
Entertainment System 1983 1985 1986

Sega
Sega
Mark III/Master System 1985 1986 1987

Atari
Atari
7800 none

Atari
Atari
XEGS 1987

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Fourth generation[edit] See also: Fourth generation of video game consoles

The Super Famicom, the Japanese version of the Super NES.

NEC
NEC
brought the first fourth-generation console to market with their PC Engine
PC Engine
(later sold as the TurboGrafx-16
TurboGrafx-16
in North America) when Hudson Soft
Hudson Soft
approached them with an advanced graphics chip. Hudson had previously approached Nintendo, only to be rebuffed by a company still raking in the profits of the NES. The TurboGrafx used the unusual HuCard
HuCard
format to store games. The small size of these proprietary cards allowed NEC
NEC
to re-release the console as a handheld game console. The PC Engine
PC Engine
enjoyed brisk sales in Japan, but its North American counterpart, the TurboGrafx, lagged behind the competition. The console never saw an official release in Europe, but clones and North American imports were available in some markets starting in 1990. NEC
NEC
advertised their console as "16-bit" to highlight its advances over the NES. This started the trend of all subsequent fourth generations consoles being advertised as 16 bit. Many people still refer to this generation as the 16-bit generation, and often refer to the third generation as "8-bit". Sega
Sega
scaled down and adapted their Sega
Sega
System 16 (used to power arcade hits like Altered Beast
Altered Beast
and Shinobi) into the Mega Drive (or Genesis) and released it with a near arcade-perfect port of Altered Beast. Sega's console met lukewarm sales in Japan, but skyrocketed to first place in PAL
PAL
markets, and made major inroads in North America. Propelled by its effective "Genesis does what Nintendon't" marketing campaign, Sega
Sega
capitalized on the Genesis's technological superiority over the NES, faithful ports of popular arcade games, and competitive pricing. Arcade gaming company, SNK
SNK
developed the high end Neo Geo MVS
Neo Geo MVS
arcade system which used interchangeable cartridges similar to home consoles. Building on the success of the MVS, SNK
SNK
repackaged the NeoGeo
NeoGeo
as the Neo Geo AES home console. Though technologically superior to the other fourth-generation consoles, the AES and its games were prohibitively expensive, which kept sales low and prevented it from expanding outside its niche market and into serious competition with Nintendo and Sega. The AES did, however, amass a dedicated cult following, allowing it to see new releases into the 2000s. The fourth generation graphics chips allowed these consoles to reproduce the art styles that were becoming popular in arcades and on home computers. These games often featured lavish background scenery, huge characters, broader color palettes, and increased emphasis on dithering and texture. Games written specifically for the NES, like Megaman, Shatterhand, and Super Mario Bros.
Super Mario Bros.
3 were able to work cleverly within its limitations. Ports of the increasingly detailed arcade and home computer games came up with various solutions. For example, when Capcom
Capcom
released Strider in the arcade they created an entirely separate Strider game for the NES that only incorporated themes and characters from the arcade. In 1990 Nintendo
Nintendo
finally brought their Super Famicom
Super Famicom
to market and brought it to the US as the Super Nintendo
Nintendo
Entertainment System (SNES) a year later. Its release marginalized the TurboGrafx and the Neo Geo, but came late enough for Sega
Sega
to sell several million consoles in North America and gain a strong foothold. The same year the SNES was released Sega
Sega
released Sonic the Hedgehog, which spiked Genesis sales, similar to Space Invaders
Space Invaders
on the Atari. Also, by 1992 the first fully licensed NFL Football game was released: NFL Sports Talk
Talk
Football '93, which was available only on the Genesis. This impact on Genesis sales, and the overall interest of realistic sports games, would start the trend of licensed sports games being viewed as necessary for the success of a console in the US. While Nintendo
Nintendo
enjoyed dominance in Japan, and Sega
Sega
in Europe, the competition between the two was particularly fierce and close in North America. Ultimately, the SNES outsold the Genesis, but only after Sega discontinued the Genesis to focus on the next generation of consoles. One trait that remains peculiar to the fourth generation is the huge number of exclusive games. Both Sega
Sega
and Nintendo
Nintendo
were very successful and their consoles developed massive libraries of games. Both consoles had to be programmed in assembly to get the most out of them. A game optimized for the Genesis could take advantage of its faster CPU and sound chip. A game optimized for the SNES could take advantage of its graphics and its flexible, clean sound chip. Some game series, like Castlevania, saw separate system exclusive releases rather than an attempt to port one game to disparate platforms. When compact disc (CD) technology became available midway through the fourth generation, each company attempted to integrate it into their existing consoles in different ways. NEC
NEC
and Sega
Sega
released CD add-ons to their consoles in the form of the TurboGrafx-CD and Sega
Sega
CD, but both were only moderately successful. NEC
NEC
also released the TurboDuo which combined the TurboGrafx-16
TurboGrafx-16
and the TurboGrafx-CD add-on (along with the RAM and B IOS
IOS
upgrade from the Super System Card) into one unit. SNK
SNK
released a third version of the Neo-Geo, the Neo Geo CD, allowing the company to release its games on a cheaper medium than the AES's expensive cartridges, but it reached the market after Nintendo and Sega
Sega
had already sold tens of millions of consoles each. Nintendo partnered with Sony
Sony
to work on a CD addon for the SNES, but the deal fell apart when they realized how much control Sony
Sony
wanted. Sony
Sony
would use their work with Nintendo
Nintendo
as the basis for their Playstation
Playstation
game console. While CDs became an increasingly visible part of the market, CD-reading technology was still expensive in the 90s, limiting NEC's and Sega's add-ons' sales.

Japan North America Europe

PC Engine/TurboGrafx-16 1987 1989 1990

Mega Drive/Genesis 1988

Neo Geo 1990 1991

Super Famicom/Super NES 1990 1991 1992

LaserActive 1993 none

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Fifth generation[edit] See also: Fifth generation of video game consoles

The original PlayStation
PlayStation
became the most popular system of the fifth generation consoles, eventually selling over 100 million systems.

The first fifth-generation consoles were the 3DO and the Atari
Atari
Jaguar. Although both consoles were more powerful than the fourth generation systems, neither would become serious threats to Sega
Sega
or Nintendo. The 3DO initially generated a great deal of hype in part because of a licensing scheme where 3DO licensed the manufacturing of its console out to third parties, similar to VCR or DVD
DVD
players. Unfortunately, that very structure meant that unlike its competitors who could sell the console at a loss, all 3DO manufacturers had to sell for profit. The cheapest 3DO was more expensive than the Super NES and Genesis combined. Atari
Atari
cancelled their line of home computers, their Atari
Atari
Portfolio, the Stacy laptop, and their handheld Atari
Atari
Lynx when they released the Jaguar. It was an all or nothing gamble that ran the company into the ground. The Jaguar had three processors and no C libraries to help developers cope with it. Atari
Atari
was ineffective at courting third parties and many of their first party games were poorly received. While games like Tempest 2000, Rayman, and Alien vs Predator showed what the console was capable of, the vast majority of releases underwhelmed. Many of the Jaguar's games used mainly the slowest (but most familiar) of the console's processors, resulting in titles that could easily have been released on the SNES or Genesis. To compete with emerging next gen consoles, Nintendo
Nintendo
released Donkey Kong Country which could display a wide range of tones (something common in fifth-generation games) by limiting the number of hues onscreen, and Star Fox which used an extra chip inside of the cartridge to display polygon graphics. Sega
Sega
followed suit, releasing Vectorman
Vectorman
and Virtua Racing
Virtua Racing
(the latter of which used the Sega
Sega
Virtua Processor). Sega
Sega
also released the 32X, an add-on for the Genesis, while their Sega
Sega
Saturn was still in development, and announced that they would replace the Genesis with the Neptune, a combination 32X
32X
and Genesis, and sell it as a budget console alongside their upcoming Saturn. Despite public statements from Sega
Sega
claiming that they would continue to support the Genesis/ 32X
32X
throughout the next generation, Sega
Sega
Enterprises quietly killed the Neptune project and forced Sega
Sega
of America to abandon the 32X. The 32X's brief and confusing existence damaged public perception of the coming Saturn and Sega
Sega
as a whole. While the fourth generation had seen a handful of acclaimed titles on NEC's PC Engine
PC Engine
CD-ROM² and Sega's Mega CD add-ons, it wasn't until the fifth generation that a CD-based consoles and games began to seriously compete with cartridges. CDs were significantly cheaper to manufacture and distribute than cartridges were, and gave developers room to add cinematic cut-scenes, pre-recorded soundtracks, and voice acting that made more serious storytelling possible. NEC
NEC
had been developing a successor to the PC Engine
PC Engine
as early as 1990, and presented a prototype, dubbed the "Iron Man," to developers in 1992, but shelved the project as the PC Engine
PC Engine
managed to extend the console's market viability in Japan into the mid-90s. When sales started to dry up, NEC
NEC
rushed its old project to the market. The PC-FX, a CD-based, 32-bit console, had highly advanced, detailed 2D graphics capabilities, and better full-motion video than any other system on the market. It was, however, incapable of handling 3D graphics, forfeiting its chances at seriously competing with Sony
Sony
and Sega. The console was limited to a niche market of dating sims and visual novels in Japan, and never saw release in Western markets. After the abortive 32X, Sega
Sega
entered the fifth generation with the Saturn. Sega
Sega
released several highly regarded titles for the Saturn, but a series of bad decisions alienated many developers and retailers. While the Saturn was technologically advanced, it was also complex, difficult, and unintuitive to write games for. In particular, programming 3D graphics that could compete with those on Nintendo
Nintendo
and Sony's consoles proved exceptionally difficult for third-party developers. Because the Saturn used quadrilaterals, rather than standard triangles, as its basic polygon, cross platform games had to be completely rewritten to see a Saturn port. The Saturn was also a victim of internal politics at Sega. While the Saturn sold comparably well in Japan, Sega's branches in North America and Europe refused to license localization of many popular Japanese titles, holding they were ill-suited to Western markets. First-party hits like Sakura Taisen never saw Western releases, while several third-party titles released on both PlayStation
PlayStation
and Saturn in Japan, like Grandia and Castlevania: Symphony of the Night, were released in North America and Europe as PlayStation
PlayStation
exclusives. Born from a failed attempt to create a console with Nintendo, Sony's Playstation
Playstation
would not only dominate its generation, but become the first console to sell over 100 million units by expanding the video game market. Sony
Sony
actively courted third parties and provided them with convenient c libraries to write their games. Sony
Sony
had built the console from the start as a 3D, disc-based system, and emphasized its 3d graphics that would come to be viewed as the future of gaming. The PlayStation's CD technology won over several developers who had been releasing titles for Nintendo
Nintendo
and Sega's fourth generation consoles, such as Konami, Namco, Capcom, and Square. CDs were far cheaper to manufacture and distribute than cartridges were, meaning developers could release larger batches of games at higher profit margins; Nintendo's console, on the other hand, used cartridges, unwittingly keeping third-party developers away. The PlayStation's internal architecture was simpler and more intuitive to program for, giving the console an edge over Sega's Saturn. Nintendo
Nintendo
was the last to release a fifth generation console with their Nintendo
Nintendo
64, and when they finally released their console it came with only two launch titles. Partly to curb piracy and partly as a result of Nintendo's failed disc projects with Sony
Sony
and Phillips, Nintendo used cartridges for their console. The higher cost of cartridges drove many third party developers to the PlayStation. The Nintendo
Nintendo
64 could handle 3D polygons better than any console released before it, but its games often lacked the cut-scenes, soundtracks, and voice-overs that became standard on PlayStation
PlayStation
discs. Nintendo
Nintendo
released several highly acclaimed titles, such as Super Mario 64
Super Mario 64
and The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, and the Nintendo
Nintendo
64 was able to sell tens of millions of units on the strength of first-party titles alone, but its constant struggles against Sony
Sony
would make the Nintendo
Nintendo
64 the last home console to use cartridges as a medium for game distribution.

Japan North America Europe

FM Towns Marty 1993 none

Atari
Atari
Jaguar 1994 1993 1994

3DO Interactive Multiplayer

PC-FX none

32X 1994

Sega
Sega
Saturn 1995

PlayStation

Nintendo
Nintendo
64 1996 1997

Sixth generation[edit] See also: Sixth generation of video game consoles

With more than 155 million units sold, the PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
is the best selling videogame console in history.

The sixth generation saw a move towards PC-like architectures in gaming consoles, as well as a shift towards using DVDs for game media. This brought games that were both longer and more visually appealing. Furthermore, this generation also saw experimentation with online console gaming and implementing both flash and hard drive storage for game data. Sega's Dreamcast
Dreamcast
was released in Japan on November 27, 1998, in North America on September 9, 1999, in Europe on October 14, 1999 and in Australia on November 30, 1999. It was the company's last video game console, and was the first of the generation's consoles to be discontinued. Sega
Sega
implemented a special type of optical media called the GD-ROM. These discs were created in order to prevent software piracy, which had been more easily done with consoles of the previous generation; however, this format was soon cracked as well. It also sported a 33.6Kb or 56k modem which could be used to access the internet or play some of the games, like Phantasy Star Online, online, making it the first console with built-in internet connectivity. The Dreamcast
Dreamcast
was discontinued in March 2001, and Sega
Sega
transitioned to software developing/publishing only. Sony's PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
was released in Japan on March 4, 2000, in North America on October 26, 2000, in Europe on November 24, 2000 and in Australia on November 30, 2000. It was the follow-up to its highly successful PlayStation, and was also the first home game console to be able to play DVDs. As was done with the original PlayStation
PlayStation
in 2000, Sony
Sony
redesigned the console in 2004 into a smaller version. As of November 21, 2011 over 140 million PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
units have been sold.[56][57] This makes it the best selling home console of all time to date, and now the best-selling video game console to date. Nintendo's GameCube
GameCube
was released in Japan on September 15, 2001, in North America on November 18, 2001, in Europe on May 3, 2002 and in Australia on May 17, 2002. It was Nintendo's fourth home video game console and the first console by the company to use optical media instead of cartridges. The Nintendo
Nintendo
GameCube
GameCube
did not play standard 12 cm DVDs, instead it employed smaller 8 cm optical discs. With the release of the Game Boy
Game Boy
Player, all Game Boy, Game Boy
Game Boy
Color, and Game Boy
Game Boy
Advance cartridges could be played on the platform. The Nintendo
Nintendo
GameCube
GameCube
was discontinued in 2007 with the release of Wii. Microsoft
Microsoft
released its first games console, the Xbox in North America on November 15, 2001, in Japan on February 22, 2002, and in Europe and Australia on March 14, 2002. It was the first console to employ a hard drive right out of the box to save games, the first to include an Ethernet port for broadband internet, and the beginning of Microsoft's online Xbox LIVE
Xbox LIVE
service. Microsoft
Microsoft
was able to attract many PC developers by using the NT kernel and DirectX
DirectX
from their Windows operating system. Though criticized for its bulky size and the awkwardness of its original controller, the Xbox eventually gained popularity, especially in the US, where it outsold the GameCube
GameCube
to secure second place, due in part to the success of the Halo franchise.

Japan North America Europe

Dreamcast 1998 1999

PlayStation
PlayStation
2 2000

Nintendo
Nintendo
GameCube 2001 2002

Xbox 2002 2001

Seventh generation[edit] See also: Seventh generation of video game consoles

Wii
Wii
has sold more than 100 million units, becoming the most popular console of the seventh generation.

The features introduced in this generation include the support of new disc formats: Blu-ray Disc, utilized by the PlayStation
PlayStation
3, and HD DVD supported by the Xbox 360
Xbox 360
via an optional $200 external accessory addition, that was later discontinued as the format war closed. Another new technology is the use of motion as input, and IR tracking (as implemented on the Wii). Also, all seventh generation consoles support wireless controllers. Microsoft
Microsoft
kicked off the seventh generation with the release of the Xbox 360
Xbox 360
on November 22, 2005 in the United States, December 2, 2005 in Europe, December 10, 2005 in Japan and March 23, 2006 in Australia. It featured market-leading processing power until the Sony
Sony
PlayStation 3 was released one year later. While the original Xbox 360
Xbox 360
"Core" did not include an internal HDD, most Xbox 360
Xbox 360
models since have included at least the option to have one. The Xbox 360
Xbox 360
optical drive is a DVD9 reader, allowing DVD
DVD
movies to be played. No Blu-ray drive was included, making big games like Battlefield and Grand Theft Auto V require two or more DVDs to play. Up to four controllers can be connected to the console wirelessly on the standard 2.4 GHz spectrum. There are 4 discontinued versions of the Xbox 360: the "Arcade," the "Pro," and the "Elite," and the newer "S" or 'slim' model. The currently shipping "E" version of the Xbox 360
Xbox 360
includes 3 configurations: a 4 GB internal SSD
SSD
version which acts like a USB hard drive, a 250 GB HDD version, and a branded 320 GB HDD version. The Xbox 360
Xbox 360
is backward compatible with about half the games of the original Xbox library. In 2010, Microsoft
Microsoft
released Kinect, allowing for motion-controlled games. Sony's PlayStation 3
PlayStation 3
was released in Japan on November 11, 2006, in North America on November 17, 2006 and in Europe and Australia on March 23, 2007. All PlayStation
PlayStation
3s come with a hard drive and are able to play Blu-ray Disc
Blu-ray Disc
games and Blu-ray Disc
Blu-ray Disc
movies out of the box. The PlayStation 3
PlayStation 3
was the first video game console to support HDMI output out of the box, using full 1080p resolution. Up to seven controllers can connect to the console using Bluetooth. There are 6 discontinued versions of the PS3: a 20 GB HDD version (discontinued in North America and Japan, and was never released in PAL
PAL
territories), a 40 GB HDD version (discontinued), a 60 GB HDD version (discontinued in North America, Japan and PAL
PAL
territories), 80 GB HDD version (only in some NTSC territories and PAL
PAL
territories), a "slim" 120 GB HDD version (discontinued), and a "slim" 250 GB version (discontinued). The two current shipping versions of the PlayStation 3
PlayStation 3
are: a "slim" 160 GB HDD version and a "slim" 320 GB HDD version. The hard drive can be replaced with any standard 2.5" Serial ATA
Serial ATA
drive and the system has support for removable media storage, such as Memory Stick, Memory Stick
Memory Stick
Pro, Memory Stick
Memory Stick
Duo, Memory Stick
Memory Stick
PRO Duo, USB, SD, MiniSD, and CompactFlash
CompactFlash
(CF) digital media, but only the PlayStation
PlayStation
versions up to 80 GB support this. The slim PlayStation 3
PlayStation 3
consoles (120 GB and up) had removable storage discontinued.[58] All models are backward compatible with the original PlayStation's software library, and the launch models, since discontinued, are also backward compatible with PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
games. As a cost-cutting measure, later models removed the Emotion Engine, making them incompatible with PS2 discs. In 2010, Sony
Sony
released PlayStation
PlayStation
Move, allowing for motion-controlled games. With recent software updates, the PlayStation 3
PlayStation 3
can play 3D Blu-ray movies and 3D games. Nintendo's Wii
Wii
was released in North America on November 19, 2006, in Japan on December 2, 2006, in Australia on December 7, 2006 and in Europe on December 8, 2006. It is bundled with Wii
Wii
Sports in all regions except for Japan. Unlike the other systems of the seventh generation, the Wii
Wii
does not support an internal hard drive, but instead uses 512 MB of internal Flash memory and includes support for removable SD card
SD card
storage. It also has a maximum resolution output of 480p, making it the only seventh generation console not able to output high-definition graphics. Along with its lower price, the Wii is notable for its unique controller, the Wii
Wii
Remote, which resembles a TV remote. The system uses a "sensor bar" that emits infrared light that is detected by an infrared camera in the Wii
Wii
Remote to determine orientation relative to the source of the light. All models, other than the Wii
Wii
Family Edition and the Wii
Wii
Mini, are backwards compatible with Nintendo
Nintendo
GameCube
GameCube
games and support up to four Nintendo
Nintendo
GameCube controllers and two memory cards. It also includes the Virtual Console, which allows the purchase and downloading of games from older systems, including those of former competitors. In 2009, Nintendo introduced the ' Wii
Wii
MotionPlus' expansion, which uses the same technology as the console previously used, but with enhanced motion tracking and sensing to improve gameplay quality. The Wii
Wii
has four colors: white, blue, black, and red. Current models include Wii Sports, Wii
Wii
Sports Resort, and Wii
Wii
Motion Plus.

Japan North America Europe

Xbox 360 2005

PlayStation
PlayStation
3 2006 2007

Wii 2006

Eighth generation[edit] See also: Eighth generation of video game consoles

The PlayStation 4
PlayStation 4
console with its controller

The Xbox One, the controller and the Kinect
Kinect
sensor

Aside from the usual hardware enhancements, consoles of the eighth generation focus on further integration with other media and increased connectivity.[59] The Wii
Wii
U introduced a controller/tablet hybrid whose features include the possibility of augmented reality in gaming.[60] The PlayStation 4
PlayStation 4
is Sony's eighth generation console, featuring a "share" button to stream video game content between devices, released on November 15, 2013. Microsoft
Microsoft
released their next generation console, the Xbox One, on November 22, 2013.[61] Game systems in the eighth generation also faced increasing competition from mobile device platforms such as Apple's iOS and Google's Android operating systems. Smartphone
Smartphone
ownership was estimated to reach roughly a quarter of the world's population by the end of 2014.[62] The proliferation of low-cost games for these devices, such as Angry Birds with over 2 billion downloads worldwide,[63] presents a new challenge to classic video game systems. Microconsoles, cheaper stand-alone devices designed to play games from previously established platforms, also increased options for consumers. Many of these projects were spurred on by the use of new crowdfunding techniques through sites such as Kickstarter. Notable competitors include the GamePop, OUYA, and GameStick
GameStick
Android-based systems, the PlayStation Vita TV, and the forthcoming Steam Machine.[64] Despite the increased competition, the sales for major console manufacturers featured strong starts. The PlayStation 4
PlayStation 4
sold 1 million consoles within 24 hours in 2 countries, whilst the Xbox One
Xbox One
sold 1 million consoles within 24 hours in 13 countries.[65] As of April 2014, 7 million Playstation
Playstation
4 consoles have been sold worldwide,[66] and 5 million Xbox One
Xbox One
units have shipped,[67] both outpacing sales of their seventh generation systems. In May, Nintendo
Nintendo
announced that it had sold only 2.8 million Wii
Wii
U consoles, falling far short of their forecasts.[68] In 2016, both Microsoft
Microsoft
and Sony
Sony
announced hardware refreshes of their respective consoles, which all aim to futureproof their platforms and provide improved support for 4K ultra high-definition content and virtual reality.[69][70][71][72][73] Nintendo
Nintendo
discontinued production of the Wii
Wii
U in January 2017,[74] and released a new "hybrid" console, the Nintendo
Nintendo
Switch, in March 2017. The Switch can be used as either a handheld tablet or docked for use on televisions.[75]

Japan North America Europe

Wii
Wii
U 2012

PlayStation
PlayStation
4 2014 2013

Xbox One

Nintendo
Nintendo
Switch 2017

See also[edit]

Electronics portal Video games portal

Home theater PC List of home video game consoles History of video games Console game Video game
Video game
console

Handheld game console Microconsole Dedicated console

Cassette Vision

Notes[edit]

^ The Atari
Atari
2600 sold 30 million units during its life-cycle.[3] Atari
Atari
also released a second home console during the second generation known as the Atari
Atari
5200 which sold 1 million units.[4] ^ The Atari
Atari
7800 sold 1 million units.[5] Atari
Atari
also released the Atari
Atari
XEGS during the third generation which sold 100,000 units.[6] ^ Coleco
Coleco
launched Telstar in 1976 and sold a million. Production and delivery issues, and dedicated consoles being replaced by electronic handheld games dramatically reduced sales in 1977. Over a million Telstars were scrapped in 1978, and it cost Coleco
Coleco
$22.3 million that year[8]—almost bankrupting the company.[9] ^ The ColecoVision
ColecoVision
reached 2 million units sold by the spring of 1984. Console quarterly sales dramatically decreased at this time, but it continued to sell modestly[10][8] with most inventory gone by October 1985.[11] ^ As of December 31, 2017 the Nintendo
Nintendo
Switch has sold 14.86 million units.[14] Nintendo
Nintendo
also released the Wii
Wii
U during the eighth generation which sold 13.56 million units during its lifecycle.[13] ^ 10–13 million, not including recent Brazil sales figures.[19][20] Screen Digest wrote in a 1995 publication that the Master System's active installed user base in Western Europe peaked at 6.25 million in 1993. Those countries that peaked are France at 1.6 million, Germany at 700 thousand, the Netherlands at 200 thousand, Spain at 550 thousand, the United Kingdom at 1.35 million, and other Western European countries at 1.4 million. However, Belgium peaked in 1991 with 600 thousand, and Italy in 1992 with 400 thousand. Thus it is estimated approximately 6.8 million units were purchased in this part of Europe.[21] 1 million were sold in Japan as of 1986.[22] 2 million were sold in the United States.[23] 8 million were sold by Tectoy
Tectoy
in Brazil as of 2016.[24] ^ 30.75 million sold by Sega
Sega
worldwide as of March 1996,[25][26] not including third-party sales. In addition, Tec Toy
Tec Toy
sold 3 million in Brazil,[27][28] and Majesco Entertainment
Majesco Entertainment
projected it would sell 1.5 million in the United States.[29] ^ Sources for Dreamcast
Dreamcast
worldwide sales.[26][30][31][32] ^ Designed by Hudson and manufactured and marketed by NEC.[33] ^ a b Sony
Sony
stopped divulging individual platform sales starting with 2012 fiscal reports,[36][37] and continues to sporadically.[38] PlayStation
PlayStation
2: 138.8 million units sold as of Sony's first fiscal quarter ending June 2009 (Q1 FY2009).[39] Sony
Sony
sold 16.2 million units from Q2 FY2009 until March 31, 2012.[40] It was discontinued worldwide on January 4, 2013.[41] PlayStation
PlayStation
3: A Sony
Sony
press release reported 80 million sold as of November 2, 2013.[42] 3.4 million were shipped in 2014 and 0.4 million in the first quarter of 2015.[43] ^ a b Starting with Microsoft's fiscal quarter ending June 2014 (Q4), the company stopped divulging individual platform sales in their fiscal reports.[46][47] Microsoft
Microsoft
stated it will shift focus to the amount of active users on Xbox Live
Xbox Live
starting in late 2015.[48] Xbox 360: Sold 84 million as of June 2014.[49] Xbox One: Microsoft
Microsoft
CEO Satya Nadella
Satya Nadella
unveiled at a December 3, 2014 shareholder presentation that 10 million units were sold.[50] Third-party estimates suggest sales reached approximately 25-30 million worldwide by late 2016.[51]

References[edit]

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Atari
Flashback 4 to Celebrate Atari's 40th Anniversary!" (Press release). PR Newswire. November 12, 2012. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2014.  ^ Schrage, Michael (May 22, 1984). " Atari
Atari
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Atari
(Press Release), Atari (June 1, 1988) ^ "Editorial: Ever-Changing Atari
Atari
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Coleco
is now debating whether to withdraw from electronics altogether. Colecovision still sells, but it is a shadow of its former self.  ^ Mehegan, David (May 8, 1988). "Putting Coleco
Coleco
Industries Back Together". The Boston Globe. p. A1. ISSN 0743-1791. Retrieved April 23, 2014. (Subscription required (help)). When the game [Telstar] crashed hard, earnings fell 50 percent in 1977 and the company lost $22 million in 1978, barely skirting bankruptcy after Handel -- then chief financial officer -- found new credit and mollified angry creditors after months of tough negotiation.  ^ " Coleco
Coleco
Industries sales report" (Press release). PR Newswire. April 17, 1984. Archived from the original on November 4, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013. 'First quarter sales of ColecoVision
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were substantial, although much less that [sic] those for the year ago quarter,' Greenberg said in a prepared statement. He said the company has sold 2 million ColecoVision
ColecoVision
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Coleco
said the entire inventory of its troubled Adam personal computer has been sold, along with much of its Colecovision inventory. The company's chairman, Arnold Greenberg, said Coleco
Coleco
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Nintendo
Conquered the World, GamePress, p. 27, ISBN 978-0-9669617-0-6, Nintendo
Nintendo
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Magnavox
Odyssey, the first video game system". Pong-Story. June 27, 1972. Retrieved November 17, 2012.  ^ "Top 25 Video Game Consoles of All Time ( Magnavox
Magnavox
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Nintendo
moved 49.1 million Super NES consoles over the course of the generation and beyond, far surpassing the Genesis, which sold a still impressive 29 million units. [...] The Master System
Master System
sold an anemic 13 million to the NES count of 62 million.  ^ Forster, Winnie (2005). The Encyclopedia of Game.Machines: Consoles, Handhelds, and Home Computers 1972–2005. Magdalena Gniatczynska. p. 139. ISBN 3-00-015359-4.  ^ " Sega
Sega
Consoles: Active installed base estimates". Screen Digest. March 1995: 60.  (cf. here [1], here [2], and here [3]) ^ Nihon Kōgyō Shinbunsha (1986). "Amusement". Business Japan. Nihon Kogyo Shimbun. 31 (7-12): 89. Retrieved January 24, 2012.  ^ Sheff & Eddy 1999, p. 349: " Atari
Atari
sold a handful of its 5200s and 7800s, and Sega
Sega
sold a total of 2 million Master Systems." ^ Azevedo, Théo (May 12, 2016). "Console em produção há mais tempo, Master System
Master System
já vendeu 8 mi no Brasil" (in Portuguese). Universo Online. Retrieved May 13, 2016. Comercializado no Brasil desde setembro de 1989, o saudoso Master System
Master System
já vendeu mais de 8 milhões de unidades no país, segundo a Tectoy.  ^ "Yearly market report". Famitsu Weekly
Famitsu Weekly
(in Japanese) (392): 8. June 21, 1996.  ^ a b c Ernkvist, Mirko (August 21, 2012). Zackariasson, Peter; Wilson, Timothy, eds. The Video Game Industry: Formation, Present State, and Future. Routledge. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-136-25824-4. Retrieved December 5, 2015.  ^ Azevedo, Théo (July 30, 2012). "Vinte anos depois, Master System
Master System
e Mega Drive vendem 150 mil unidades por ano no Brasil" (in Portuguese). UOL. Retrieved October 18, 2012. Base instalada: 5 milhões de Master System; 3 milhões de Mega Drive  ^ Sponsel, Sebastian (November 16, 2015). "Interview: Stefano Arnhold (Tectoy)". Sega-16. Retrieved November 21, 2015.  ^ " Sega
Sega
farms out Genesis". Consumer Electronics. March 2, 1998. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012.  ^ " Sega
Sega
Corporation Annual Report 2001" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Corporation. August 1, 2001. p. 14. Retrieved November 2, 2015. A total of 3.39 million hardware units and 23.87 million software units were sold worldwide during fiscal 2001, for respective totals of 8.20 million units and 51.63 million units since Dreamcast
Dreamcast
was first brought to market.  ^ "Revisions to Annual Results Forecasts" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Corporation. October 23, 2001. p. 4. Retrieved November 2, 2015. Regarding sales of Dreamcast
Dreamcast
hardware from inventory resulting from the withdrawal from Dreamcast
Dreamcast
production [...] the Company exceeded initial targets with domestic sales of 130,000 units and U.S. sales of 530,000 units for the first half. Consequently, at the end of the half, Dreamcast
Dreamcast
inventories totaled 40,000 units domestically and 230,000 units for the United States, and we anticipate being able to sell all remaining units by the holiday season as initially planned.  ^ " Sega
Sega
Corporation Annual Report 2002" (PDF). Sega
Sega
Corporation. July 1, 2002. p. 6. Retrieved November 2, 2015. The year ended March 31, 2002 was a turning point for Sega. We exited the hardware business, ceasing production of Dreamcast
Dreamcast
and selling through the remaining inventory.  ^ Nutt, Christian. "Stalled engine: The TurboGrafx-16
TurboGrafx-16
turns 25". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2016.  ^ Game Data Library, Total Hardware Results [4]. July 2016 ^ " PlayStation
PlayStation
Cumulative Production Shipments of Hardware". Sony Computer Entertainment. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved October 31, 2013.  ^ "Business Development: Hardware". Sony
Sony
Computer Entertainment. Archived from the original on June 30, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2013.  ^ "Business Development: Unit Sales of Hardware(FY2013-)". Sony Computer Entertainment. Archived from the original on April 24, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015.  ^ Makuch, Eddie (February 6, 2014). "PS4 helps Sony's game division rise, but PS3 sales see "significant decrease"". GameSpot. Retrieved December 13, 2015.  ^ "Slimmer, Lighter PlayStation
PlayStation
3, new PlayStation
PlayStation
Network services, plenty of content and a great value price" (PDF) (Press release). Sony Computer Entertainment. August 18, 2009. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 20, 2013. Retrieved February 24, 2013.  ^ " PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
Worldwide Hardware Unit Sales". Sony
Sony
Computer Entertainment. Archived from the original on November 1, 2013. Retrieved February 23, 2013.  ^ Stuart, Keith (January 4, 2013). " PlayStation 2
PlayStation 2
manufacture ends after 12 years". The Guardian. Retrieved November 22, 2013.  ^ " PlayStation 3
PlayStation 3
Sales Reach 80 Million Units Worldwide" (Press release). PR Newswire. November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2013.  ^ "Q4 FY2014 Consolidated Financial Results Forecast (Three months ended March 31, 2015)" (PDF). Sony. April 30, 2015. p. 25. Retrieved April 30, 2015. Computer Entertainment System: 2.8. PS4 (included): 2.4  ^ http://www.sie.com/en/corporate/release/2017/171207.html ^ "Gamers Catch Their Breath as Xbox 360
Xbox 360
and Xbox Live
Xbox Live
Reinvent Next-Generation Gaming". Xbox.com. May 10, 2006. Archived from the original on July 9, 2007. Retrieved September 5, 2007.  ^ "Earnings Release FY14 Q3". Microsoft. April 24, 2014. Retrieved April 24, 2014. Microsoft
Microsoft
sold in 2.0 million Xbox console units, including 1.2 million Xbox One
Xbox One
consoles.  ^ "Earnings Release FY14 Q4". Microsoft. July 22, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014. We sold in 1.1 million consoles in the fourth quarter, as we drew down channel inventory, compared to 1.0 million consoles during the prior year.  ^ Futter, Mike (October 22, 2015). "[Update] Microsoft
Microsoft
Will Focus Primarily On Xbox Live
Xbox Live
Usership, Not Console Shipments". Game Informer. Retrieved October 22, 2015.  ^ Makuch, Eddie (June 9, 2014). "E3 2014: $399 Xbox One
Xbox One
Out Now, Xbox 360 Sales Rise to 84 million". GameSpot. Archived from the original on October 13, 2014. Retrieved August 12, 2014.  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
Annual Meeting of Shareholders". Microsoft. December 3, 2014. Retrieved January 31, 2015. Finally, our gaming business is thriving with the Xbox One
Xbox One
hitting 10 million units sold. I am thrilled to welcome Mojang and Minecraft community to Microsoft.  ^ Souppouris, Aaron (December 7, 2016). " Sony
Sony
has sold 50 million PlayStation
PlayStation
4s". Engadget. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ "The First Video Game". Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S. Dept. of Energy. Retrieved 2008-04-15.  ^ Baer, Ralph H. (2005). Videogames: In The Beginning. Rolenta Press. pp. 52–59. ISBN 0-9643848-1-7.  ^ "How Video Games Invaded the Home TV Set". Ralph H. Baer Consultants. Retrieved 2014-10-15.  ^ " Master System
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Console in Brazil". April 29, 2013. Archived from the original on March 13, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013.  ^ "Hirai targets 150 million PS3 sales". GamesIndustry.biz. 2008-07-21. Retrieved 2008-07-21.  ^ "Hirai wants PS3 to beat PS2". Eurogamer. 2008-07-21. Retrieved 2008-07-21.  ^ "What are the types of removable storage media is supported by the PlayStation 3
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Wii
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PlayStation 4
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Microsoft
Breaks Silence On Xbox One Sales...Sort Of". Forbes.  ^ "World". NST Online. Archived from the original on 2014-05-31.  ^ "Sony's new PlayStation 4
PlayStation 4
Pro can't play 4K Blu-rays". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 7 September 2016.  ^ " Sony
Sony
announces PlayStation 4
PlayStation 4
Pro with 4K HDR gaming for $399". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved 7 September 2016.  ^ "The PlayStation 4
PlayStation 4
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Wii
U Production Has Officially Ended For Japan [Update]". Kotaku. Retrieved January 31, 2017.  ^ "Want to Buy the Nintendo
Nintendo
Switch In India? You Need to Read This First". Gadgets 360. January 20, 2017. Archived from the original on March 4, 2017. Retrieved March 4, 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

Forster, Winnie (2005). The Encyclopedia of Game Machines – Consoles, handheld & home computers 1972–2005. Gameplan. ISBN 3-00-015359-4. Archived from the original on 2007-03-07. 

External links[edit]

Console platforms at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

v t e

Home video game consoles

Atari

Atari
Atari
2600 Atari
Atari
5200 Atari
Atari
7800 Atari
Atari
XEGS Atari
Atari
Jaguar Atari
Atari
VCS

Bandai

Super Vision 8000 Arcadia RX-78 Playdia Apple Bandai
Bandai
Pippin

Casio

PV-1000 Casio
Casio
Loopy

Commodore

Commodore 64 Games System Commodore CDTV Amiga CD32

Mattel

Intellivision HyperScan

Microsoft

Xbox Xbox 360 Xbox One

NEC

TurboGrafx-16 PC-FX

Nintendo

NES SNES N64 GameCube Wii Wii
Wii
U Switch

Philips

Magnavox
Magnavox
Odyssey Odyssey² Videopac + G7400 Philips
Philips
CD-i

Sega

SG-1000 Master System Sega
Sega
Genesis Sega
Sega
Saturn Dreamcast

SNK

Neo Geo Neo Geo CD

Sony

PlayStation PlayStation
PlayStation
2 PSX PlayStation
PlayStation
3 PlayStation
PlayStation
4

VTech

VTech
VTech
CreatiVision Socrates V.Smile V.Flash

Others

1970s

APF-MP1000 Bally Astrocade Fairchild Channel F RCA Studio II Interton VC 4000/1292 Advanced Programmable Video System

1980s

Action Max Arcadia 2001 ColecoVision Epoch Cassette Vision Super Cassette Vision RDI Halcyon Vectrex View-Master Interactive Vision

1990s

3DO Interactive Multiplayer Amstrad GX4000 CPS Changer FM Towns Marty LaserActive Super A'Can

2000s

DISCover EVO Smart Console Game Wave Nuon XaviXPORT Zeebo

List

v t e

Video game
Video game
consoles

Types

Home video game console

list

Handheld game console

list

Microconsole

list

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list

Generations

First (1972–80) Second (1976–92) Third (1983–2003) Fourth (1987–2004) Fifth (1993–2005) Sixth (1998–2013) Seventh (2005–17) Eighth (2012–)

Emulator Game History List Manufacturer

v t e

Computer sizes

Classes of computers

Microcomputer, personal computer

Stationary

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Nettop

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System board

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Mobile

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Desktop replacement 2-in-1 Subnotebook

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Tablet

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Handheld PC

Palm-size PC Pocket PC Pocket computer Palmtop PC

PDA

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Mobile phone

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Phablet

PMP

DAP

E-reader Handheld game console Portable/Mobile data terminal

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Digital wristwatch

Calculator
Calculator
watch Smartwatch

Smartglasses Smart ring

Midrange

Server Minicomputer Supermini

Large

Super Mainframe Minisuper

Others

Microcontroller Nanocomputer Pizza box form factor Single-board computer Smartdust Wireless se

.