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HOLY SPIRIT or HOLY GHOST is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions . The term is also used to describe aspects of other religions and belief structures.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Comparative religion

* 3 Abrahamic religions

* 3.1 Judaism
Judaism
* 3.2 Christianity
Christianity
* 3.3 Islam * 3.4 Bahá\'í Faith
Faith

* 4 In Hinduism * 5 Buddhism
Buddhism
* 6 Sikhism * 7 See also

* 8 References

* 8.1 Works cited

ETYMOLOGY

The word " Spirit
Spirit
" (from the Latin _spiritus_ meaning "breath") appears as either alone or with other words, in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament ) and the New Testament
New Testament
. Combinations include expressions such as the "Holy Spirit", " Spirit
Spirit
of God
God
", and in Christianity, " Spirit
Spirit
of Christ ".

The word Spirit
Spirit
is rendered as רוּחַ (_ruach_) in Hebrew-language parts of the Old Testament. In its Aramaic parts , the term is _rûacḥ_. The Greek translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint , translates the word as πνεῦμα (_pneuma _). This is the same word that is used throughout the New Testament, written originally in Greek.

The English term "Spirit" comes from its Latin origin, _spiritus_, which is how the Vulgate
Vulgate
translates both the Old and New Testament concept. The alternative term, "Holy Ghost", comes from Old English translations of _spiritus_.

COMPARATIVE RELIGION

The Hebrew Bible contains the term " Spirit
Spirit
of God
God
" (_ruach hakodesh_) in the sense of the might of a unitary God
God
. This meaning is different from the Christian concept of "Holy Spirit
Spirit
" as one personality of God
God
in the Trinity
Trinity
.

The Christian concept tends to emphasize the moral aspect of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
more than Judaism
Judaism
, evident in the epithet _Holy_ Spirit
Spirit
that appeared in Jewish religious writings only relatively late but was a common expression in the Christian New Testament.

According to theologian Rudolf Bultmann , there are two ways to think about the Holy Spirit: "animistic" and "dynamistic". In animistic thinking, it is "an independent agent, a personal power which like a demon can fall upon a man and take possession of him, enabling him or compelling him to perform manifestations of power" while in dynamistic thought it "appears as an impersonal force which fills a man like a fluid". Both kinds of thought appear in Jewish and Christian scripture, but animistic is more typical of the Old Testament
Old Testament
whereas dynamistic is more common in the New Testament. The distinction coincides with the Holy Spirit
Spirit
as either a temporary or permanent gift. In the Old Testament
Old Testament
and Jewish thought, it is primarily temporary with a specific situation or task in mind, whereas in the Christian concept the gift resides in man permanently.

The Holy Spirit
Spirit
also has an equivalent in non-Abrahamic Hellenistic mystery religions . They included a distinction of the Spirit
Spirit
and psyche , which was later incorporated into the Pauline epistles . According to proponents of the History of religions school , the Christian concept of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
cannot be explained from Jewish ideas alone without reference to the Hellenistic religions. However, according to theologian Erik Konsmo, the views "are so dissimilar that the only legitimate connection one can make is with the term πνεῦμα itself".

Another link with ancient Greek thought is the Stoic idea of the Spirit
Spirit
as _anima mundi _—or world soul—that unites all people. Some believe that this can be seen in Paul's formulation of the concept of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
that unites Christians
Christians
in Jesus
Jesus
Christ and love for one another, but Konsmo again thinks that this position is difficult to maintain. In his Introduction to the 1964 book _ Meditations _, the Anglican priest Maxwell Staniforth wrote:

Another Stoic concept which offered inspiration to the Church was that of 'divine Spirit'. Cleanthes , wishing to give more explicit meaning to Zeno\'s 'creative fire', had been the first to hit upon the term _pneuma_, or 'spirit', to describe it. Like fire, this intelligent 'spirit' was imagined as a tenuous substance akin to a current of air or breath, but essentially possessing the quality of warmth; it was immanent in the universe as God, and in man as the soul and life-giving principle. Clearly it is not a long step from this to the 'Holy Spirit' of Christian theology, the 'Lord and Giver of life', visibly manifested as tongues of fire at Pentecost and ever since associated – in the Christian as in the Stoic mind – with the ideas of vital fire and beneficient warmth.

ABRAHAMIC RELIGIONS

JUDAISM

Main article: Holy Spirit
Spirit
in Judaism
Judaism

The Hebrew
Hebrew
language phrase _ruach ha-kodesh_ ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: רוח הקודש, "holy spirit" also transliterated _ruacḥ ha-qodesh_) is a term used in the Hebrew Bible ( Tanakh ) and Jewish writings to refer to the spirit of YHWH
YHWH
(רוח יהוה). It literally means "spirit of the holiness" or "spirit of the holy place". The Hebrew
Hebrew
terms _ruacḥ qodshəka_, "thy holy spirit" (רוּחַ קָדְשְׁךָ), and _ruacḥ qodshō_, "his holy spirit" (רוּחַ קָדְשׁוֹ) also occur (when a possessive suffix is added the definite article is dropped).

The "Holy Spirit" in Judaism
Judaism
generally refers to the divine aspect of prophecy and wisdom. It also refers to the divine force, quality, and influence of the Most High God, over the universe or over his creatures, in given contexts.

*

Ezekiel
Ezekiel
receives divine command, represented by the Hand of God
God
, Dura-Europos Synagogue , 3rd century CE *

Early 14th-century Bird's Head Haggadah
Haggadah
: two hands of God
God
appear underneath the text of the _ Dayenu
Dayenu
_ song, dispensing the manna from heaven *

God
God
calling out from the Burning Bush to prophet Moshe , wing panel wall painting, Dura Europos

CHRISTIANITY

Main article: Holy Spirit
Spirit
in Christianity
Christianity

For the large majority of Christians, The Holy Spirit
Spirit
(or Holy Ghost, from Old English _gast_, "spirit") is the third divine person of The Trinity
Trinity
: The "Triune God" manifested as Father , Son , and Holy Spirit; each aspect itself being God. Two symbols from the New Testament canon are associated with the Holy Spirit
Spirit
in Christian iconography : a winged dove, and tongues of fire. Each depiction of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
arose from different historical accounts in the Gospel narratives; the first being at the baptism of Jesus
Jesus
in the Jordan River where the Holy Spirit
Spirit
was said to descend in the form of a dove as the voice of God
God
the Father spoke as described in Matthew , Mark , and Luke ; the second being from the day of Pentecost , fifty days after Pascha where the descent of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
came upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus
Jesus
Christ , as tongues of fire as described in the Acts of the Apostles .2:1–31 Called "the unveiled epiphany of God", the Holy Spirit
Spirit
is the one who enabled the proclamation of Jesus
Jesus
Christ, and the power that brought conviction of faith.

*

Depiction of the Christian Holy Spirit
Spirit
as a dove , by Gian Lorenzo Bernini , in the apse of Saint Peter\'s Basilica *

A depiction of the Trinity
Trinity
consisting of God
God
the Holy Spirit
Spirit
along with God
God
the Father and God
God
the Son *

Pentecost icon depicting the descent of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
upon the Apostles and Mary in the form of tongues of flame above their heads.

ISLAM

Main article: Holy Spirit
Spirit
in Islam

The Holy Spirit
Spirit
(Arabic : روح القدس _Ruh al-Qudus_, "the holy spirit") is mentioned four times in the Qur\'an , where it acts as an agent of divine action or communication. The Muslim interpretation of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
is generally consistent with other interpretations based upon the Old and the New Testaments. On the basis of narrations in certain Hadith some Muslims identify it with the angel Gabriel (Arabic _Jibrāʾīl_). The Spirit
Spirit
(الروح _al-Ruh_, without the adjective "holy" or "exalted") is described, among other things, as the creative spirit from God
God
by which God
God
enlivened Adam , and which inspired in various ways God's messengers and prophets, including Jesus
Jesus
and Abraham . The belief in a "Holy Trinity", according to the Qur'an, is forbidden and deemed to be blasphemy . The same prohibition applies to any idea of the duality of God
God
( Allah
Allah
).

BAHá\'í FAITH

Main article: Maid of Heaven

The Bahá\'í Faith
Faith
has the concept of the _Most Great Spirit_, seen as the bounty of God. It is usually used to describe the descent of the Spirit
Spirit
of God
God
upon the messengers/prophets of God
God
who include, among others, Jesus, Muhammad
Muhammad
and Bahá\'u\'lláh .

In Bahá'í belief, the Holy Spirit
Spirit
is the conduit through which the wisdom of God
God
becomes directly associated with his messenger, and it has been described variously in different religions such as the burning bush to Moses, the sacred fire to Zoroaster, the dove to Jesus, the angel Gabriel
Gabriel
to Muhammad, and the Maid of Heaven to Bahá'u'lláh. The Bahá'í view rejects the idea that the Holy Spirit
Spirit
is a partner to God
God
in the Godhead, but rather is the pure essence of God's attributes.

IN HINDUISM

The Hinduism concept of Advaita is linked to Trinity
Trinity
and has been briefly explained by Raimon Panikkar , Professor of Comparative Religion
Religion
and History of Religions, Department of Religious Studies of the University of California. He states that the Holy Spirit, as one of the Three Persons of the Trinity
Trinity
of "father, Logos and Holy Spirit", is a bridge builder between Christianity
Christianity
and Hinduism. He explains that “The meeting of spiritualistic can take place in the Spirit. No new 'system' has primarily to come of this encounter, but a new and yet old spirit must emerges." In North India
North India
, Indian Christians
Christians
have associated the Hindu term Atman with the Holy Spirit. Atman is Vedic terminology elaborated in Hindu scriptures such as Upanishads and Vedanta signifies the Ultimate Reality and Absolute .

BUDDHISM

In Buddhism
Buddhism
, Holy Spirit
Spirit
is compared to Buddha Nature as a Buddhist image or Christ consciousness, a oneness with an all encompassing plan. Hence, the Holy Spirit
Spirit
is considered the "means of which the faithful develop and journey to their spiritual goal."

SIKHISM

In Sikhism , the Guru
Guru
is the medium and the Holy spirit is stated to have moved from Guru
Guru
Nanak to the nine Sikh Gurus who followed him culminating with Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh , the "tenth Guru
Guru
Nanak".

SEE ALSO

* Avatar * Baptism with the Holy Spirit
Spirit
* Barakah * Cult of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
* Deity
Deity
* Gender of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
* God
God
in Abrahamic religions * Great Spirit
Spirit
* Intercession of the Spirit
Spirit
* Pneumatology

REFERENCES

* ^ Levison, John R. (2002). _The Spirit
Spirit
in First-Century Judaism_. Boston: Brill. p. 65. ISBN 0-391-04131-2 . Relevant Milieux : Israelite Literature : The expression, holy spirit, occurs in the Hebrew Bible only in Isa 63:10–11 and Ps 51:13. In Isaiah 63, the spirit acts within the corporate experience of Israel... * ^ Caner, Emir Fethi; Caner, Ergun Mehmet (2003). _More Than a Prophet: An Insider\'s Response to Muslim Beliefs about Jesus
Jesus
and Christianity_. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8254-9682-0 . In Surah al-Nahl (16:102), the text is even more explicit: Say, the Holy Spirit
Spirit
has brought the revelation from thy Lord in Truth, in order to strengthen those who believe and as a Guide and glad tidings to Muslims." * ^ Bultmann 2007 , p. 153. * ^ _A_ _B_ Caulley, Thomas Scott (2001). "Holy Spirit". In Elwell, Walter A. _Evangelical Dictionary of Theology_. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic. p. 568. ISBN 978-1-4412-0030-3 . * ^ Levison, John R. (2009). _Filled with the Spirit_. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-8028-6372-0 . * ^ Bultmann 2007 , p. 154. * ^ Harper, Douglas. "spirit (n.)". _Online Etymology Dictionary_. Retrieved August 29, 2016. * ^ Harper, Douglas. "ghost (n.)". _Online Etymology Dictionary_. Retrieved August 29, 2016. * ^ Espín, Orlando O. (2007). "Holy Spirit". In Espín, Orlando O.; Nickoloff, James B. _An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies_. Collegeville: Liturgical Press. p. 576. ISBN 978-0-8146-5856-7 . * ^ Dunn, James D. G. (2006). "Towards the Spirit
Spirit
of Christ: The Emergence of the Distinctive Features of Christian Pneumatology". In Welker, Michael. _The Work of the Spirit: Pneumatology and Pentecostalism_. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8028-0387-0 . * ^ Bultmann 2007 , p. 155. * ^ Bultmann 2007 , pp. 156–157. * ^ Bultmann 2007 , pp. 157. * ^ Konsmo 2010 , p. 2. * ^ _A_ _B_ Konsmo 2010 , p. 5. * ^ Konsmo 2010 , p. 6. * ^ Aurelius, Marcus (1964). _Meditations_. London: Penguin Books . p. 25. ISBN 0-14044140-9 . ISBN 978-0-140-44140-6 . * ^ Alan Unterman and Rivka Horowitz,Ruah ha-Kodesh, Encyclopedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition, Jerusalem: Judaica Multimedia/Keter, 1997). * ^ The Birds\' Head Haggadah. The Israel Museum Permanent Exhibitions. * ^ Erickson, Millard J. (1992). _Introducing Christian Doctrine_. Baker Book House. p. 103. * ^ Hammond, T. C. (1968). Wright, David F., ed. _In Understanding be Men: A Handbook of Christian Doctrine_ (6th ed.). Inter-Varsity Press . pp. 54–56, 128–131. * ^ Grudem, Wayne A. (1994). _Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine._ Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press; Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan . p. 226. * ^ Williams, Charles (1950). _The descent of the Dove : a short history of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
in the church_. London: Faber. * ^ Kasemann, Ernst (1960). _The Beginnings of Christian Theology_ (in German). 102: Philadelphia: Fortress. ISBN 978-1-316-61990-2 . * ^ Qur\'an search: روح القدس. searchtruth.com. * ^ Griffith, Sidney H. _Holy Spirit_, Encyclopaedia of the Quran . * ^ Thomas Patrick Hughes , _A Dictionary of Islam_, p. 605. * ^ `Abdu\'l-Bahá (1981) . "The Holy Spirit". _Some Answered Questions_. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 108–109. ISBN 0-87743-190-6 . * ^ Taherzadeh, Adib (1976). _The Revelation of Bahá\'u\'lláh, Volume 1: Baghdad 1853–63_. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. p. 10. ISBN 0-85398-270-8 . * ^ Abdo, Lil (1994). "Female Representations of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
in Bahá\'í and Christian writings and their implications for gender roles". _Bahá'í Studies Review_. 4 (1). * ^ `Abdu\'l-Bahá (1981) . "The Trinity". _Some Answered Questions_. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 113–115. ISBN 0-87743-190-6 . * ^ Camilia Gangasingh MacPherson (1996). _A Critical Reading of the Development of Raimon Panikkar\'s Thought on the Trinity_. University Press of America. pp. 41–32. ISBN 978-0-7618-0184-9 . * ^ Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen (2010). _Holy Spirit
Spirit
and Salvation_. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 431. ISBN 978-0-664-23136-1 . * ^ Thomas Ragland (2003). _The Noble Eightfold Path of Christ: Jesus
Jesus
Teaches the Dharma of Buddhism_. Trafford Publishing. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-4120-0013-0 . * ^ Kartar S. Duggal (1988). _Philosophy and Faith
Faith
of Sikhism_. Himalayan Institute Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-89389-109-1 .

WORKS CITED

* Bultmann, Rudolf (2007) . _ Theology of the New Testament_. 1. Translated by Grobel, Kendrick. Waco: Baylor University Press. § 14. The Spirit: 1. ISBN 978-1-932792-93-5 . * Konsmo, Erik (2010). _The Pauline Metaphors of the Holy Spirit: The Intangible Spirit\'s Tangible Presence in the Life of the Christian_. New York: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-1-4331-0691-0 . * Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
(1964). _Meditations_. London: Penguin Books . ISBN 0-14044140-9 .

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