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Holy Spirit
Spirit
or Holy Ghost is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.[1][2] The term is also used to describe aspects of other religions and belief structures.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Comparative religion 3 Abrahamic religions

3.1 Judaism 3.2 Christianity 3.3 Islam

4 Other religions

4.1 Bahá'í Faith 4.2 In Hinduism 4.3 Buddhism 4.4 Sikhism

5 See also 6 References

6.1 Works cited

Etymology[edit] The word "Spirit" (from the Latin spiritus meaning "breath") appears as either alone or with other words, in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(Old Testament) and the New Testament. Combinations include expressions such as the "Holy Spirit", " Spirit
Spirit
of God", and in Christianity, " Spirit
Spirit
of Christ".[3] The word Spirit
Spirit
is rendered as רוּחַ (ruach) in Hebrew-language parts of the Old Testament.[4] In its Aramaic parts, the term is rûacḥ.[5] The Greek translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint, translates the word as πνεῦμα (pneuma).[4] This is the same word that is used throughout the New Testament, written originally in Greek.[6] The English term "Spirit" comes from its Latin origin, spiritus, which is how the Vulgate
Vulgate
translates both the Old and New Testament concept.[7] The alternative term, "Holy Ghost", comes from Old English translations of spiritus.[8] Comparative religion[edit] The Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
contains the term " Spirit
Spirit
of God" (ruach hakodesh) in the sense of the might of a unitary God. This meaning is different from the Christian
Christian
concept of "Holy Spirit" as one personality of God in the Trinity.[9] The Christian
Christian
concept tends to emphasize the moral aspect of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
more than Judaism, evident in the epithet Holy Spirit
Spirit
that appeared in Jewish religious writings only relatively late but was a common expression in the Christian
Christian
New Testament.[10] According to theologian Rudolf Bultmann, there are two ways to think about the Holy Spirit: "animistic" and "dynamistic". In animistic thinking, it is "an independent agent, a personal power which like a demon can fall upon a man and take possession of him, enabling him or compelling him to perform manifestations of power" while in dynamistic thought it "appears as an impersonal force which fills a man like a fluid".[11] Both kinds of thought appear in Jewish and Christian scripture, but animistic is more typical of the Old Testament
Old Testament
whereas dynamistic is more common in the New Testament.[12] The distinction coincides with the Holy Spirit
Spirit
as either a temporary or permanent gift. In the Old Testament
Old Testament
and Jewish thought, it is primarily temporary with a specific situation or task in mind, whereas in the Christian
Christian
concept the gift resides in man permanently.[13] On the surface, the Holy Spirit
Spirit
appears to have an equivalent in non-Abrahamic Hellenistic mystery religions. These religions included a distinction between the Spirit
Spirit
and psyche, which is also seen in the Pauline epistles. According to proponents of the History of religions school, the Christian
Christian
concept of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
cannot be explained from Jewish ideas alone without reference to the Hellenistic religions.[14] However, according to theologian Erik Konsmo, the views "are so dissimilar that the only legitimate connection one can make is with the Greek term πνεῦμα [pneuma, Spirit] itself".[15] Another link with ancient Greek thought is the Stoic idea of the Spirit
Spirit
as anima mundi—or world soul—that unites all people.[15] Some believe that this can be seen in Paul's formulation of the concept of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
that unites Christians
Christians
in Jesus
Jesus
Christ and love for one another, but Konsmo again thinks that this position is difficult to maintain.[16] In his Introduction to the 1964 book Meditations, the Anglican priest Maxwell Staniforth wrote:

Another Stoic concept which offered inspiration to the Church was that of 'divine Spirit'. Cleanthes, wishing to give more explicit meaning to Zeno's 'creative fire', had been the first to hit upon the term pneuma, or 'spirit', to describe it. Like fire, this intelligent 'spirit' was imagined as a tenuous substance akin to a current of air or breath, but essentially possessing the quality of warmth; it was immanent in the universe as God, and in man as the soul and life-giving principle. Clearly it is not a long step from this to the 'Holy Spirit' of Christian
Christian
theology, the 'Lord and Giver of life', visibly manifested as tongues of fire at Pentecost
Pentecost
and ever since associated – in the Christian
Christian
as in the Stoic mind – with the ideas of vital fire and beneficient warmth.[17]

Abrahamic religions[edit] Judaism[edit] Main article: Holy Spirit
Spirit
in Judaism The Hebrew
Hebrew
language phrase ruach ha-kodesh (Hebrew: רוח הקודש, "holy spirit" also transliterated ruacḥ ha-qodesh) is a term used in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(Tanakh) and Jewish writings to refer to the spirit of YHWH
YHWH
(רוח יהוה). It literally means "spirit of the holiness" or "spirit of the holy place". The Hebrew
Hebrew
terms ruacḥ qodshəka, "thy holy spirit" (רוּחַ קָדְשְׁךָ), and ruacḥ qodshō, "his holy spirit" (רוּחַ קָדְשׁוֹ) also occur (when a possessive suffix is added the definite article is dropped).[citation needed] The "Holy Spirit" in Judaism
Judaism
generally refers to the divine aspect of prophecy and wisdom. It also refers to the divine force, quality, and influence of the Most High God, over the universe or over his creatures, in given contexts.[18]

Ezekiel
Ezekiel
receives divine command, represented by the Hand of God, Dura-Europos Synagogue, 3rd century CE

Early 14th-century Birds' Head Haggadah: two hands of God
God
appear underneath the text of the Dayenu
Dayenu
song, dispensing the manna from heaven[19]

God
God
calling out from the Burning Bush
Burning Bush
to prophet Moshe, wing panel wall painting, Dura Europos

Christianity[edit] Main article: Holy Spirit
Spirit
in Christianity For the large majority of Christians, the Holy Spirit
Spirit
(or Holy Ghost, from Old English
Old English
gast, "spirit") is a member of the Trinity: The "Triune God" manifested as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; each aspect itself being God.[20][21][22] Two symbols from the New Testament
New Testament
canon are associated with the Holy Spirit
Spirit
in Christian
Christian
iconography: a winged dove, and tongues of fire.[23][24][non-primary source needed] Each depiction of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
arose from different historical accounts in the Gospel
Gospel
narratives; the first being at the baptism of Jesus
Jesus
in the Jordan River
Jordan River
where the Holy Spirit
Spirit
was said to descend in the form of a dove as the voice of God
God
the Father spoke as described in Matthew, Mark, and Luke[25];the second being from the day of Pentecost, fifty days after Pascha where the descent of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
came upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus
Jesus
Christ, as tongues of fire as described in the Acts of the Apostles.2:1–31[26] Called "the unveiled epiphany of God",[27] the Holy Spirit
Spirit
is the one who empowers the followers of Jesus
Jesus
with spiritual gifts[28][non-primary source needed] and power[29][30] that enabled the proclamation of Jesus
Jesus
Christ, and the power that brought conviction of faith.

Depiction of the Christian
Christian
Holy Spirit
Spirit
as a dove, by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, in the apse of Saint Peter's Basilica

A depiction of the Trinity
Trinity
consisting of God
God
the Holy Spirit
Spirit
along with God
God
the Father and God
God
the Son

Pentecost
Pentecost
icon depicting the descent of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
upon the Apostles and Mary in the form of tongues of flame above their heads.

Islam[edit] Main article: Holy Spirit
Spirit
in Islam The Holy Spirit
Spirit
(Arabic: روح القدس Ruh al-Qudus, "the holy spirit") is mentioned four times in the Qur'an,[31] where it acts as an agent of divine action or communication. While there are similarities to the Holy Spirit
Spirit
mentioned in Christian
Christian
and Jewish, it is unclear if these four references[32] refer to the same Holy Spirit. The Muslim
Muslim
interpretation of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
is generally consistent with other interpretations based upon the Old and the New Testaments. On the basis of narrations in certain Hadith
Hadith
some Muslims identify it with the angel Gabriel
Gabriel
(Arabic Jibrāʾīl). The Spirit
Spirit
(الروح al-Ruh, without the adjective "holy" or "exalted") is described, among other things, as the creative spirit from God
God
by which God
God
enlivened Adam, and which inspired in various ways God's messengers and prophets, including Jesus
Jesus
and Abraham. The belief in a "Holy Trinity", according to the Qur'an, is forbidden and deemed to be blasphemy. The same prohibition applies to any idea of the duality of God (Allah).[33][34] Other religions[edit] Other religions reference a spirit that has a name resembling the Holy Spirit
Spirit
found in the Christian
Christian
and Jewish faiths, but similar to Islam, this is a different spirit with a different purpose that is unique to those religions, as is seen below: Bahá'í Faith[edit] Main article: Maid of Heaven The Bahá'í Faith
Faith
has the concept of the Most Great Spirit, seen as the bounty of God.[35] It is usually used to describe the descent of the Spirit
Spirit
of God
God
upon the messengers/prophets of God
God
who include, among others, Jesus, Muhammad
Muhammad
and Bahá'u'lláh.[36] In Bahá'í belief, the Holy Spirit
Spirit
is the conduit through which the wisdom of God
God
becomes directly associated with his messenger, and it has been described variously in different religions such as the burning bush to Moses, the sacred fire to Zoroaster, the dove to Jesus, the angel Gabriel
Gabriel
to Muhammad, and the Maid of Heaven to Bahá'u'lláh.[37] The Bahá'í view rejects the idea that the Holy Spirit
Spirit
is a partner to God
God
in the Godhead, but rather is the pure essence of God's attributes.[38] In Hinduism[edit] The Hinduism
Hinduism
concept of Advaita
Advaita
is linked to Trinity
Trinity
and has been briefly explained by Raimon Panikkar, Professor of Comparative Religion
Religion
and History of Religions, Department of Religious Studies of the University of California. He states that the Holy Spirit, as one of the Three Persons of the Trinity
Trinity
of "father, Logos and Holy Spirit", is a bridge builder between Christianity
Christianity
and Hinduism. He explains that “The meeting of spiritualistic can take place in the Spirit. No new 'system' has primarily to come of this encounter, but a new and yet old spirit must emerges."[39] In North India, Indian Christians
Christians
have associated the Hindu term Atman with the Holy Spirit. Atman is Vedic terminology elaborated in Hindu scriptures
Hindu scriptures
such as Upanishads
Upanishads
and Vedanta
Vedanta
signifies the Ultimate Reality
Ultimate Reality
and Absolute.[40] Buddhism[edit] In Buddhism, Holy Spirit
Spirit
is compared to Buddha Nature as a Buddhist image or Christ consciousness, a oneness with an all encompassing plan. Hence, the Holy Spirit
Spirit
is considered the "means of which the faithful develop and journey to their spiritual goal."[41] Sikhism[edit] In Sikhism, the Guru
Guru
is the medium and the Holy spirit is stated to have moved from Guru
Guru
Nanak to the nine Sikh Gurus who followed him culminating with Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh, the "tenth Guru
Guru
Nanak".[42] See also[edit]

Avatar Baptism with the Holy Spirit Barakah Cult of the Holy Spirit Deity Gender of the Holy Spirit God
God
in Abrahamic religions Great Spirit Intercession of the Spirit Pneumatology

References[edit]

^ Levison, John R. (2002). The Spirit
Spirit
in First-Century Judaism. Boston: Brill. p. 65. ISBN 0-391-04131-2. Relevant Milieux : Israelite Literature : The expression, holy spirit, occurs in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
only in Isa 63:10–11 and Ps 51:13. In Isaiah 63, the spirit acts within the corporate experience of Israel...  ^ Caner, Emir Fethi; Caner, Ergun Mehmet (2003). More Than a Prophet: An Insider's Response to Muslim
Muslim
Beliefs about Jesus
Jesus
and Christianity. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8254-9682-0. In Surah al-Nahl (16:102), the text is even more explicit: Say, the Holy Spirit
Spirit
has brought the revelation from thy Lord in Truth, in order to strengthen those who believe and as a Guide and glad tidings to Muslims."  ^ Bultmann 2007, p. 153. ^ a b Caulley, Thomas Scott (2001). "Holy Spirit". In Elwell, Walter A. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic. p. 568. ISBN 978-1-4412-0030-3.  ^ Levison, John R. (2009). Filled with the Spirit. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-8028-6372-0.  ^ Bultmann 2007, p. 154. ^ Harper, Douglas. "spirit (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved August 29, 2016.  ^ Harper, Douglas. "ghost (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved August 29, 2016.  ^ Espín, Orlando O. (2007). "Holy Spirit". In Espín, Orlando O.; Nickoloff, James B. An Introductory Dictionary of Theology
Theology
and Religious Studies. Collegeville: Liturgical Press. p. 576. ISBN 978-0-8146-5856-7.  ^ Dunn, James D. G. (2006). "Towards the Spirit
Spirit
of Christ: The Emergence of the Distinctive Features of Christian
Christian
Pneumatology". In Welker, Michael. The Work of the Spirit: Pneumatology and Pentecostalism. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8028-0387-0.  ^ Bultmann 2007, p. 155. ^ Bultmann 2007, pp. 156–157. ^ Bultmann 2007, pp. 157. ^ Konsmo 2010, p. 2. ^ a b Konsmo 2010, p. 5. ^ Konsmo 2010, p. 6. ^ Aurelius, Marcus (1964). Meditations. London: Penguin Books. p. 25. ISBN 0-14044140-9. ISBN 978-0-140-44140-6.  ^ Alan Unterman and Rivka Horowitz,Ruah ha-Kodesh, Encyclopedia Judaica (CD-ROM Edition, Jerusalem: Judaica Multimedia/Keter, 1997). ^ The Birds' Head Haggadah. The Israel Museum Permanent Exhibitions. ^ Erickson, Millard J. (1992). Introducing Christian
Christian
Doctrine. Baker Book House. p. 103.  ^ Hammond, T. C. (1968). Wright, David F., ed. In Understanding be Men: A Handbook of Christian
Christian
Doctrine (6th ed.). Inter-Varsity Press. pp. 54–56, 128–131.  ^ Grudem, Wayne A. (1994). Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press; Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. p. 226. ^ Luke 3:22, NIV ^ Acts 2:3, NIV ^ Luke 3:22, NIV ^ Williams, Charles (1950). The descent of the Dove : a short history of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
in the church. London: Faber.  ^ Kasemann, Ernst (1960). The Beginnings of Christian
Christian
Theology
Theology
[W.J. Montague, New Testament
New Testament
Questions of Today] (in German). 102: Philadelphia: Fortress. ISBN 978-1-316-61990-2.  ^ I Corinthians 13:4-11, NIV ^ Acts 1:8 ^ Johnson, Bill. When Heaven Invades Earth. Destiny Image, 2005 ^ Qur'an
Qur'an
search: روح القدس. searchtruth.com. ^ Qur'an
Qur'an
search: روح القدس. searchtruth.com. ^ Griffith, Sidney H. Holy Spirit, Encyclopaedia of the Quran. ^ Thomas Patrick Hughes, A Dictionary of Islam, p. 605. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá
(1981) [1904–06]. "The Holy Spirit". Some Answered Questions. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 108–109. ISBN 0-87743-190-6.  ^ Taherzadeh, Adib (1976). The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 1: Baghdad 1853–63. Oxford, UK: George Ronald. p. 10. ISBN 0-85398-270-8.  ^ Abdo, Lil (1994). "Female Representations of the Holy Spirit
Spirit
in Bahá'í and Christian
Christian
writings and their implications for gender roles". Bahá'í Studies Review. 4 (1).  ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá
(1981) [1904–06]. "The Trinity". Some Answered Questions. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. pp. 113–115. ISBN 0-87743-190-6.  ^ Camilia Gangasingh MacPherson (1996). A Critical Reading of the Development of Raimon Panikkar's Thought on the Trinity. University Press of America. pp. 41–32. ISBN 978-0-7618-0184-9.  ^ Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen (2010). Holy Spirit
Spirit
and Salvation. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 431. ISBN 978-0-664-23136-1.  ^ Thomas Ragland (2003). The Noble Eightfold Path of Christ: Jesus Teaches the Dharma
Dharma
of Buddhism. Trafford Publishing. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-4120-0013-0.  ^ Kartar S. Duggal (1988). Philosophy and Faith
Faith
of Sikhism. Himalayan Institute Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-89389-109-1. 

Works cited[edit]

Bultmann, Rudolf (2007) [1951]. Theology
Theology
of the New Testament. 1. Translated by Grobel, Kendrick. Waco: Baylor University Press. § 14. The Spirit: 1. ISBN 978-1-932792-93-5.  Konsmo, Erik (2010). The Pauline Metaphors of the Holy Spirit: The Intangible Spirit's Tangible Presence in the Life of the Christian. New York: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-1-4331-0691-0.  Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
(1964). Meditations. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14044140-9. 

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