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The Holy See
Holy See
(Italian: Santa Sede; Latin: Sancta Sedes; Ecclesiastical Latin: [ˈsaŋkta ˈsedes]), also referred to as the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity. It serves as the central point of reference for the Catholic Church everywhere and the focal point of communion due to its position as the pre-eminent episcopal see of the universal church. Today, it is responsible for the governance of all Catholics, organised in their Particular Churches, Patriarchates and religious institutes. As an independent sovereign entity, holding the Vatican City
Vatican City
enclave in Rome
Rome
as an independent state, it maintains diplomatic relations with other states. It is viewed as analogous to a state while administered by the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
( Latin
Latin
for Roman Court), similar to a centralised government with the Cardinal Secretary of State
Cardinal Secretary of State
as its chief administrator, and various dicasteries, comparable to ministries and executive departments. Diplomatically, the Holy See
Holy See
acts and speaks for the whole church. It is also recognised by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope, with which diplomatic relations can be maintained.[3][4] Although it is often informally referred to as "the Vatican", the "Holy See" is not the same entity as the " Vatican City
Vatican City
State", which came into existence only in 1929 because of the Lateran Treaty; the Holy See, the episcopal see of Rome, dates back to antiquity. Ambassadors are officially accredited not to the Vatican City
Vatican City
State but to "the Holy See", and Papal representatives to states and international organizations are recognized as representing the Holy See, not the Vatican City
Vatican City
State. The creation of the Vatican City State was meant to ensure the diplomatic and spiritual independence of the Pope. The expression "the Holy See" (without further specification) is normally used in international relations (and in the Canon law of the Catholic Church)[5] to refer to the See of Rome
Rome
viewed as the central government of the Catholic Church.

Contents

1 Terminology 2 Organization 3 Status in international law

3.1 Diplomacy 3.2 Relationship with the Vatican City
Vatican City
and other territories

4 Military 5 Coat of arms 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Terminology[edit]

The papal throne (cathedra), in the apse of Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, symbolises the Holy See.

The word "see" comes from the Latin
Latin
word "sedes", meaning "seat", which refers to the Episcopal throne (cathedra). The term "Apostolic See" can refer to any see founded by one of the Apostles, but, when used with the definite article, it is used in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
to refer specifically to the see of the Bishop of Rome, whom that Church sees as successor of Saint
Saint
Peter, the Prince of the Apostles.[6] While Saint Peter's Basilica
Saint Peter's Basilica
in Vatican City
Vatican City
is perhaps the church most associated with the Papacy, the actual cathedral of the Holy See
Holy See
is the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran
Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran
within the city of Rome.[note 1] Every see is considered holy. In Greek, the adjective "holy" or "sacred" (ἱερά transliterated as hiera) is constantly applied to all such sees as a matter of course. In the West, the adjective is not commonly added, but it does form part of an official title of two sees: besides the Diocese
Diocese
of Rome
Rome
("the Holy See"), the Bishopric of Mainz (the former Archbishopric of Mainz, which was also of electoral and primatial rank) bears the title of "the Holy See
Holy See
of Mainz" (Latin: Sancta Sedes Moguntina).[7] Organization[edit]

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v t e

Main article: Roman Curia The Holy See
Holy See
is among Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Brunei, and Oman
Oman
one of the last remaining seven absolute monarchies in the world.[8][9][10] The Pope
Pope
governs the Catholic Church through the Roman Curia. The Roman Curia
Roman Curia
consists of a complex of offices that administer church affairs at the highest level, including the Secretariat of State, nine Congregations, three Tribunals, eleven Pontifical Councils, and seven Pontifical Commissions. The Secretariat of State, under the Cardinal Secretary of State, directs and coordinates the Curia. The incumbent, Cardinal Pietro Parolin,[11] is the See's equivalent of a prime minister. Archbishop
Archbishop
Paul Gallagher, Secretary of the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State, acts as the Holy See's minister of foreign affairs. Parolin was named in his role by Pope
Pope
Francis on 31 August 2013.

Vatican City, the Holy See's sovereign territory

The Secretariat of State is the only body of the Curia that is situated within Vatican City. The others are in buildings in different parts of Rome
Rome
that have extraterritorial rights similar to those of embassies. Among the most active of the major Curial institutions are the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, which oversees the Catholic Church's doctrine; the Congregation for Bishops, which coordinates the appointment of bishops worldwide; the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, which oversees all missionary activities; and the Pontifical Council
Pontifical Council
for Justice and Peace, which deals with international peace and social issues. Three tribunals exercise judicial power. The Roman Rota
Roman Rota
handles normal judicial appeals, the most numerous being those that concern alleged nullity of marriage.[12] The Apostolic Signatura
Apostolic Signatura
is the supreme appellate and administrative court concerning decisions even of the Roman Rota
Roman Rota
and administrative decisions of ecclesiastical superiors (bishops and superiors of religious institutes), such as closing a parish or removing someone from office. It also oversees the work of other ecclesiastical tribunals at all levels.[13] The Apostolic Penitentiary deals not with external judgments or decrees, but with matters of conscience, granting absolutions from censures, dispensations, commutations, validations, condonations, and other favors; it also grants indulgences.[14] The Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See coordinates the finances of the Holy See
Holy See
departments and supervises the administration of all offices, whatever be their degree of autonomy, that manage these finances. The most important of these is the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See. The Prefecture of the Papal Household
Prefecture of the Papal Household
is responsible for the organization of the papal household, audiences, and ceremonies (apart from the strictly liturgical part). The Holy See
Holy See
does not dissolve upon a Pope's death or resignation. It instead operates under a different set of laws sede vacante. During this interregnum, the heads of the dicasteries of the Roman Curia (such as the prefects of congregations) cease immediately to hold office, the only exceptions being the Major Penitentiary, who continues his important role regarding absolutions and dispensations, and the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, who administers the temporalities (i.e., properties and finances) of the See of St. Peter during this period. The government of the See, and therefore of the Catholic Church, then falls to the College of Cardinals. Canon law prohibits the College and the Camerlengo from introducing any innovations or novelties in the government of the Church during this period. In 2001, the Holy See
Holy See
had a revenue of 422.098 billion Italian lire (about 202 million USD at the time), and a net income of 17.720 billion Italian lire
Italian lire
(about 8 million USD).[15] According to an article by David Leigh in the Guardian newspaper, a 2012 report from the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
identified the value of a section of the Vatican's property assets as an amount in excess of €680m (£570m); as of January 2013, Paolo Mennini, a papal official in Rome, manages this portion of the Holy See's assets—consisting of British investments, other European holdings and a currency trading arm. The Guardian newspaper described Mennini and his role in the following manner: "... Paolo Mennini, who is in effect the pope's merchant banker. Mennini heads a special unit inside the Vatican called the extraordinary division of APSA – Amministrazione del Patrimonio della Sede Apostolica – which handles the "patrimony of the Holy See"."[16] Status in international law[edit] Main article: Legal status of the Holy See The Holy See
Holy See
has been recognized, both in state practice and in the writing of modern legal scholars, as a subject of public international law, with rights and duties analogous to those of States. Although the Holy See, as distinct from the Vatican City
Vatican City
State, does not fulfill the long-established criteria in international law of statehood—having a permanent population, a defined territory, a stable government and the capacity to enter into relations with other states[17]—its possession of full legal personality in international law is shown by the fact that it maintains diplomatic relations with 180[18] states, that it is a member-state[19] in various intergovernmental international organizations, and that it is: "respected by the international community of sovereign States and treated as a subject of international law having the capacity to engage in diplomatic relations and to enter into binding agreements with one, several, or many states under international law that are largely geared to establish and preserving peace in the world."[20] Diplomacy[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of the Holy See Further information: Diplomatic missions of the Holy See, Holy See
Holy See
and the United Nations, and Multilateral foreign policy of the Holy See

Foreign relations with the Holy See.   Diplomatic relations   Other relations   No relations

Since medieval times the episcopal see of Rome
Rome
has been recognized as a sovereign entity. The Holy See
Holy See
(not the State of Vatican City) maintains formal diplomatic relations with and for the most recent establishment of diplomatic relations with 183 sovereign states,[18] and also with the European Union, and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, as well as having relations of a special character with the Palestine Liberation Organization;[21][22] 69 of the diplomatic missions accredited to the Holy See
Holy See
are situated in Rome. The Holy See maintains 180 permanent diplomatic missions abroad, of which 74 are non-residential, so that many of its 106 concrete missions are accredited to two or more countries or international organizations. The diplomatic activities of the Holy See
Holy See
are directed by the Secretariat of State (headed by the Cardinal Secretary of State), through the Section for Relations with States. There are 15 internationally recognized states with which the Holy See
Holy See
does not have relations.[23] The Holy See
Holy See
is the only European subject of international law that has diplomatic relations with the government of the Republic of China
China
(usually known as Taiwan) as representing China,[24][25] rather than the government of the People's Republic of China
China
(see Holy See– Taiwan
Taiwan
relations). The British Foreign and Commonwealth Office speaks of Vatican City
Vatican City
as the "capital" of the Holy See, although it compares the legal personality of the Holy See
Holy See
to that of the Crown in Christian monarchies and declares that the Holy See
Holy See
and the state of Vatican City are two international identities. It also distinguishes between the employees of the Holy See
Holy See
(2,750 working in the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
with another 333 working in the Holy See's diplomatic missions abroad) and the 1,909 employees of the Vatican City
Vatican City
State.[26] The British Ambassador to the Holy See
Holy See
uses more precise language, saying that the Holy See
Holy See
"is not the same as the Vatican City
Vatican City
State. … (It) is the universal government of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and operates from the Vatican City
Vatican City
State."[27] This agrees exactly with the expression used by the website of the United States
United States
Department of State, in giving information on both the Holy See
Holy See
and the Vatican City
Vatican City
State: it too says that the Holy See
Holy See
"operates from the Vatican City
Vatican City
State".[28] The Holy See
Holy See
is a member of various International organizations
International organizations
and groups including the International Atomic Energy Agency
International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA), International Telecommunication Union, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The Holy See
Holy See
is also a permanent observer in various international organizations, including the United Nations General Assembly, the Council of Europe, UNESCO
UNESCO
(United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Relationship with the Vatican City
Vatican City
and other territories[edit]

This article is part a series on the

Vatican City

History

Duchy of Rome
Rome
533–751 Donation of Pepin
Donation of Pepin
750s Papal States
Papal States
754–1870

Annates Congregation for Borders

Capture of Rome
Rome
1870 "Prisoner in the Vatican" 1870–1929 Lateran Treaty
Lateran Treaty
1929 Vatican City
Vatican City
1929–present

2010 Vatican sex scandal

History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
since 1962 History of the Papacy Roman Historical Institutes Savoyard Era Vatileaks scandal Vatican Historical Museum Vatican City
Vatican City
during World War II

Law

Acta Apostolicae Sedis Fundamental Law of Vatican City
Vatican City
State Capital punishment in Vatican City Crime in Vatican City Lateran Treaty Legal status of the Holy See Temporal power of the papacy Tribunal of Vatican City
Vatican City
State (Alperin v. Vatican Bank) (Doe v. Holy See) LGBT rights in Vatican City Pontifical Swiss Guard Corps of Firefighters of the Vatican City
Vatican City
State Corps of Gendarmerie of Vatican City

Politics and government

Archives Association of Vatican Lay Workers Pontifical Commission for Vatican City
Vatican City
State

President Pontifical Commission

Secretariat for Communications

Holy See
Holy See
Press Office L'Osservatore Romano
L'Osservatore Romano
( Vatican City
Vatican City
newspaper) L'Osservatore della Domenica List of newspapers in Vatican City Vatican Radio
Vatican Radio
lawsuit Vatican Information Service .va
.va
( Vatican City
Vatican City
internet sites) Vatican Publishing House Vatican Radio Vatican Television Center

Secretariat of State

Cardinal Secretary of State

Fabric of Saint
Saint
Peter Foreign relations of the Holy See

List of diplomatic missions of the Holy See Holy See– Israel
Israel
relations Holy See– Italy
Italy
relations Holy See–Palestine relations Papal apocrisiarius

Governorate of Vatican City

Governor of Vatican City

Military of Vatican City Noble Guard College of Cardinals Vical General

Culture

Vatican Museums Vatican Library Music of Vatican City

Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
Choir

Languages of Vatican City Women in Vatican City Vatican Christmas Tree Vatican City
Vatican City
football team Vatican Cricket Team Papal Concert to Commemorate the Shoah Postage stamps and postal history of Vatican City Public holidays in Vatican City Pontifical Academy of Sciences Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences The Story of the Vatican, 1941 documentary

Symbols

Flag

List of Papal Flags

Anthem Coats of arms of the Holy See
Holy See
and Vatican City 00120
00120
(Vatican postcode) Papal tiara

Papal coronation

Buildings/Geography

Apostolic Nunciature Apostolic Palace Basilica
Basilica
di Santa Maria Maggiore Borgia Apartments Bramante Staircase Domus Sanctae Marthae Fountains of St. Peter's Square Gardens of Vatican City Geography of Vatican City Gregorian Tower Mater Ecclesiae (monastery) Monument to the Royal Stuarts Palace of the Holy Office Palazzi Pontifici Papal Apartments Saint
Saint
Peter's Basilica Saint
Saint
Peter's Square Saint
Saint
Peter's tomb Lateran Basilica Lateran Palace Leonine City Niccoline Chapel Old St. Peter's Basilica Papal tombs Papal tombs
Papal tombs
in Old St. Peter's Basilica Paul VI Audience Hall Tomb of the Julii Torre San Giovanni Scala Regia Via della Conciliazione Vatican Climate Forest Vatican Heliport Vatican Hill Vatican Necropolis Papal Concert to Commemorate the Shoah Postage stamps and postal history of Vatican City Public holidays in Vatican City Vatican Secret Archives St. Peter's Baldachin Sala Regia San Pellegrino in Vaticano Sant'Anna dei Palafrenieri Santa Maria della Pietà in Camposanto dei Teutonici Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope Vatican Observatory Vatican Pharmacy Bibliotheca Palatina Cappella Giulia Cappella Paolina Cardinal Secretary of State Casina Pio IV Circus of Nero Redemptoris Mater Chapel Saints Martin and Sebastian of the Swiss Santo Stefano degli Abissini Santo Stefano degli Ungheresi Teutonic Cemetery Cortile del Belvedere Passetto di Borgo Porta San Pellegrino

Vatican Museums

Vatican Museums Gallery of Maps Gallery of Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
ceiling Collection of Modern Religious Art Raphael Rooms Redemptoris Mater Chapel Restoration of the Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
frescoes Sistine Chapel Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel
ceiling The Last Judgment by Michelangelo

Economy

Institute for the Works of Religion Telephone numbers in Vatican City Tourism in Vatican City Transport in Vatican City Rail transport in Vatican City Secretariat for the Economy Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See Vatican euro coins Vatican lira Properties of the Holy See

Papacy

Pope

Popemobile

Catholic Church

Latin
Latin
Church

Holy See

Diocese
Diocese
of Rome Roman Curia

Universi Dominici Gregis Papal conclave
Papal conclave
(Papal elections) Papal household

Papal Gentleman

Prefecture of the Pontifical Household

Outline, Index Vatican City
Vatican City
portal

v t e

The Holy See
Holy See
participates as an observer to African Union, Arab League, Council of Europe, Organization of American States, International Organization for Migration, and in the United Nations and its agencies FAO, ILO, UNCTAD, UNEP, UNESCO, UN-HABITAT, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, WFP, WHO, WIPO. It participates as a guest in the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
(NAM), and as a full member in IAEA, OPCW, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
(OSCE). Although the Holy See
Holy See
is closely associated with the Vatican City, the independent territory over which the Holy See
Holy See
is sovereign, the two entities are separate and distinct. After the Italian seizure of the Papal States
Papal States
in 1870, the Holy See
Holy See
had no territorial sovereignty. In spite of some uncertainty among jurists as to whether it could continue to act as an independent personality in international matters, the Holy See
Holy See
continued in fact to exercise the right to send and receive diplomatic representatives, maintaining relations with states that included the major powers Russia, Prussia
Prussia
and Austria-Hungary. Where, in accordance with the decision of the 1815 Congress of Vienna, the Nuncio
Nuncio
was not only a member of the Diplomatic Corps but its Dean, this arrangement continued to be accepted by the other ambassadors. In the course of the 59 years during which the Holy See held no territorial sovereignty, the number of states that had diplomatic relations with it, which had been reduced to 16, actually increased to 29.[29] The State of the Vatican City
Vatican City
was created by the Lateran Treaty
Lateran Treaty
in 1929 to "ensure the absolute and visible independence of the Holy See" and "to guarantee to it an indisputable sovereignty in international affairs." Archbishop
Archbishop
Jean-Louis Tauran, the Holy See's former Secretary for Relations with States, said that the Vatican City
Vatican City
is a "minuscule support-state that guarantees the spiritual freedom of the Pope
Pope
with the minimum territory".[30] The Holy See, not the Vatican City, maintains diplomatic relations with states.[31] Foreign embassies are accredited to the Holy See, not to the Vatican City, and it is the Holy See
Holy See
that establishes treaties and concordats with other sovereign entities. When necessary, the Holy See will enter a treaty on behalf of the Vatican City. Under the terms of the Lateran Treaty, the Holy See
Holy See
has extraterritorial authority over various sites in Rome
Rome
and two Italian sites outside of Rome, including the Pontifical Palace at Castel Gandolfo. The same authority is extended under international law over the Apostolic Nunciature
Apostolic Nunciature
of the Holy See
Holy See
in a foreign country. Military[edit] See also: Military in Vatican City Though, like various European powers, earlier Popes recruited Swiss mercenaries as part of an army, the Pontifical Swiss Guard
Pontifical Swiss Guard
was founded by Pope
Pope
Julius II on 22 January 1506 as the personal bodyguard of the Pope
Pope
and continues to fulfill that function.[32] It is listed in the Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
under "Holy See", not under "State of Vatican City".[33] At the end of 2005, the Guard had 134 members. Recruitment is arranged by a special agreement between the Holy See
Holy See
and Switzerland. All recruits must be Catholic, unmarried males with Swiss citizenship who have completed their basic training with the Swiss Armed Forces with certificates of good conduct, be between the ages of 19 and 30,[34] and be at least 175 cm (5 ft 9 in) in height. Members are armed with small arms and the traditional halberd (also called the Swiss voulge),[35] and trained in bodyguarding tactics.[36] The police force within Vatican City, known as the Corps of Gendarmerie of Vatican City, belongs to the city state, not to the Holy See. Coat of arms[edit]

Coat of arms of the Holy See

Arms of Vatican City
Vatican City
State

Further information: Coats of arms of the Holy See
Holy See
and Vatican City The difference between the two coats of arms is that the arms of the Holy See
Holy See
have the gold key in bend and the silver key in bend sinister[37][38] (as in the sede vacante coat of arms and in the external ornaments of the papal coats of arms of individual popes), while the reversed arrangement of the keys was chosen for the arms of the newly founded Vatican City
Vatican City
State in 1929.[39] See also[edit]

Catholicism portal

Apostolic see Diocese
Diocese
of Rome Global organisation of the Catholic Church Index of Vatican City-related articles Patriarchate Pontifical academy Pope2you Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Notes[edit]

^ Although Saint
Saint
John Lateran is legally within Rome, Italy, it is one of the properties of the Holy See
Holy See
granted extraterritorial privileges.

References[edit]

^ "About the Holy See".  ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/print_vt.html ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 5 February 2016.  ^ The Holy See's sovereignty has been recognized explicitly in many international agreements and is particularly emphasized in article 2 of the Lateran Treaty
Lateran Treaty
of 11 February 1929, in which " Italy
Italy
recognizes the sovereignty of the Holy See
Holy See
in international matters as an inherent attribute in conformity with its traditions and the requirements of its mission to the world" (Lateran Treaty, English translation). ^ "Code of Canon Law: text - IntraText CT".  ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles".  ^ Kersting, Hans (2003). MAINZ - tours on foot. 4. Bayerische Verlagsanstalt. ISBN 3-89889-078-3.  ^ "CIA's factbook Vatican State".  ^ "State and Government". www.vaticanstate.va. Retrieved 2018-04-01.  ^ "These 7 nations are ruled by an absolute monarchy!". Stories of World. 2015-12-22. Retrieved 2018-04-01.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2013.  ^ Code of Canon Law, canons 1443–1444 Archived 8 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Vatican.va. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 1445 Archived 8 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Vatican.va. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. ^ ''Pastor bonus'', articles 117–120 Archived 23 February 2001 at the Wayback Machine.. The Vatican. (28 June 1988). Retrieved on 11 September 2011. ^ "Economic Report of the Holy See
Holy See
for 2000" Zenit 6 July 2001 ^ David Leigh (21 January 2013). "How the Vatican built a secret property empire using Mussolini's millions". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 January 2013.  ^ These criteria for statehood were first authoritatively enunciated at the Montevideo Convention
Montevideo Convention
on Rights and Duties of States, signed by American states on 26 December 1933. ^ a b "Bilateral and Multilateral Relations of the Holy See, update on October 22, 2009". Archived from the original on 9 July 2014.  ^ e.g. IAEA, OSCE, IOM Archived 12 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Robert Araujo and John Lucal, Papal Diplomacy and the Quest for Peace, the Vatican and International Organizations from the early years to the League of Nations, Sapienza Press (2004), ISBN 1-932589-01-5, p. 16. See also James Crawford, The Creation of States in International Law, (1979) p. 154. ^ Bilateral and Multilateral Relations of the Holy See
Holy See
Archived 12 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. The Vatican. (31 May 2007). Retrieved on 11 September 2011. ^ "179 states have full diplomatic relations with the Holy See". Zenit News Agency. 11 January 2012. Archived from the original on 16 January 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2012.  ^ Afghanistan, Bhutan, Brunei, Comoros, Laos, the Maldives, North Korea, Oman, the People's Republic of China, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Tuvalu and Vietnam. See: "Mission Impossible: Eject the Holy See
Holy See
from the United Nations". chiesa:News, analysis, and documents on the Catholic Church, by Sandro Magister. 21 August 2007. Retrieved 3 October 2007.  ^ Holy See
Holy See
Press Office: "Bilateral and Multilateral Relations of the Holy See" Archived 6 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), pp. 1307 (Rappresentanze Pontificie) and 1338 (Corpo Diplomatico presso la Santa Sede) ^ Foreign & Commonwealth Office: Travel & living abroad Retrieved 8 January 2011 Archived 31 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ambassador's Address on UK- Holy See
Holy See
Relations Archived 13 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. (emphasis added) ^ Background Note: Holy See. State.gov (8 March 2011). Retrieved on 11 September 2011. ^ Lecture by Archbishop
Archbishop
Giovanni Lajolo, 16 February 2006. 30giorni.it. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. ^ Lecture by Archbishop
Archbishop
Jean-Louis Tauran, 22 April 2002 Archived 15 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. Vatican.va. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. ^ Bilateral and Multilateral Relations of the Holy See
Holy See
Archived 9 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. Vatican.va. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. ^ "Päpstliche Schweizergarde: 1506 Foundation". 30 October 2013. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013.  ^ Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013), p. 1269 ^ https://archive.is/20130421222339/http://www.swissguard.va/index.php?id=265&L=3 ^ "Swiss Voulge".  ^ See videos at Pontifical Swiss Guards, Gallery ^ Donald Lindsay Galbreath, A Treatise on Ecclesiastical Heraldry (W. Heffer and sons, Limited, 1930), Volume 1, p. 9 ^ "The golden key, which points upwards on the dexter side, signifies the power that extends even to Heaven. The silver key, which must point up to the sinister side, symbolizes the power over all the faithful on earth." Bruno Bernhard Heim, Heraldry in the Catholic Church: Its Origin, Customs and Laws (Van Duren 1978 ISBN 9780391008731), p. 54 ^ "Appendix B ("All. B. Stemma Ufficiale dello Stato della Città del Vaticano") of the Fundamental Law of Vatican City
Vatican City
State, 7 June 1929" (PDF). 

Further reading[edit]

Köck, Heribert F. (1975). Die Völkerrechtliche Stellung Des Heiligen Stuhls: Dargestellt an Seiner Beziehungen Zu Staaten Und Internationalen Organisationen. Berlin: Duncker und Humblot. ISBN 3-428-03355-8.  Köck, Heribert F. (1995). "Holy See". In Bernhardt, Rudolf; Macalister-Smith, Peter. Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. 2. Amsterdam: North-Holland. ISBN 0-444-86245-5.  La Due, William J. (1999). The Chair of Saint
Saint
Peter: A History of the Papacy. Maryknoll, N.Y: Orbis Books. ISBN 1-57075-249-4. 

External links[edit]

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Look up holy see in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The Holy See The Holy See
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Rome
Chooses Both—The Holy See's geopolitics analyzed in the light of the dominant doctrines The Holy See
Holy See
in the course of time, from an Orthodox perspective Inside the Vatican Documentary on National Geographic YouTube
YouTube
channel

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Holy See
Holy See
topics

(Latin: Sancta Sedes)

Jurisdiction

Rome, Italy Vatican City

Basilicas

St. John Lateran St. Peter's Santa Maria Maggiore San Paolo fuori le Mura

Government

Papacy Secretariat of State Roman Curia College of Cardinals Congregations Councils Apostolic Camera Properties Vatican City

Officials

Pope Secretary of State Dean Camerlengo

Foreign affairs

Foreign relations Section for Relations with States Diplomatic missions to / of the Holy See Legal status Multilateral policy Nuncio Nunciature Concordats Treaties Lateran Pacts Italy United Nations

Vicariates

Rome Vatican

Suburbicarian sees

Ostia Velletri-Segni Porto-Santa Rufina Frascati Palestrina Albano Sabina-Poggio Mirteto

Suffragan dioceses

Archdiocese of Gaeta Anagni-Alatri Civita Castellana Civitavecchia-Tarquinia Frosinone-Veroli-Ferentino Latina-Terracina-Sezze-Priverno Rieti Sora-Aquino-Pontecorvo Tivoli Viterbo Territorial Abbey of Montecassino Territorial Abbey of Subiaco

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Links to related articles

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Papacy

of the Catholic Church

Titles Papal names

Bishop of Rome Vicar of Jesus
Jesus
Christ Successor of the Prince of the Apostles Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church Primate of Italy Archbishop
Archbishop
and Metropolitan of the Roman Province Sovereign of the Vatican City
Vatican City
State Servant of the servants of God Vicarius Filii Dei

Symbols

Coats of arms Coats of arms of the Holy See
Holy See
and Vatican City Cross Keys of Heaven Regalia and insignia Rota Umbraculum

Proclamations

Apostolic constitution Bull

List

Encyclical Apostolic exhortation Ecclesiastical letter

Activities

Conclave Oath Coronation Consistory Inauguration Mass Travel

Paul VI John Paul II Benedict XVI Francis

Vestments

Camauro Falda Fanon Ferula Flabellum Mitre Mozzetta Pallium Ring of the Fisherman Shoes Sub-cinctorium Tiara Zucchetto

Major basilicas

Archbasilica of Saint
Saint
John Lateran Basilica
Basilica
of Saint
Saint
Paul Outside the Walls Basilica
Basilica
di Santa Maria Maggiore St. Peter's Basilica

Locations

Apostolic Palace Holy See Papal Apartments Saint
Saint
Peter's Square Sistine Chapel Vatican City

Transportation

Popemobile Sedia gestatoria

Staff

Prefecture of the Pontifical Household Office for Liturgical
Liturgical
Celebrations

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Vatican City articles

Sovereign territory of the  Holy See

History

History of the papacy Papal States Duchy of Rome Donation of Sutri Donation of Pepin "Prisoner in the Vatican" Lateran Palace Circus of Nero Old St. Peter's Basilica Savoyard era First Vatican Council Lateran Treaty Second Vatican Council

Geography

Apostolic Palace

Papal Apartments Raphael Rooms

Castel Gandolfo Domus Sanctae Marthae
Domus Sanctae Marthae
( Pope
Pope
Francis' residence) Gardens Mater Ecclesiae Monastery ( Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI's residence) Paul VI Audience Hall

The Resurrection

Passetto di Borgo St. Peter's Basilica St. Peter's Square Saint
Saint
Peter's tomb Sistine Chapel

ceiling

Vatican Hill Vatican Museums

Historical Museum Modern Religious Art

Vatican Necropolis St. Peter's Baldachin Cortile del Belvedere Bramante Staircase

Politics

Politics Pope

List of sovereigns

Elections Foreign relations Pontifical Commission Pontifical Council Government Roman Curia Secretariat of State Vicar General Law

Fundamental Law of Vatican City
Vatican City
State Crime

Military

Corpo della Gendarmeria Swiss Guard

Economy

Banking Communications

.va
.va
[Internet domain]

Secretariat for the Economy Tourism Transport

rail

Culture

Academy of Sciences

AT telescope observatory

Anthem Catholic Church Coats of arms Demographics Flag Languages Media

Holy See
Holy See
Press Office Secretariat for Communications Annuario Pontificio newspaper radio television information service News.va

Music National football team Philatelic and Numismatic Office Public holidays Vatican Cricket Team Vatican Library

film secret archives

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Orders, decorations, and medals of the Holy See

Orders of the Holy See

Supreme Order of Christ Order of the Golden Spur Order of Pope
Pope
Pius IX Order of St. Gregory the Great Order of Saint
Saint
Sylvester

Orders under protection of the Holy See (with distinctions)

Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
( Order pro merito Melitensi, Medal of the Order pro Merito Melitensi) Order of the Holy Sepulchre
Order of the Holy Sepulchre
( Palm of Jerusalem, Pilgrim Shell, Cross of Merit) Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
( Honorary Knights)

Other distinctions

Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice Benemerenti medal Golden Rose Jerusalem Pilgrim's Cross

Defunct/dormant distinctions (1870, 1954, 1977)

Order of Saint
Saint
John of the Lateran Order of Saint
Saint
Cecilia (1870) Order of the Moor (1870) Order of Saint
Saint
Sylvester and the Militia Aurata (1905) Advocates of Saint Peter
Saint Peter
(1909) Blessed sword and hat
Blessed sword and hat
(1823) Medal of Military Merit Fidei et Virtuti Pro Petri Sede Lauretan Cross (middle part of the 20th Century) Papal Lateran Cross
Papal Lateran Cross
(1977)

See also

Papal Household Swiss Guard Other Catholic orders of chivaly Catholic ecclesiastical decorations

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Foreign relations of the Holy See

Africa

Algeria Central African Republic Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Ivory Coast

Americas

Argentina Canada Cuba Mexico Peru United States Uruguay Venezuela

Asia

Bangladesh China Georgia India Indonesia Iran Israel Japan Jordan Kurdistan Region Lebanon Malaysia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Palestine Philippines Saudi Arabia South Korea Sri Lanka Taiwan Turkey United Arab Emirates Vietnam

Europe

European Union Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia France Germany Greece Ireland Italy Macedonia Poland Romania Russia Serbia Spain Switzerland United Kingdom

Related topics

Cardinal Secretary of State Concordats Diplomatic missions of the Holy See Diplomatic missions to the Holy See Heads of the diplomatic missions of the Holy See Holy See
Holy See
and the United Nations Holy See
Holy See
Representative Legal status of the Holy See Multilateral foreign policy of the Holy See Observer to the UN Observer to the UN in Geneva Secretariat of State Section for Relations with States (Roman Curia)

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Catholic Church

Index Outline

History (Timeline)

Jesus Holy Family

Mary Joseph

Apostles Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical councils Missions Great Schism of East Crusades Great Schism of West Age of Discovery Protestant Reformation Council of Trent Counter-Reformation Catholic Church
Catholic Church
by country Vatican City

index outline

Second Vatican Council

Hierarchy (Precedence)

Pope
Pope
(List)

Pope
Pope
Francis (2013–present)

conclave inauguration theology canonizations visits

Pope
Pope
Emeritus Benedict XVI (2005–2013)

Roman Curia College of Cardinals

Cardinal List

Patriarchate Episcopal conference Patriarch Major archbishop Primate Metropolitan Archbishop Diocesan bishop Coadjutor bishop Auxiliary bishop Titular bishop Bishop emeritus Abbot Abbess Superior general Provincial superior Grand Master Prior
Prior
(-ess) Priest Brother

Friar

Sister Monk Nun Hermit Master of novices Novice Oblate Postulant Laity

Theology

Body and soul Bible Catechism Divine grace Dogma Ecclesiology

Four Marks of the Church

Original sin

List

Salvation Sermon on the Mount Ten Commandments Trinity Worship

Mariology

Assumption History Immaculate Conception Mariology of the popes Mariology of the saints Mother of God Perpetual virginity Veneration

Philosophy

Natural law Moral theology Personalism Social teaching Philosophers

Sacraments

Baptism Confirmation Eucharist Penance Anointing of the Sick

Last rites

Holy orders Matrimony

Saints

Mary Apostles Archangels Confessors Disciples Doctors of the Church Evangelists Church Fathers Martyrs Patriarchs Prophets Virgins

Doctors of the Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Institutes, orders, and societies

Assumptionists Annonciades Augustinians Basilians Benedictines Bethlehemites Blue nuns Camaldoleses Camillians Carmelites Carthusians Cistercians Clarisses Conceptionists Crosiers Dominicans Franciscans Good Shepherd Sisters Hieronymites Jesuits Mercedarians Minims Olivetans Oratorians Piarists Premonstratensians Redemptorists Servites Theatines Trappists Trinitarians Visitandines

Associations of the faithful

International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements International Federation of Catholic Universities International Kolping Society Schoenstatt Apostolic Movement International Union of Catholic Esperantists Community of Sant'Egidio

Charities

Aid to the Church in Need Caritas Internationalis Catholic Home Missions Catholic Relief Services CIDSE

Particular churches (By country)

Latin
Latin
Church Eastern Catholic Churches: Albanian Armenian Belarusian Bulgarian Chaldean Coptic Croatian and Serbian Eritrean Ethiopian Georgian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Maronite Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Syriac Syro-Malabar Syro-Malankara Ukrainian

Liturgical
Liturgical
rites

Alexandrian Antiochian Armenian Byzantine East Syrian Latin

Anglican Use Ambrosian Mozarabic Roman

West Syrian

Catholicism portal Pope
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Vatican City
portal

Book Name Media

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Foreign relations of European countries

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland

Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Kosovo Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria

Dependencies and other entities

Åland Faroe Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Svalbard

Other entities

European Union Sovereign Military Order of Malta

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Council of Europe

Institutions

Secretary General Committee of Ministers Parliamentary Assembly Congress Court of Human Rights Commissioner for Human Rights Commission for the Efficiency of Justice Commission against Racism and Intolerance

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia1 Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

Observers

Canada Holy See Israel Japan Mexico United States Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Former members

Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1991–1992) Saar (assoc. 1950–1956)

1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

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History of Europe

Prehistory

Paleolithic Europe Neolithic Europe Bronze Age Europe Iron Age Europe

Classical antiquity

Classical Greece Roman Republic Hellenistic period Roman Empire Early Christianity Crisis of the Third Century Fall of the Western Roman Empire Late antiquity

Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages Migration Period Christianization Francia Byzantine Empire Maritime republics Viking Age Kievan Rus' Holy Roman Empire High Middle Ages Feudalism Crusades Mongol invasion Late Middle Ages Hundred Years' War Kalmar Union Renaissance

Early modern

Reformation Age of Discovery Baroque Thirty Years' War Absolute monarchy Ottoman Empire Portuguese Empire Spanish Empire Early modern France Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Swedish Empire Dutch Republic British Empire Habsburg Monarchy Russian Empire Age of Enlightenment

Modern

Great Divergence Industrial Revolution French Revolution Napoleonic Wars Nationalism Revolutions of 1848 World War I Russian Revolution Interwar period World War II Cold War European integration

See also

Art of Europe Genetic history of Europe History of the Mediterranean region History of the European Union History of Western civilization Maritime history of Europe Military history of Europe

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 133717252 GND: 2003256-0 SUDOC: 027862372 BNF:

.