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The HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR (historically Romanorum Imperator " Emperor
Emperor
of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. The title was almost without interruption held in conjunction with the rule of the Kingdom of Germany .

From an autocracy in Carolingian times the title evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors . The Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
was widely perceived to rule by divine right by Roman Catholic rulers in Europe
Europe
, and he often contradicted or rivaled the Pope
Pope
, most notably during the Investiture controversy . In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
was primus inter pares (first among equals) among other Catholic monarchs. In practice, a Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
was only as strong as his army and alliances made him.

After the Reformation , many of the subject states in Germany
Germany
turned Protestant
Protestant
while the Emperor
Emperor
continued to be a Roman Catholic. Until the Reformation , the Emperor
Emperor
elect (imperator electus) was required to be crowned by the Pope
Pope
before assuming the imperial title. Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became hereditary holders of the title. In particular the Habsburgs kept the longest possession of the title. The Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was dissolved by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
as a result of the collapse of the polity during the Napoleonic wars.

CONTENTS

* 1 Title * 2 Succession

* 3 List of Emperors

* 3.1 Carolingian Empire

* 3.2 Holy Roman Emperors

* 3.2.1 Ottonian dynasty * 3.2.2 Salian dynasty * 3.2.3 Supplinburg dynasty * 3.2.4 Staufen dynasty * 3.2.5 Welf dynasty * 3.2.6 Staufen dynasty * 3.2.7 House of Luxembourg * 3.2.8 House of Wittelsbach
Wittelsbach
* 3.2.9 House of Luxembourg * 3.2.10 House of Habsburg
Habsburg
* 3.2.11 House of Wittelsbach
Wittelsbach
* 3.2.12 House of Habsburg-Lorraine

* 4 Coronation * 5 See also * 6 References

TITLE

Coats of arms of prince electors surround the Holy Roman Emperor's; from flags book of Jacob Köbel (1545). Electors voted in an Imperial Diet for a new Holy Roman Emperor. Further information: Emperor
Emperor

From the time of Constantine I (4th century) the Roman emperors had, with very few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity . The title of Emperor
Emperor
became defunct in Western Europe
Europe
after the deposition of Julius Nepos in AD 480, although the rulers of the "barbarian kingdoms " continued to recognize the Eastern Emperor
Emperor
at least nominally well into the 6th century; both the title and connection between Emperor
Emperor
and Church continued in the Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until 1453, when it fell to the forces of the Ottoman Empire .

In the west, the title of Emperor
Emperor
(Imperator) was revived in 800, which also renewed ideas of imperial–papal cooperation. As the power of the papacy grew during the Middle Ages, popes and emperors came into conflict over church administration. The best-known and most bitter conflict was that known as the investiture controversy , fought during the 11th century between Henry IV and Pope
Pope
Gregory VII .

After Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned Emperor
Emperor
of the Romans (Imperator Romanorum) by Pope
Pope
Leo III , his successors maintained the title until the death of Berengar I of Italy
Berengar I of Italy
in 924. No pope appointed an emperor again until the coronation of Otto the Great in 962. Under Otto and his successors, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia fell within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. The various German princes elected one of their peers as King of the Germans , after which he would be crowned as emperor by the Pope
Pope
. After Charles V's coronation, all succeeding emperors were called elected Emperor
Emperor
due to the lack of papal coronation, but for all practical purposes they were simply called emperors.

The term sacrum (i.e., "holy") in connection with the German Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa . Charles V was the last Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
to be crowned by the Pope
Pope
(1530). The final Holy Roman Emperor-elect, Francis II , abdicated in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars that saw the Empire's final dissolution.

The standard designation of the Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
was "August Emperor
Emperor
of the Romans" (Romanorum Imperator Augustus). When Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned in 800, he was styled as "most serene Augustus, crowned by God, great and pacific emperor, governing the Roman Empire," thus constituting the elements of "Holy" and "Roman" in the imperial title.

The word Roman was a reflection of the principle of translatio imperii (or in this case restauratio imperii) that regarded the (Germanic) Holy Roman Emperors as the inheritors of the title of Emperor
Emperor
of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, despite the continued existence of the Eastern Roman Empire.

In German-language historiography, the term Römisch-deutscher Kaiser ("Roman-German emperor") is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor
Emperor
on one hand, and that of German Emperor
Emperor
(Deutscher Kaiser) on the other. The English term "Holy Roman Emperor" is a modern shorthand for "emperor of the Holy Roman Empire" not corresponding to the historical style or title, i.e., the adjective "holy" is not intended as modifying "emperor"; the English term "Holy Roman Emperor" gains currency in the interbellum period (1920s to 1930s); formerly the title had also been rendered "German-Roman emperor" in English.

SUCCESSION

Further information: Family tree of the German monarchs Illustration of the election of Henry VII (27 November 1308) showing (left to right) the Archbishop of Cologne, Archbishop of Mainz, Archbishop of Trier, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of Saxony, Margrave of Brandenburg and King of Bohemia (1341 miniature).

The elective monarchy of the kingdom of Germany
Germany
goes back to the early 10th century, the election of Conrad I of Germany
Germany
in 911 following the death without issue of Louis the Child , the last Carolingian ruler of Germany. Elections meant the kingship of Germany was only partially hereditary, unlike the kingship of France , although sovereignty frequently remained in a dynasty until there were no more male successors. The process of election meant that the prime candidate had to make concessions, by which the voters were kept on side, which were known as Wahlkapitulationen (electoral capitulation ).

Conrad was elected by the German dukes , and it is not known precisely when the system of seven prince-electors was established. The papal decree Venerabilem by Innocent III (1202), addressed to Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen , establishes the election procedure by (unnamed) princes of the realm, reserving for the pope the right to approve of the candidates. A letter of Pope
Pope
Urban IV (1263), in the context of the disputed vote of 1256 and the subsequent the interregnum , suggests that by "immemorial custom ", seven princes had the right to elect the King and future Emperor. The seven prince-electors are named in the Golden Bull of 1356 : The Archbishop of Mainz , the Archbishop of Trier , the Archbishop of Cologne , the King of Bohemia , the Count Palatine of the Rhine , the Duke of Saxony and the Margrave of Brandenburg .

After 1438, the Kings remained in the house of Habsburg
Habsburg
and Habsburg-Lorraine , with the brief exception of Charles VII , who was a Wittelsbach
Wittelsbach
. Maximilian I ( Emperor
Emperor
1508–1519) and his successors no longer travelled to Rome
Rome
to be crowned as Emperor
Emperor
by the Pope. Maximilian therefore named himself Elected Roman Emperor
Emperor
(Erwählter Römischer Kaiser) in 1508 with papal approval. This title was in use by all his uncrowned successors. Of his successors only Charles V , the immediate one, received a papal coronation.

The Elector Palatine's seat was conferred on the Duke of Bavaria in 1621, but in 1648, in the wake of the Thirty Years\' War , the Elector Palatine was restored, as eighth elector. Brunswick-Lüneburg was added as ninth elector in 1692. The whole college was reshuffled in the German mediatization of 1803, a mere three years before the dissolution of the Empire.

LIST OF EMPERORS

See also: List of German monarchs

This list includes all 47 German monarchs crowned from Charlemagne until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(800–1806).

Several rulers were crowned King of the Romans (King of Germany) but not emperor, such as Conrad I of Germany
Germany
and Henry the Fowler in the 10th century, and Conrad IV
Conrad IV
, Rudolf I , Adolf and Albert I during the interregnum of the late 13th century.

Traditional historiography assumes a continuity between the Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, while a modern convention takes the coronation of Otto I in 962 as the starting point of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(although the term Sacrum Imperium Romanum was not in use before the 13th century).

CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE

Main article: Carolingian dynasty

The rulers who were crowned as Emperors in the West before 962 were as follows:

NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

Charles I , the Great (Charlemagne) (742–814) 25 December 800 28 January 814

* King of the Lombards * King of the Franks

Louis I , the Pious (778–840) 11 September 813 20 June 840 Son of Charles I

* King of the Franks * King of Aquitaine

Lothair I (795–855) 5 April 823 29 September 855 Son of Louis I

* King of Bavaria * King of Italy * King of Middle Francia

Louis II (825–875) 29 September 855 12 August 875 Son of Lothair I

* King of Bavaria * King of Italy * King of Middle Francia

Charles II , the Bald (823–877) 29 December 875 6 October 877 Son of Louis I

* King of West Francia * King of Italy

Charles III , the Fat (839–888) 12 February 881 13 January 888 Grandson of Louis I

* King of West Francia * King of East Francia * King of Italy

Widonid dynasty Main article: Widonids

NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

Guy I (?–894) 891 12 December 894 Great-great grandson of Charles I

* King of Italy * Duke of Spoleto

Lambert I (880–898) 30 April 892 15 October 898 Son of Guy I

* King of Italy * Duke of Spoleto

Carolingian dynasty

NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

Arnulph (850–899) 22 February 896 8 December 899 Nephew of Charles III

* King of Italy * King of East Francia

Bosonid dynasty Main article: Bosonids

NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

Louis III , the Blind (880–928) 22 February 901 21 July 905 Grandson of Louis II

* King of Italy * King of Provence

Unruoching dynasty Main article: Unruochings

NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

Berengar I (845–924) December 915 7 April 924 Grandson of Louis I

* King of Italy * Margrave of Friuli

HOLY ROMAN EMPERORS

There was no emperor in the west between 924 and 962.

While earlier Germanic and Italian monarchs had been crowned as western Roman Emperors, the actual Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
is usually considered to have begun with the crowning of the Saxon king Otto I . It was officially an elective position, though at times it ran in families, notably the four generations of the Salian dynasty in the 11th century. From the end of the Salian dynasty through the middle 15th century, the Emperors drew from many different German dynasties, and it was rare for the throne to pass from father to son. That changed with the ascension of the Austrian House of Habsburg
Habsburg
, as an unbroken line of Habsburgs would hold the Imperial throne until the 18th century, later a cadet branch known as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine would likewise pass it from father to son until the abolition of the Empire in 1806. Notably, the Habsburgs also dispensed with the requirement that emperors be crowned by the pope before exercising their office. Starting with Ferdinand I , all successive Emperors forwent the traditional coronation.

Ottonian Dynasty

Main article: Ottonian dynasty

IMAGE NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

Otto I , the Great (912–973) 2 February 962 7 May 973 Great-great-great grandson of Louis I

* King of Italy * King of Germany
Germany
* Duke of Saxony

Otto II , the Red (955–983) 25 December 967 7 December 983 Son of Otto I

* King of Italy * King of Germany
Germany

Otto III (980–1002) 21 May 996 23 January 1002 Son of Otto II

* King of Italy * King of Germany
Germany

Henry II (973–1024) 7 June 1002 14 February 1014 Second cousin of Otto III

* King of Italy * King of Germany
Germany
* Duke of Bavaria

Salian Dynasty

Main article: Salian dynasty

PORTRAIT NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

Conrad II , the Elder (990–1039) 26 March 1027 4 June 1039 Great-great-grandson of Otto I

* King of Burgundy * King of Italy * King of Germany
Germany

Henry III , the Black (1017–1056) 25 December 1046 5 October 1056 Son of Conrad II

* King of Burgundy * King of Italy * King of Germany
Germany

Henry IV (1050–1116) 31 March 1084 7 August 1106 Son of Henry III

* King of Burgundy * King of Italy * King of Germany
Germany

Henry V (1086–1125) 13 April 1111 23 May 1125 Son of Henry IV

* King of Italy * King of Germany
Germany

Supplinburg Dynasty

PORTRAIT NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

Lothair II (1075–1137) 4 June 1133 4 December 1137 Great-great-great-great-great-great-grandnephew of Otto I

* King of Italy * King of Germany
Germany

Staufen Dynasty

Main article: Hohenstaufen

PORTRAIT NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

Frederick I Barbarossa (1122–1190) 8 June 1155 10 June 1190 Great-grandson of Henry IV

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Italy * King of Burgundy

Henry VI (1165–1197) 14 April 1191 28 September 1197 Son of Frederick I

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Italy * King of Burgundy * Co- King of Sicily

Welf Dynasty

Main article: House of Welf

PORTRAIT NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

Otto IV (1175–1218) 9 June 1198 1215 Great-grandson of Lothair II

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Italy * King of Burgundy

Staufen Dynasty

PORTRAIT COAT OF ARMS NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR

Coats of arms

Frederick II (1194–1250) 22 November 1220 13 December 1250 Son of Henry VI

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Italy * King of Sicily * King of Jerusalem

The interregnum of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
is taken to have lasted from the deposition of Frederick II by Pope
Pope
Innocent IV (1245, alternatively form the death of Frederick 1250, or the death of Conrad IV 1254) and the election of Rudolf I of Germany
Germany
(1273). Rudolf was not crowned emperor, nor were his successors Adolf and Albert . The next emperor was Henry VII , crowned on 29 June 1312 by Pope
Pope
Clement V .

House Of Luxembourg

Main article: House of Luxembourg

PORTRAIT COAT OF ARMS NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR

Coats of arms

Henry VII (1274-1313) 29 June 1312 24 August 1313 Great x11 grandson of Charles II

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Italy * Count of Luxemburg
Count of Luxemburg

House Of Wittelsbach

Main article: House of Wittelsbach
Wittelsbach

PORTRAIT COAT OF ARMS NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR

Coats of arms

Louis IV , the Bavarian (1282–1347) October 1314 11 October 1347 Far descendant of Henry IV and great-grandson of Lothair II

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Italy * Duke of Bavaria

House Of Luxembourg

PORTRAIT COAT OF ARMS NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR

Coats of arms

Charles IV (1316–1378) 11 July 1346 29 November 1378 Grandson of Henry VII

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Italy * King of Bohemia * King of Burgundy * Count of Luxemburg
Count of Luxemburg

HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR

Coats of arms

Sigismund (1368–1437) 10 September 1410 9 December 1437 Son of Charles IV

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Italy * King of Bohemia * King of Hungary and Croatia

House Of Habsburg

Main article: House of Habsburg
Habsburg

PORTRAIT COAT OF ARMS NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

Frederick III , the Peaceful (1415–1493) 2 February 1440 19 August 1493 Far descendant of Lothair II and great x16 grandson of Louis I

* King of Germany
Germany
* Archduke of Austria

Maximilian I (1459–1519) 19 August 1493 12 January 1519 Son of Frederick III

* King of Germany
Germany
* Archduke of Austria

Charles V (1500–1558) 28 June 1519 (crowned 1530) 16 January 1556 Grandson of Maximilian I

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Italy * Archduke of Austria * King of Spain * Lord of the Netherlands and Duke of Burgundy

Ferdinand I (1503–1564) 16 January 1556 (crowned 1558) 25 July 1564 Brother of Charles V

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Bohemia * King of Hungary * King of Croatia * Archduke of Austria

Maximilian II (1527–1576) 25 July 1564 12 October 1576 Son of Ferdinand I

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Bohemia * King of Hungary * King of Croatia * Archduke of Austria

Rudolph II (1552–1612) 12 October 1576 20 January 1612 Son of Maximilian II

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Bohemia * King of Hungary * King of Croatia * Archduke of Austria

Matthias (1557–1619) 13 June 1612 20 March 1619 Brother of Rudolf II

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Bohemia * King of Hungary * King of Croatia * Archduke of Austria

Ferdinand II (1578–1637) 28 August 1619 15 February 1637 Cousin of Matthias

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Bohemia * King of Hungary * King of Croatia * Archduke of Austria

Ferdinand III (1608–1657) 15 February 1637 2 April 1657 Son of Ferdinand II

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Bohemia * King of Hungary * King of Croatia * Archduke of Austria

Leopold I (1640–1705) 18 July 1658 5 May 1705 Son of Ferdinand III

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Bohemia * King of Hungary * King of Croatia * Archduke of Austria

Joseph I (1678–1711) 5 May 1705 17 April 1711 Son of Leopold I

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Bohemia * King of Hungary * King of Croatia * Archduke of Austria

Charles VI (1685–1740) 12 October 1711 20 October 1740 Brother of Joseph I FULL LIST

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Bohemia * King of Hungary * King of Croatia * Archduke of Austria * King of Naples * King of Sicily * King of Sardinia * Duke of Luxemburg * Duke of Teschen * Duke of Parma and Piacenza * Count of Flanders

House Of Wittelsbach

PORTRAIT COAT OF ARMS NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

Charles VII (1697–1745) 12 February 1742 20 January 1745 Great-great grandson of Ferdinand II ; Son-in-law of Joseph I

* King of Bohemia * Elector of Bavaria

House Of Habsburg-Lorraine

Main article: House of Lorraine

PORTRAIT COAT OF ARMS NAME REIGN RELATIONSHIP WITH PREDECESSOR(S) OTHER TITLE(S)

Francis I (1708–1765) 13 September 1745 18 August 1765 Great-grandson of Ferdinand III ; Son-in-law of Charles VI

* King of Germany
Germany
* Archduke of Austria * Grand Duke of Tuscany * Duke of Lorraine
Duke of Lorraine

Joseph II (1741–1790) 18 August 1765 20 February 1790 Son of Francis I

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Bohemia * King of Hungary and Croatia * Archduke of Austria

Leopold II (1747–1792) 30 September 1790 1 March 1792 Son of Francis I

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Bohemia * King of Hungary and Croatia * Archduke of Austria * Grand Duke of Tuscany

Francis II (1768–1835) 5 July 1792 6 August 1806 Son of Leopold II

* King of Germany
Germany
* King of Bohemia * King of Hungary and Croatia * Archduke of Austria

CORONATION

See also: Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor and Papal appointment

The Emperor
Emperor
was crowned in a special ceremony, traditionally performed by the Pope
Pope
in Rome
Rome
. Without that coronation, no king, despite exercising all powers, could call himself Emperor. In 1508, Pope
Pope
Julius II
Julius II
allowed Maximilian I to use the title of Emperor without coronation in Rome, though the title was qualified as Electus Romanorum Imperator ("elected Emperor
Emperor
of the Romans"). Maximilian's successors adopted the same titulature, usually when they became the sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. Maximilian's first successor Charles V was the last to be crowned Emperor.

EMPEROR CORONATION DATE OFFICIANT LOCATION

Charles I 25 December 800 Pope
Pope
Leo III Rome
Rome
, Italy

Louis I 5 October 816 Pope
Pope
Stephen IV Reims
Reims
, France

Lothair I 5 April 823 Pope
Pope
Paschal I Rome, Italy

Louis II 15 June 844 Pope
Pope
Leo IV Rome, Italy

Charles II 29 December 875 Pope
Pope
John VIII Rome, Italy

Charles III 12 February 881 Rome, Italy

Guy III of Spoleto 21 February 891 Pope
Pope
Stephen V Rome, Italy

Lambert II of Spoleto 30 April 892 Pope
Pope
Formosus Ravenna , Italy

Arnulf of Carinthia 22 February 896 Rome, Italy

Louis III 15 or 22 February 901 Pope
Pope
Benedict IV Rome, Italy

Berengar December 915 Pope
Pope
John X Rome, Italy

Otto I 2 February, 962 Pope
Pope
John XII Rome, Italy

Otto II 25 December, 967 Pope
Pope
John XIII Rome, Italy

Otto III 21 May, 996 Pope
Pope
Gregory V Monza
Monza
, Italy

Henry II 14 February 1014 Pope
Pope
Benedict VIII Rome, Italy

Conrad II 26 March 1027 Pope
Pope
John XIX Rome, Italy

Henry III 25 December 1046 Pope
Pope
Clement II Rome, Italy

Henry IV 31 March 1084 Antipope Clement III Rome, Italy

Henry V 13 April 1111 Pope
Pope
Paschal II Rome, Italy

Lothair III 4 June 1133 Pope
Pope
Innocent II Rome, Italy

Frederick I 18 June 1155 Pope
Pope
Adrian IV Rome, Italy

Henry VI 14 April 1191 Pope
Pope
Celestine III Rome, Italy

Otto IV 4 October 1209 Pope
Pope
Innocent III Rome, Italy

Frederick II 22 November 1220 Pope
Pope
Honorius III Rome, Italy

Henry VII 29 June 1312 Ghibellines cardinals Rome, Italy

Louis IV 17 January 1328 Senator Sciarra Colonna Rome, Italy

Charles IV 5 April 1355 Pope
Pope
Innocent VI 's cardinal Rome, Italy

Sigismund 31 May 1433 Pope
Pope
Eugenius IV Rome, Italy

Frederick III 19 March 1452 Pope
Pope
Nicholas V Rome, Italy

Charles V 24 February 1530 Pope
Pope
Clement VII Bologna
Bologna
, Italy

SEE ALSO

Wikimedia Commons has media related to HOLY ROMAN EMPERORS .

* Book: Holy Roman Emperors

* Concordat of Worms * Emperor
Emperor
for other uses of the title "Emperor" in Europe
Europe
. * First Council of the Lateran * Holy Roman Emperors family tree
Holy Roman Emperors family tree
* Holy Roman Empress * King of the Romans * List of German monarchs * Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
* King of Italy * Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire)

REFERENCES

* ^ Peter Hamish Wilson, The Holy Roman Empire, 1495–1806, MacMillan Press 1999, London, page 2 * ^ Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn: The Menace of the Herd or Procrustes at Large – Page: 164 * ^ Robert Edwin Herzstein, Robert Edwin Herzstein: The Holy Roman Empire in the Middle Ages: universal state or German catastrophe? * ^ Peter Moraw, Heiliges Reich, in: Lexikon des Mittelalters , Munich & Zurich: Artemis 1977–1999, vol. 4, columns 2025–2028. * ^ Bryce, James (1968). The Holy Roman Empire. Macmillan. p. 530. * ^ The New International Encyclopædia vol. 10 (1927), p. 675 * ^ Carlton J. H. Hayes , A Political and Cvltvral History of Modern Europe
Europe
vol. 1 (1932), p. 225. * ^ Egon Boshof: Ludwig der Fromme. Darmstadt 1996, p. 89 * ^ Enumerated as successor of Henry I who was German King 919–936 but not Emperor. * ^ Enumerated as successor of Conrad I who was German King 911–918 but not Emperor * ^ Barraclough, Geoffrey (1984). The Origins of Modern Germany. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-30153-2 . * ^ Enumerated also Lothair III as successor of Lothair II, who was King of Lotharingia 855–869 but not Emperor * ^ Enumerated as successor of Rudolph I who was German King 1273–1291. * ^ ” Wir Franz der Zweyte, von Gottes Gnaden erwählter römischer Kaiser Imperator Austriae, Fransiscus I (1804), Allerhöchste Pragmatikal-Verordnung vom 11. August 1804, The HR Emperor, p. 1

* v * t * e

Holy Roman Emperors

Carolingian Empire (800–888)

* Charles I (Charlemagne) * Louis I * Lothair I * Louis II * Charles II * Charles III * Guy * Lambert * Arnulf * Louis III * Berengar

Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(800/962–1806)

* Otto I * Otto II * Otto III * Henry II * Conrad II * Henry III * Henry IV * Henry V * Lothair II * Frederick I * Henry VI * Otto IV * Frederick II * Henry VII * Louis IV * Charles IV * Sigismund * Frederick III * Maximilian I * Charles V * Ferdinand I * Maximilian II * Rudolph II * Matthias * Ferdinand II * Ferdinand III * Leopold I * Joseph I * Charles VI * Charles VII * Francis I * Joseph II * Leopold II * Francis II

* Book
Book
*

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