The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la|Imperator
Romanorum, german: Kaiser
der Römer) during the middle ages, and also known as the German-Roman Emperor since the early modern period
( la|Imperator Germanorum, german: Römisch-deutscher Kaiser|lit|Roman-German emperor), was the ruler and head of state
of the Holy Roman Empire
. The Empire was considered by the Roman Catholic Church
to be the only legal successor
of the Roman Empire
during the Middle Ages
and the early modern period
. The title was held in conjunction with the title of King of Italy
(''Rex Italiae'') from the 8th to the 16th century, and, almost without interruption, with the title of King of Germany
(''Rex Teutonicorum'', lit. 'King of the Germans') throughout the 12th to 18th centuries.
In theory and diplomacy, the Emperors were considered ''primus inter pares
'', regarded as first among equals among other Roman Catholic monarchs across Europe. In practice, an emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances, including marriage alliances, made him.
From an autocracy
times (AD 800–924) the title by the 13th century evolved into an elective monarchy
, with the Emperor chosen by the Prince-Elector
Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, became ''de facto'' hereditary holders of the title, notably the Ottonians
(962–1024) and the Salians
(1027–1125). Following the late medieval crisis of government
, the Habsburg
s kept possession of the title without interruption from 1440 to 1740. The final emperors were from the House of Habsburg-Lorraine
, from 1765 to 1806. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by Francis II
, after a devastating defeat by Napoleon
at the Battle of Austerlitz
The Emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right
, though he often contradicted or rivaled the Pope
, most notably during the Investiture controversy
. The Holy Roman Empire never had an empress regnant
, though women such as Theophanu
and Maria Theresa
exerted strong influence. Throughout its history, the position was viewed as a defender of the Roman Catholic faith. Until Maximilian I
in 1508, the Emperor-elect (''Imperator electus'') was required to be crowned by the Pope before assuming the imperial title. Charles V
was the last to be crowned by the Pope in 1530. Even after the Reformation
, the elected Emperor was always a Roman Catholic
. There were short periods in history when the electoral college was dominated by Protestants
, and the electors usually voted in their own political interest.
thumb|upright|Depiction of Charlemagne
_in_a_12th-century_stained_glass_window,_[[Strasbourg_Cathedral,_now_at_[[Musée_de_l'Œuvre_Notre-Dame.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Strasbourg Cathedral">Charlemagne in a 12th-century stained glass window, [[Strasbourg Cathedral, now at [[Musée de l'Œuvre Notre-Dame">Strasbourg Cathedral">Charlemagne in a 12th-century stained glass window, [[Strasbourg Cathedral, now at [[Musée de l'Œuvre Notre-Dame.]]
From the time of [[Constantine I]] (r. 306–337), the [[Roman emperor]]s had, with very few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of [[State church of the Roman Empire|Christianity]].
The Constantine the Great and Christianity|reign of Constantine
established a precedent for the position of the Christian emperor in the Church. Emperors considered themselves responsible to the gods for the spiritual health of their subjects, and after Constantine they had a duty to help the Church define and maintain orthodoxy. The emperor's role was to enforce doctrine, root out heresy
, and uphold ecclesiastical unity.
Both the title and connection between Emperor and Church
continued in the Eastern Roman Empire
throughout the medieval period (in exile
during 1204–1261). The ecumenical councils
of the 5th to 8th centuries were convoked by the Eastern Roman Emperors
In Western Europe
, the title of ''Emperor'' became defunct after the death of Julius Nepos
in 480, although the rulers of the barbarian kingdoms
continued to recognize the authority of the Eastern Emperor
at least nominally well into the 6th century. In 797, the Eastern Emperor Constantine VI
was deposed and replaced as monarch by his mother, Irene
. The Papacy, which up until this point had continued to recognize the rulers in Constantinople as Roman Emperors, viewed the imperial throne as vacant since in their mind, a woman could not rule the empire.
[James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce, ''The Holy Roman Empire'', 1864, pp 62–64]
For this reason, Charlemagne
, the King of the Franks and King of Italy, was crowned Emperor of the Romans (''Imperator Romanorum'') by Pope Leo III
, as the successor of Constantine VI as Roman Emperor under the concept of ''translatio imperii
On his coins, the name and title used by Charlemagne is Karolus Imperator Augustus and in his documents, he used Imperator Augustus Romanum gubernans Imperium ("August Emperor, governing the Roman Empire") and serenissimus Augustus a Deo coronatus, magnus pacificus Imperator Romanorum gubernans Imperium ("most serene Augustus crowned by God, great peaceful emperor governing the empire of the Romans"). The Eastern Empire eventually relented to recognizing Charlemagne and his successors as emperors, but as "Frankish" and "German emperors", at no point referring to them as Roman, a label they reserved for themselves.
The title of Emperor in the West implied recognition by the pope. As the power of the papacy grew during the Middle Ages, popes and emperors came into conflict over church administration. The best-known and most bitter conflict was that known as the investiture controversy
, fought during the 11th century between Henry IV
and Pope Gregory VII
After the coronation of Charlemagne, his successors maintained the title until the death of Berengar I of Italy
in 924. The comparatively brief interregnum between 924 and the coronation
of Otto the Great
in 962 is taken as marking the transition from the Frankish Empire
to the Holy Roman Empire
Under the Ottonians
, much of the former Carolingian
kingdom of Eastern Francia
fell within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire.
Since 911, the various German princes
had elected the ''King of the Germans
'' from among their peers. The King of the Germans would then be
crowned as emperor following the precedent set by Charlemagne, during the period of 962–1530. Charles V
was the last emperor to be crowned by the pope, and his successor, Ferdinand I
, merely adopted the title of "Emperor elect" in 1558. The final Holy Roman Emperor-elect, Francis II
, abdicated in 1806 during the Napoleonic War
s that saw the Empire's final dissolution.
The term ''sacrum'' (i.e., "holy") in connection with the German Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa
The Holy Roman Emperor's standard designation was "August Emperor of the Romans" (''Romanorum Imperator Augustus''). When Charlemagne was crowned in 800, he was styled as "most serene Augustus, crowned by God, great and pacific emperor, governing the Roman Empire," thus constituting the elements of "Holy" and "Roman" in the imperial title.
The word ''Roman'' was a reflection of the principle of ''translatio imperii
'' (or in this case ''restauratio imperii'') that regarded the (Germanic) Holy Roman Emperors as the inheritors of the title of Emperor of the Western Roman Empire
, despite the continued existence of the Eastern Roman Empire.
In German-language historiography, the term ''Römisch-deutscher Kaiser'' ("Roman-German emperor") is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor
on one hand, and that of German Emperor
(''Deutscher Kaiser'') on the other. The English term "Holy Roman Emperor" is a modern shorthand for "emperor of the Holy Roman Empire" not corresponding to the historical style or title, i.e., the adjective "holy" is not intended as modifying "emperor"; the English term "Holy Roman Emperor" gained currency in the interbellum period (the 1920s to 1930s); formerly the title had also been rendered "German-Roman emperor" in English.
[''The New International Encyclopædia'' vol. 10 (1927), p. 675.
Carlton J. H. Hayes, ''A Political and Cvltvral History of Modern Europe'' vol. 1 (1932), p. 225.]
The elective monarchy
of the kingdom of Germany
goes back to the early 10th century, the election of Conrad I of Germany
in 911 following the death without issue of Louis the Child
, the last Carolingian
ruler of Germany. Elections
meant the kingship of Germany was only partially hereditary, unlike the kingship of France
, although sovereignty frequently remained in a dynasty until there were no more male successors. The process of an election meant that the prime candidate had to make concessions, by which the voters were kept on his side, which was known as ''Wahlkapitulationen'' (electoral capitulation
Conrad was elected by the German dukes
, and it is not known precisely when the system of seven prince-electors
was established. The papal decree ''Venerabilem'' by Innocent III
(1202), addressed to Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen
, establishes the election procedure by (unnamed) princes of the realm, reserving for the pope the right to approve of the candidates.
A letter of Pope Urban IV
(1263), in the context of the disputed vote of 1256 and the subsequent interregnum
, suggests that by "immemorial custom
", seven princes had the right to elect the King and future Emperor. The seven prince-electors are named in the Golden Bull of 1356
: The Archbishop of Mainz
, the Archbishop of Trier
, the Archbishop of Cologne
, the King of Bohemia
, the Count Palatine of the Rhine
, the Duke of Saxony
and the Margrave of Brandenburg
After 1438, the Kings remained in the house of Habsburg
, with the brief exception of Charles VII
, who was a Wittelsbach
. Maximilian I
(Emperor 1508–1519) and his successors no longer travelled to Rome to be crowned as Emperor by the Pope. Maximilian, therefore, named himself Elected Roman Emperor (''Erwählter Römischer Kaiser'') in 1508 with papal approval. This title was in use by all his uncrowned successors. Of his successors, only Charles V
, the immediate one, received a papal coronation.
The Elector Palatine's seat was conferred on the Duke of Bavaria
in 1621, but in 1648, in the wake of the Thirty Years' War
, the Elector Palatine was restored, as the eighth elector. Electorate of Hanover
was added as a ninth elector in 1692. The whole college was reshuffled in the German mediatization
of 1803 with a total of ten electors, a mere three years before the dissolution of the Empire.
List of emperors
This list includes all 47 German monarchs crowned from Charlemagne until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806).
Several rulers were crowned King of the Romans
(King of Germany) but not emperor, although they styled themselves thus, among whom were: Conrad I of Germany
and Henry the Fowler
in the 10th century, and Conrad IV
, Rudolf I
and Albert I
during the ''interregnum'' of the late 13th century.
Traditional historiography assumes a continuity between the Carolingian Empire
and the Holy Roman Empire, while a modern convention takes the coronation of Otto I in 962 as the starting point of the Holy Roman Empire (although the term ''Sacrum Imperium Romanum'' was not in use before the 13th century).
The rulers who were crowned as Roman emperors in Western Europe between AD 800 and 915 were as follows:
800–888: Carolingian dynasty
891–898: Widonid dynasty
896–899: Carolingian dynasty
901–905: Bosonid dynasty
915–924: Unruoching dynasty
Holy Roman Emperors
There was no emperor in the west between 924 and 962.
While earlier Germanic and Italian monarchs had been crowned as Roman emperors, the actual Holy Roman Empire
is usually considered to have begun with the crowning of the Saxon king Otto I
. It was officially an elective position, though at times it ran in families, notably the four generations of the Salian dynasty
in the 11th century. From the end of the Salian dynasty through the middle 15th century, the emperors drew from many different German dynasties, and it was rare for the throne to pass from father to son. That changed with the ascension of the Austrian House of Habsburg
, as an unbroken line of Habsburgs held the imperial throne until the 18th century. Later a cadet branch known as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine
passed it from father to son until the abolition of the Empire in 1806. Notably, the Habsburgs dispensed with the requirement that emperors be crowned by the pope before exercising their office. Starting with Ferdinand I
, all successive emperors forwent the traditional coronation.
962–1024: Ottonian dynasty
1027–1125: Salian dynasty
1133–1137: Supplinburg dynasty
1155–1197: Staufen dynasty
1198–1215: Welf dynasty
1220–1250: Staufen dynasty
of the Holy Roman Empire is taken to have lasted from the deposition of Frederick II by Pope Innocent IV
(1245, alternatively from the death of Frederick 1250 or the death of Conrad IV
1254) to the election of Rudolf I of Germany
Rudolf was not crowned emperor, nor were his successors Adolf
The next emperor was Henry VII
, crowned on 29 June 1312 by Pope Clement V
1312–1313: House of Luxembourg
1314–1347: House of Wittelsbach
1346–1437: House of Luxembourg
1440–1740: House of Habsburg
In 1508, Pope Julius II
allowed Maximilian I to use the title of Emperor without coronation in Rome, though the title was qualified as Electus Romanorum Imperator ("elected Emperor of the Romans"). Maximilian's successors adopted the same titulature, usually when they became the sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. Maximilian's first successor Charles V was the last to be crowned Emperor by the Pope in Rome.
1742–1745: House of Wittelsbach
1745–1765: House of Lorraine
1765–1806: House of Habsburg-Lorraine
The Emperor was crowned in a special ceremony, traditionally performed by the Pope
. Without that coronation, no king, despite exercising all powers, could call himself Emperor. In 1508, Pope Julius II
allowed Maximilian I
to use the title of Emperor without coronation in Rome, though the title was qualified as ''Electus Romanorum Imperator'' ("elected Emperor of the Romans"). Maximilian's successors adopted the same titulature, usually when they became the sole ruler of the Holy Roman Empire.
[" Wir Franz der Zweyte, von Gottes Gnaden erwählter römischer Kaiser ]
Maximilian's first successor Charles V
was the last to be crowned Emperor.
* Concordat of Worms
for other uses of the title "Emperor" in Europe
* First Council of the Lateran
* Holy Roman Emperors family tree
* Holy Roman Empress
* King of the Romans
* List of German monarchs
* Holy Roman Empire
* King of Italy
* Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire)
Category:Holy Roman Empire-related lists
Category:Monarchy in Germany