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The House of Romanov
House of Romanov
(/ˈroʊməˌnɔːf, -ˌnɒf, roʊˈmɑːnəf/;[1] also Romanoff;[1] Russian: Рома́новы, Románovy, IPA: [rɐˈmanəf]) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar
Tsar
Nicholas II
Nicholas II
on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution. The Romanovs achieved prominence as boyars of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, later the Tsardom of Russia. In 1613, following years of interregnum (Time of Troubles), the zemsky sobor offered the Russian crown to Mikhail Romanov. He acceded to the throne as Michael I, becoming the first Tsar of Russia
Tsar of Russia
from the House of Romanov. His grandson Peter I established the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and transformed the country into a continental power through a series of wars and reforms. The direct male line of the Romanovs came to an end when Elizabeth of Russia died in 1762. After an era of dynastic crisis, the House of Holstein-Gottorp, a cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg
House of Oldenburg
that reigned in Denmark, ascended the throne in 1762 with Peter III, a grandson of Peter I.[2] All rulers from the middle of the 18th century to the revolution of 1917 were descended from that branch. Though officially known as the House of Romanov, these descendants of the Romanov and Oldenburg dynasties are sometimes referred to as Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov.[3] In early 1917 the Romanov dynasty had 65 members, 18 of whom were killed by the Bolsheviks. The remaining 47 members went into exile abroad.[4] In 1924, Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich, the senior, surviving male-line descendant of Alexander II of Russia
Alexander II of Russia
by primogeniture, claimed the headship of the defunct Imperial House of Russia. Since 1991, the succession to the former Russian throne has been in dispute, largely due to disagreements over the validity of dynasts' marriages, especially between the lines of Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna of Russia and Prince Nicholas Romanovich Romanov, succeeded by Prince Andrew Romanov.

Contents

1 Surname usage 2 House of Romanov

2.1 Rise to power 2.2 Dynastic crisis

3 House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

3.1 Age of Autocracy 3.2 Gallery 3.3 Downfall 3.4 Contemporary Romanovs

4 Execution of Tsar
Tsar
and family

4.1 Remains of the Tsar 4.2 Alexei

5 Killing of other Romanovs 6 Exiles

6.1 Dowager Empress Maria Fyodorovna 6.2 Other exiles 6.3 Pretenders

7 Romanov family jewellery 8 Heraldry 9 Family tree 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

Surname usage[edit] Legally, it remains unclear whether any ukase ever abolished the surname of Michael Romanov (or of his subsequent male-line descendants) after his accession to the Russian throne in 1613, although by tradition members of reigning dynasties seldom use surnames, being known instead by dynastic titles ("Tsarevich Ivan Alexeevich", "Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich", etc.). From January 1762 [O.S. December 1761], the monarchs of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
claimed the throne as relatives of Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia (1708-1728), who had married Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. Thus they were no longer Romanovs by patrilineage, belonging instead to the Holstein-Gottorp
Holstein-Gottorp
cadet branch of the German House of Oldenburg
House of Oldenburg
that reigned in Denmark. The 1944 edition of the Almanach de Gotha
Almanach de Gotha
records the name of Russia's ruling dynasty from the time of Peter III (reigned 1761-1762) as "Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov".[5] However, the terms "Romanov" and "House of Romanov" often occurred in official references to the Russian imperial family. The coat-of-arms of the Romanov boyars was included in legislation on the imperial dynasty,[6] and in a 1913 jubilee, Russia officially celebrated the "300th Anniversary of the Romanovs' rule".[7] After the February Revolution
February Revolution
of March 1917, a special decree of the Provisional Government of Russia
Provisional Government of Russia
granted all members of the imperial family the surname "Romanov".[citation needed] The only exceptions, the morganatic descendants of the Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich (1891-1942), took (in exile) the surname Il'insky.[5][8] House of Romanov[edit]

A 16th-century residence of the Yuryev-Zakharyin boyars in Zaryadye, near the Kremlin

The Romanovs share their origin with two dozen other Russian noble families. Their earliest common ancestor is one Andrei Kobyla, attested around 1347 as a boyar in the service of Semyon I of Moscow.[5] Later generations assigned to Kobyla an illustrious pedigree. An 18th-century genealogy claimed that he was the son of the Prussian prince Glanda Kambila, who came to Russia in the second half of the 13th century, fleeing the invading Germans. Indeed, one of the leaders of the Old Prussian
Old Prussian
rebellion of 1260–1274 against the Teutonic order
Teutonic order
was named Glande. His actual origin may have been less spectacular. Not only is Kobyla Russian for "mare", some of his relatives also had as nicknames the terms for horses and other domestic animals, thus suggesting descent from one of the royal equerries.[citation needed] One of Kobyla's sons, Feodor, a member of the boyar Duma
Duma
of Dmitri Donskoi, was nicknamed Koshka ("cat"). His descendants took the surname Koshkin, then changed it to Zakharin, which family later split into two branches: Zakharin-Yakovlev and Zakharin-Yuriev.[5] During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the former family became known as Yakovlev ( Alexander Herzen
Alexander Herzen
among them), whereas grandchildren of Roman Yurievich Zakharyin-Yuriev (ru) changed their name to "Romanov".[5] Rise to power[edit] The family fortunes soared when Roman's daughter, Anastasia Zakharyina, married Ivan IV, the Rurikid Grand Prince of Moscow, on 3 (13) February 1547.[2] Since her husband had assumed the title of tsar, which literally means "Caesar", on 16 January 1547, she was crowned the very first tsaritsa of Russia. Her mysterious death in 1560 changed Ivan's character for the worse. Suspecting the boyars of having poisoned his beloved, Tsar
Tsar
Ivan started a reign of terror against them. Among his children by Anastasia, the elder (Ivan) was murdered by the tsar in a quarrel; the younger Feodor, a pious but lethargic prince, inherited the throne upon his father's death in 1584.

A crowd at the Ipatiev Monastery
Ipatiev Monastery
imploring Mikhail Romanov's mother to let him go to Moscow and become their tsar (Illumination from a book dated 1673).

Throughout Feodor's reign (1584–1598), the Tsar's brother-in-law, Boris Godunov, and his Romanov cousins contested the de facto rule of Russia. Upon the death of childless Feodor, the 700-year-old line of Rurikids came to an end. After a long struggle, the party of Boris Godunov prevailed over the Romanovs, and the Zemsky sobor
Zemsky sobor
elected Godunov as tsar in 1599. Godunov's revenge on the Romanovs was terrible: all the family and its relations were deported to remote corners of the Russian North and Urals, where most of them died of hunger or in chains. The family's leader, Feodor Nikitich Romanov, was exiled to the Antoniev Siysky Monastery
Antoniev Siysky Monastery
and forced to take monastic vows with the name Filaret. The Romanovs' fortunes again changed dramatically with the fall of the Godunov dynasty in June 1605. As a former leader of the anti-Godunov party and cousin of the last legitimate tsar, Filaret Romanov's recognition was sought by several impostors who attempted to claim the Rurikid legacy and throne during the Time of Troubles. False Dmitriy I made him a metropolitan, and False Dmitriy II
False Dmitriy II
raised him to the dignity of patriarch. Upon the expulsion of the Poles from Moscow in 1612, the Zemsky Sobor offered the Russian crown to several Rurikid and Gediminian princes, but all declined the honour.[5] On being offered the Russian crown, Filaret's 16-year-old son Mikhail Romanov, then living at the Ipatiev Monastery
Ipatiev Monastery
of Kostroma, burst into tears of fear and despair. He was finally persuaded to accept the throne by his mother Kseniya Ivanovna Shestova, who blessed him with the holy image of Our Lady of St. Theodore. Feeling how insecure his throne was, Mikhail attempted to emphasize his ties with the last Rurikid tsars and sought advice from the Zemsky Sobor on every important issue. This strategy proved successful. The early Romanovs were generally accepted by the population as in-laws of Ivan the Terrible and viewed as innocent martyrs of Godunov's wrath.[citation needed] Dynastic crisis[edit]

Peter the Great
Peter the Great
(1672–1725)

Mikhail was succeeded by his only son Alexei, who steered the country quietly through numerous troubles. Upon his death, there was a period of dynastic struggle between his children by his first wife Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya (Fyodor III, Sofia Alexeyevna, Ivan V) and his son by his second wife Nataliya Kyrillovna Naryshkina, the future Peter the Great. Peter ruled from 1682 until his death in 1725.[2] In numerous successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a huge empire that became a major European power. He led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political system with a modern, scientific, Europe-oriented, and rationalist system.[9] New dynastic struggles followed the death of Peter. His only son to survive into adulthood, Tsarevich Alexei, did not support Peter's modernization of Russia. He had previously been arrested and died in prison shortly thereafter. Near the end of his life, Peter managed to alter the succession tradition of male heirs, allowing him to choose his heir. Power then passed into the hands of his second wife, Empress Catherine, who ruled until her death in 1727.[2] Peter II took the throne but died in 1730, ending the Romanov male line.[5] He was succeeded by Anna I, daughter of Peter the Great's half-brother and co-ruler, Ivan V. Before she died in 1740 the empress declared that her grandnephew, Ivan VI, should succeed her. This was an attempt to secure the line of her father, while excluding descendants of Peter the Great from inheriting the throne. Ivan VI was only a one-year-old infant at the time of his succession to the throne, and his parents, Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna
Anna Leopoldovna
and Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick, the ruling regent, were detested for their German counselors and relations. As a consequence, shortly after Empress Anna's death, Elizabeth Petrovna, a legitimized daughter of Peter I, managed to gain the favor of the populace and dethroned Ivan VI in a coup d'état, supported by the Preobrazhensky Regiment
Preobrazhensky Regiment
and the ambassadors of France and Sweden. Ivan VI and his parents died in prison many years later. House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov[edit] The Holstein-Gottorps of Russia retained the Romanov surname, emphasizing their matrilineal descent from Peter the Great, through Anna Petrovna (Peter I's elder daughter by his second wife).[5] In 1742, Empress Elizabeth of Russia
Elizabeth of Russia
brought Anna's son, her nephew Peter of Holstein-Gottorp, to St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
and proclaimed him her heir. In time, she married him off to the German princess, Sophia of Anhalt-Zerbst.[2] In 1762, shortly after the death of Empress Elizabeth, Sophia, who had taken the Russian name Catherine upon her marriage, overthrew her unpopular husband, with the aid of her lover, Grigory Orlov. She reigned as Catherine the Great. Catherine's son, Paul I, who succeeded his mother in 1796,[2] was particularly proud to be a great-grandson of Peter the Great, although his mother's memoirs arguably insinuate that Paul's natural father was, in fact, her lover Serge Saltykov, rather than her husband, Peter. Painfully aware of the hazards resulting from battles of succession, Paul decreed house laws for the Romanovs -— the so-called Pauline laws, among the strictest in Europe -— which established semi-Salic primogeniture as the rule of succession to the throne, requiring Orthodox faith for the monarch and dynasts, and for the consorts of the monarchs and their near heirs. Later, Alexander I, responding to the 1820 morganatic marriage of his brother and heir,[2] added the requirement that consorts of all Russian dynasts in the male line had to be of equal birth (i.e., born to a royal or sovereign dynasty). Age of Autocracy[edit] Paul I was murdered in his palace in Saint Petersburg in 1801. Alexander I succeeded him on the throne and later died without leaving a son. His brother, crowned Nicholas I, succeeded him on the throne.[5] The succession was far from smooth, however, as hundreds of troops took the oath of allegiance to Nicholas's elder brother, Constantine Pavlovich who, unbeknownst to them, had renounced his claim to the throne in 1822, following his marriage. The confusion, combined with opposition to Nicholas' accession, led to the Decembrist revolt.[2] Nicholas I fathered four sons, educating them for the prospect of ruling Russia and for military careers, from whom the last branches of the dynasty descended. Alexander II, son of Nicholas I, became the next Russian emperor in 1855, in the midst of the Crimean War. While Alexander considered it his charge to maintain peace in Europe and Russia, he believed only a strong Russian military could keep the peace. By developing the army, giving some freedom to Finland, and freeing the serfs in 1861 he gained much popular support. Despite his popularity, however, his family life began to unravel by the mid 1860s. In 1864, his eldest son, and heir, Tsarevich Nicholas, died suddenly. His wife, Empress Maria Alexandrovna, who suffered from tuberculosis, spent much of her time abroad. Alexander eventually turned to a mistress, Princess Catherine Dolgoruki. Immediately following the death of his wife in 1880 he contracted a morganatic marriage with Dolgoruki.[5] His legitimization of their children, and rumors that he was contemplating crowning his new wife as empress, caused tension within the dynasty. In particular, the grand duchesses were scandalized at the prospect of deferring to a woman who had borne Alexander several children during his wife's lifetime. Before Princess Catherine could be elevated in rank, however, on 13 March 1881 Alexander was assassinated by a hand-made bomb hurled by Ignacy Hryniewiecki. Slavic patriotism, cultural revival, and Panslavist ideas grew in importance in the latter half of this century, evoking expectations of a more Russian than cosmopolitan dynasty. Several marriages were contracted with members of other reigning Slavic or Orthodox dynasties (Greece, Montenegro, Serbia).[5] In the early 20th century two Romanov princesses were allowed to marry Russian high noblemen – whereas until the 1850s, practically all marriages had been with German princelings.[5]

A gathering of members of the Romanov family in 1892, at the summer military manoeuvres in Krasnoe Selo.

Alexander II was succeeded by his son Alexander III. This tsar, the second-to-last Romanov emperor, was responsible for conservative reforms in Russia. Not expected to inherit the throne, he was educated in matters of state only after the death of his older brother, Nicholas. Lack of diplomatic training may have influenced his politics as well as those of his son, Nicholas II. Alexander III was physically impressive, being not only tall (1.93 m or 6'4", according to some sources), but of large physique and considerable strength. His beard hearkened back to the likeness of tsars of old, contributing to an aura of brusque authority, awe-inspiring to some, alienating to others. Alexander, fearful of the fate which had befallen his father, strengthened autocratic rule in Russia. Some of the reforms the more liberal Alexander II had pushed through were reversed. Alexander had not only inherited his dead brother's position as Tsesarevich, but also his brother's Danish fiancée, Princess Dagmar. Taking the name Maria Fyodorovna upon her conversion to Orthodoxy, she was the daughter of King Christian IX and the sister of the future kings Frederik VIII of Denmark
Frederik VIII of Denmark
and George I of Greece, as well as of Britain's Queen Alexandra, consort of Edward VII.[2] Despite contrasting natures and backgrounds the marriage was considered harmonious, producing six children and acquiring for Alexander the reputation of being the first tsar not known to take mistresses. His eldest son, Nicholas, became emperor upon Alexander III's death due to kidney disease at age 49 in November 1894. Nicholas reputedly said, "I am not ready to be tsar...." Just a week after the funeral, Nicholas married his fiancée, Alix of Hesse-Darmstadt, a favorite grandchild of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
of the United Kingdom. Though a kind-hearted man, he tended to leave intact his father's harsh policies. For her part the shy Alix, who took the name Alexandra Fyodorovna, became a devout convert to Orthodoxy as well as a devoted wife to Nicholas and mother to their five children, yet avoided many of the social duties traditional for Russia's tsarinas.[2] Seen as distant and severe, unfavorable comparisons were drawn between her and her popular mother-in-law, Maria Fyodorovna.[2] When, in 1916, Nicholas took command of the army at the front lines during World War I, Alexandra sought to influence him toward an authoritarian approach in government affairs even more than she had done during peace time. His well-known devotion to her injured both his and the dynasty's reputation during World War I, due both to her German origin and her unique relationship with Rasputin, whose role in the life of her only son was not widely known. Alexandra was a carrier of the gene for haemophilia, inherited from her maternal grandmother, Queen Victoria.[2] Her son, Alexei, the long-awaited heir to the throne, inherited the disease and suffered agonizing bouts of protracted bleeding, the pain of which was sometimes partially alleviated by Rasputin's ministrations. Nicholas and Alexandra also had four daughters, the Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia.[2] The six crowned representatives of the Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
line were: Paul (1796–1801), Alexander I (1801–1825), Nicholas I (1825–55), Alexander II (1855–81), Alexander III (1881–94), and Nicholas II
Nicholas II
(1894–1917).[5] Constantine Pavlovich and Michael Alexandrovich, both morganatically married, are occasionally counted among Russia's emperors by historians who observe that the Russian monarchy did not legally permit interregnums. But neither was crowned and both declined the throne. Gallery[edit]

Grand Kremlin Palace, Moscow

Throne of the Tsar, the Empress and the Tsarevich in the Grand Kremlin Palace

Winter Palace, Saint Petersburg

Peterhof Palace

Catherine Palace, Tsarskoye Selo

Peter and Paul Fortress
Peter and Paul Fortress
with Peter and Paul Cathedral, mausoleum of the Romanovs

Downfall[edit]

The Romanovs visiting a regiment during World War I. From left to right, Grand Duchess Anastasia, Grand Duchess Olga, Tsar
Tsar
Nicholas II, Tsarevich Alexei, Grand Duchess Tatiana, and Grand Duchess Maria, and Kuban Cossacks

The February Revolution
February Revolution
of 1917 resulted in the abdication of Nicholas II in favor of his brother Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich.[2] The latter declined to accept imperial authority save to delegate it to the Provisional Government pending a future democratic referendum, effectively terminating the Romanov dynasty's rule over Russia. After the February Revolution, Nicholas II
Nicholas II
and his family were placed under house arrest in the Alexander Palace. While several members of the imperial family managed to stay on good terms with the Provisional Government, and were eventually able to leave Russia, Nicholas II
Nicholas II
and his family were sent into exile in the Siberian town of Tobolsk
Tobolsk
by Alexander Kerensky
Alexander Kerensky
in August 1917. The October Revolution
October Revolution
of 1917 saw the ousting of the Provisional government by the Bolsheviks and the Romanovs were moved in April 1918 to the Russian town of Yekaterinburg, in the Urals, where they were placed in the Ipatiev House. Contemporary Romanovs[edit] Further information: Line of succession to the former Russian throne and Romanov Empire

Grand Duke Cyril (Kirill) with his wife Grand Duchess Victoria and children Kira and Vladimir Kirillovich

There have been numerous post-Revolution reports of Romanov survivors and unsubstantiated claims by individuals to be members of the deposed Tsar
Tsar
Nicholas II's family, the best known of whom was Anna Anderson. Proven research has, however, confirmed that all of the Romanovs held prisoners inside the Ipatiev House
Ipatiev House
in Ekaterinburg
Ekaterinburg
were killed.[10][11] Descendants of Xenia and Olga, Nicholas II's two sisters, do survive, as do descendants of previous tsars. Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich, a male-line grandson of Tsar Alexander II, claimed the headship of the deposed Imperial House of Russia, and assumed, as pretender, the title "Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias" in 1924 when the evidence appeared conclusive that all Romanovs higher in the line of succession had been killed.[2] Kirill was followed by his only son Vladimir Kirillovich.[2] Vladimir's only child, Maria Vladimirovna (born 1953), claims to have succeeded her father. The only son of her marriage with Prince Franz Wilhelm of Prussia, George Mikhailovich, is her heir apparent. The Romanov Family Association
Romanov Family Association
(RFA) formed in 1979, a private organization of most of the male-line descendants of Emperor Paul I of Russia (other than Vladimir Kirillovich, Maria Vladimirovna and her son) acknowledges the dynastic claims to the throne of no pretender, and is officially committed to support only that form of government chosen by the Russian nation.[12] However the RFA's former president, Nicholas Romanovich, along with his brother Dimitri and some other family members, have repudiated the transfer of the dynasty's legacy to the female-line, contending that his claim is as valid as that of Maria Vladimirovna or her son. A great-grandson of Kirill's who is not a male-line Romanov, Prince Karl Emich of Leiningen, also claims to be the rightful representative of the Romanov Imperial heritage and has become the founder of Romanov Empire. Execution of Tsar
Tsar
and family[edit] Further information: Execution of the Romanov family
Execution of the Romanov family
and Canonization of the Romanovs

Yekaterinburg's "Church on the Blood", built on the spot where the last Tsar
Tsar
and his family were killed

On the night of 17 July 1918, Bolshevik
Bolshevik
authorities acting on Yakov Sverdlov's orders in Moscow and led locally by Filip Goloschekin and Yakov Yurovsky, shot Nicholas II, his immediate family and four servants in the Ipatiev House's cellar. The family was roused from sleep around 2:00 a.m. and told that they were being moved to a newer, safer location. They dressed quickly but informally. They were then led from the house where they had been staying and taken across a courtyard and down some stairs, then through a number of corridors and small dark rooms, few of which were lit. They reached a room at the end of one particular corridor that had a single electric light burning dimly. They asked for and were brought two chairs for the youngest children to sit on. The family members were then left alone for several minutes. Suddenly, a group of armed men led by Yurovsky entered the room. Yurovsky read an announcement from the local Duma
Duma
explaining that they must all be killed immediately. Nicholas was utterly perplexed, and asked Yurovsky, "What? What?" Yurovsky eventually responded by saying, "This!" and shot Nicholas in the chest. Thus commenced the messy, botched affair.[13] At first, all of the gunmen, who loathed the Tsar
Tsar
immensely, shot at Nicholas, who immediately fell dead from multiple bullet wounds. Then the dark room filled with toxic smoke and dust from the spray of bullets, and the gunmen shot blindly, often hitting the ceiling and walls, creating yet more dust. Alexandra was soon shot in the head by Ermakov, and killed, and some of the gunmen themselves became injured. It was not until after the room had been cleared of smoke that the shooters re-entered to find the entire remaining Imperial family still alive and uninjured. Maria tried to escape through the doors at the rear of the room, which led to a storage area, but the doors were nailed shut. The noise as she rattled the doors attracted the attention of the drunken military commissar Peter Ermakov. Some of these were now quickly shot in the head, but several of the others, including the young and frail Tsarevich, would not die either from multiple close-range bullet wounds or bayonet stabs. Finally, each was shot in the head. Even so, two of the girls were still alive 10 minutes later, and had to be bludgeoned with the butt of a rifle to finally be killed. Later it was discovered that the bullets and bayonet stabs had been partially blocked by diamonds that had been sewn into the children's clothing.[citation needed] The bodies of the Romanovs were then hidden and moved several times before being interred in an unmarked pit where they remained until the summer of 1979 when amateur enthusiasts disinterred and re-buried some of them, and then decided to conceal the find until the fall of communism. In 1991 the grave site was excavated and the bodies were given a state funeral under the nascent democracy of post-Soviet Russia, and several years later DNA and other forensic evidence was used by Russian and international scientists to make genuine identifications.[citation needed] The Ipatiev House
Ipatiev House
has the same name as the Ipatiev Monastery
Ipatiev Monastery
in Kostroma, where Mikhail Romanov had been offered the Russian Crown in 1613. The large memorial church "on the blood" has been built on the spot where the Ipatiev House
Ipatiev House
once stood. Nicholas II
Nicholas II
and his family were proclaimed passion-bearers by the Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
in 2000. In orthodoxy, a passion-bearer is a saint who was not killed because of his faith, like a martyr; but who died in faith at the hand of murderers. Remains of the Tsar[edit]

Tombstones marking the burial of Tsar
Tsar
Nicholas II
Nicholas II
and his family in St. Catherine's Chapel at Peter and Paul Cathedral

In July 1991, the crushed bodies of Nicholas II
Nicholas II
and his wife, along with three of their five children and four of their servants, were exhumed (although some[who?] questioned the authenticity of these bones despite DNA testing). Because two bodies were not present, many people[who?] believed that two Romanov children escaped the killings. There was much debate as to which two children's bodies were missing. A Russian scientist made photographic superimpositions and determined that Maria and Alexei were not accounted for. Later, an American scientist concluded from dental, vertebral, and other remnants that it was Anastasia and Alexei who were missing. Much mystery has always surrounded Anastasia's fate. Several films have been produced suggesting that she lived on. This has since been disproved with the discovery of the final Romanov children's remains and extensive DNA testing, which connected those remains to the DNA of Nicholas II, his wife, and the other three children. After the bodies were exhumed in June 1991, they remained in laboratories until 1998, while there was a debate as to whether they should be reburied in Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
or St. Petersburg. A commission eventually chose St. Petersburg. The remains were transferred with full military honor guard and accompanied by members of the Romanov family from Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
to St. Petersburg. In St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
the remains of the imperial family were moved by a formal military honor guard cortege from the airport to the Sts. Peter and Paul Fortress where they (along with several loyal servants who were killed with them) were interred in a special chapel in the Peter and Paul Cathedral near the tombs of their ancestors. President Boris Yeltsin attended the interment service on behalf of the Russian people. Alexei[edit] In mid-2007, a Russian archaeologist announced a discovery by one of his workers. The excavation uncovered the following items in the two pits which formed a "T":

remains of 46 human bone fragments; bullet jackets from short barrel guns/pistols; wooden boxes which had deteriorated into fragments; pieces of ceramic which appear to be amphoras which were used as containers for acid; iron nails; iron angles; seven fragments of teeth; fragment of fabric of a garment.

The area where the remains were found was near the old Koptyaki Road, under what appeared to be double bonfire sites about 70 metres (230 ft) from the mass grave in Pigs Meadow near Yekaterinburg. The general directions were described in Yurovsky's memoirs, owned by his son, although no one is sure who wrote the notes on the page. The archaeologists said the bones are from a boy who was roughly between the ages of 10 and 13 years at the time of his death and of a young woman who was roughly between the ages of 18 and 23 years old. Anastasia was 17 years, 1 month old at the time of the murder, while Maria was 19 years, 1 month old. Alexei would have been 14 in two weeks' time. Alexei's elder sisters Olga and Tatiana were 22 and 21 years old at the time of the murder respectively. The bones were found using metal detectors and metal rods as probes. Also, striped material was found that appeared to have been from a blue-and-white striped cloth; Alexei commonly wore a blue-and-white striped undershirt. On 30 April 2008, Russian forensic scientists announced that DNA testing proves that the remains belong to the Tsarevich Alexei and his sister Anastasia. DNA information, made public in July 2008, that has been obtained from Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
and repeatedly subject to independent testing by laboratories such as the University of Massachusetts Medical School, US, and reveals that the final two missing Romanov remains are indeed authentic and that the entire Romanov family housed in the Ipatiev House, Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
were executed in the early hours of 17 July 1918. In March 2009, results of the DNA testing were published, confirming that the two bodies discovered in 2007 were those of Tsarevich Alexei and Anastasia. Research on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was conducted in the American AFDIL and in European GMI laboratories. In comparison with the previous analyses mtDNA in the area of Alexandra Fyodorovna, positions 16519C, 524.1A and 524.2C were added. The mtDNA of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a great-nephew of the last Tsarina, was used by forensic scientists to identify her body and those of her children.[14][15] Killing of other Romanovs[edit] On 18 July 1918, the day after the killing at Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
of the tsar and his family, members of the extended Russian imperial family met a brutal death by being killed near Alapayevsk
Alapayevsk
by Bolsheviks. They included: Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich of Russia, Prince Ioann Konstantinovich of Russia, Prince Konstantin Konstantinovich of Russia, Prince Igor Konstantinovich of Russia
Prince Igor Konstantinovich of Russia
and Prince Vladimir Pavlovich Paley, Grand Duke Sergei's secretary Varvara Yakovleva, and Grand Duchess Elisabeth Fyodorovna, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria and elder sister of Tsarina Alexandra. Following the 1905 assassination of her husband, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, Elisabeth Fyodorovna had ceased living as a member of the Imperial family and took up life as a serving nun, but would nonetheless be arrested and slated for death with other Romanovs.[16] They were thrown down a mine shaft into which explosives were then dropped, all being left to die there slowly.[17] The bodies were recovered from the mine by the White Army
White Army
in 1918, who arrived too late to rescue them. Their remains were placed in coffins and moved around Russia during struggles between the White and the opposing Red Army. By 1920 the coffins were interred in a former Russian mission in Beijing, now beneath a parking area. In 1981 Grand Duchess Elisabeth was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
Outside of Russia, and in 1992 by the Moscow Patriarchate. In 2006 representatives of the Romanov family were making plans to re-inter the remains elsewhere.[18] The town became a place of pilgrimage to the memory of Elisabeth Fyodorovna, whose remains were eventually re-interred in Jerusalem. On 13 June 1918, Bolshevik
Bolshevik
revolutionary authorities killed Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich of Russia and Nicholas Johnson (Michael's secretary) in Perm. In January 1919 revolutionary authorities killed Grand Dukes Dmitry Konstantinovich, Nikolai Mikhailovich, Paul Alexandrovich and George Mikhailovich, who had been held in the prison of the Saint Peter and Paul Fortress in Petrograd. Exiles[edit] Dowager Empress Maria Fyodorovna[edit] In 1919, Maria Fyodorovna, widow of Alexander III, and mother of Nicholas II, managed to escape Russia aboard HMS Marlborough, which her nephew, King George V of the United Kingdom, had sent, at the urging of his own mother, Queen Alexandra, Maria's elder sister, to rescue her. After a stay in England with Queen Alexandra, she returned to her native Denmark, first living at Amalienborg Palace, with her nephew, King Christian X, and later, at Villa Hvidøre. Upon her death in 1928 her coffin was placed in the crypt of Roskilde Cathedral, the burial site of members of the Danish Royal Family. In 2006, the coffin with her remains was moved to the Sts. Peter and Paul Fortress, to be buried beside that of her husband. The transfer of her remains was accompanied by an elaborate ceremony at Saint Isaac's Cathedral officiated by the Patriarch
Patriarch
Alexis II. Descendants and relatives of the Dowager Empress attended, including her great-grandson Prince Michael Andreevich, Princess Catherine Ioannovna of Russia, the last living member of the Imperial Family born before the fall of the dynasty,[19] and Princes Dmitri and Prince Nicholas Romanov. Other exiles[edit] Among the other exiles who managed to leave Russia, were Maria Fyodorovna's two daughters, the Grand Duchesses Xenia Alexandrovna and Olga Alexandrovna, with their husbands, Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich and Nikolai Kulikovsky, respectively, and their children. Xenia remained in England, following her mother's return to Denmark, although after their mother's death Olga moved to Canada with her husband,[20] both sisters dying in 1960. Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna, widow of Nicholas II's uncle, Grand Duke Vladimir, and her children the Grand Dukes Kiril, Boris and Andrei, and their sister Elena, also managed to flee Russia. Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich, a cousin of Nicholas II, had been exiled to the Caucasus
Caucasus
in 1916 for his part in the murder of Grigori Rasputin, and managed to escape Russia. Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaievich, who had commanded Russian troops during World War I prior to Nicholas II
Nicholas II
taking command, along with his brother, Grand Duke Peter, and their wives, Grand Duchesses Anastasia and Militza, who were sisters, also fled the country. Pretenders[edit] Main article: Line of succession to the former Russian throne Since 1991, the succession to the former Russian throne has been in dispute, largely due to disagreements over the validity of dynasts' marriages. Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna of Russia
Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna of Russia
claims to hold the title of empress in pretense with her only child, George Mikhailovich, as heir apparent. Others have argued in support of the rights of the late Prince Nicholas Romanovich Romanov, whose brother Prince Dimitri Romanov
Prince Dimitri Romanov
was the next heir male of his branch after whom it is now passed to Prince Andrew Romanov. In 2014, a micronation calling itself the Imperial Throne, founded in 2011 by Monarchist Party
Monarchist Party
leader Anton Bakov, announced Prince Karl Emich of Leiningen, a Romanov descendant, as its sovereign. In 2017, it renamed itself as "Romanov Empire". Romanov family jewellery[edit] Main article: Regalia of the Russian tsars The collection of jewels and jewellery collected by the Romanov family during their reign are commonly referred to as the "Russian Crown Jewels"[21] and they include official state regalia as well as personal pieces of jewellery worn by Romanov rulers and their family. After the Tsar
Tsar
was deposed and his family murdered, their jewels and jewellery became the property of the new Soviet government.[22] A select number of pieces from the collection were sold at auction by Christie's
Christie's
in London in March 1927.[23] The remaining collection is on view today in the Kremlin Armoury
Kremlin Armoury
in Moscow.[24] On 28 August 2009, a Swedish public news outlet reported that a collection of over 60 jewel-covered cigarette cases and cufflinks owned by the Romanov family, had been found in the archives of the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, and was returned. The jewellery was allegedly turned over to the Swedish embassy in St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
in November 1918 by Duchess Marie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Duchess Marie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
to keep it safe. The jewellery's worth was estimated to 20 million Swedish krona (about 2.6 million US dollars).[25] Heraldry[edit] Main article: Arms of the Russian Empire

The Imperial Arms of the House of Romanov, with and without background shield, which were restricted in use to the Emperor and certain members of the Imperial Family.

Family tree[edit] Main article: Rulers of Russia family tree

Family tree of the Romanov dynasty

See also[edit]

Ancestors of Nicholas II
Nicholas II
of Russia Line of succession to the Russian Throne List of Grand Duchesses of Russia List of Grand Dukes of Russia List of films about the Romanovs

References[edit]

^ a b "Romanov". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh. "Burke's Royal Families of the World: Volume I Europe & Latin America, 1977, pp. 460–476. ISBN 0-85011-023-8 ^ "Просмотр документа – dlib.rsl.ru". rsl.ru.  ^ Isaeva, Ksenia (25 March 2015). "Dmitri Romanov: Immigration, friendship with Coco Chanel, the Olympics". Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Almanach de Gotha. Gotha, Germany: Justus Perthes. 1944. pp. 103–106.  ^ Compare Romanov coat-of-arms (ru). ^ "Origins of Romanov surname. Russian royalists site". Archived from the original on 6 July 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ Romanovs lectures. The history of the Russian state and the Romanov dynasty: current problems in the study. Kostroma. 29-30 May 2008. ^ James Cracraft, The Revolution of Peter the Great
Peter the Great
(Harvard University Press, 2003) online edition ^ "DNA proves Bolsheviks killed all of Russian czar's children". CNN. 11 March 2009.  ^ "Mystery Solved: The Identification of the Two Missing Romanov Children Using DNA Analysis". 11 March 2009.  ^ The Romanoff Family Association. Prince Nicholas Romanovich Romanov. The Romanoff Family Association, ^ Greg King; Penny Wilson (6 July 2014). The Fate of the Romanovs. Lulu.com. p. 357. ISBN 978-1-312-33381-9.  ^ Ivanov PL, Wadhams MJ, Roby RK, Holland MM, Weedn VW, Parsons TJ (1996). " Mitochondrial DNA
Mitochondrial DNA
sequence heteroplasmy in the Grand Duke of Russia Georgij Romanov establishes the authenticity of the remains of Tsar
Tsar
Nicholas II". Nature Genetics. 12 (4): 417–20. doi:10.1038/ng0496-417. PMID 8630496.  ^ [1] Archived 12 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Books: Death at Ekaterinburg
Ekaterinburg
– TIME". TIME magazine. 1935-04-22. Retrieved 2012-04-11.  ^ Nicholas and Alexandra, The Last Imperial Family of Tsarist Russia, 1998, Booth-Clibborn, London ^ "The Representative of Romanov family in the Russian Federation does not exclude the possibility of transferring from China to Russia the remains of Alapayevsk
Alapayevsk
martyrs". Orthodox News China. 2005-06-23. Retrieved 2012-04-11.  ^ "La Embajada de la Federación de Rusia en la República Oriental del Uruguay". Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ Harris, Carolyn. "From St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
to Toronto: The Life of Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna (1882–1960)". Carolyn Harris – Historian and Author. Retrieved 25 November 2015.  ^ "The Russian Crown Jewels". 2014-06-27. Archived from the original on 2014-06-27. Retrieved 2018-01-19.  ^ "Russian Crown Jewels shown Goodrich Party". Washington Post. 3 Jul 1922. p. 4.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Russian Jewels: Sold for 80,561 Pounds". The Scotsman. 17 Mar 1927. p. 9.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Kvasha, Semyon (1 May 2013). "Treasures of Imperial Russia on display in Moscow and St. Petersburg". Retrieved 19 September 2014.  ^ Sveriges Radio. "Russian Jewels Found at Foreign Ministry". sverigesradio.se. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to House of Romanov.

Historical reconstruction series "Romanovs" – First Channel, Star Media, Babich Design (2013). The Russian Imperial Collection at the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
has books from the Romanov family.

— Royal house — House of Romanov Founding year: 15th century

Preceded by House of Vasa Tsardom of Russia 1613–1721 Tsardom Elevated Became Russian Empire

New title Russian Empire 1721–1917 Empire abolished

Preceded by House of Poniatowski
House of Poniatowski
(elect) Kingdom of Poland 1815–1917 Kingdom abolished

Preceded by House of Poniatowski
House of Poniatowski
(elect) Grand Principality of Lithuania 1795–1917 Grand Principality abolished

Preceded by House of Holstein-Gottorp Duchy of Holstein-Gottorp 1739–1773 Succeeded by House of Oldenburg

Preceded by House of Oldenburg Duchy of Oldenburg 1773–1774 Succeeded by House of Holstein-Gottorp

Preceded by Grand Masters Sovereign Military Order of Malta 1798–1803 Succeeded by Grand Masters

Preceded by House of Holstein-Gottorp
Holstein-Gottorp
(Swedish line) Grand Principality of Finland 1809–1917 Grand Principality abolished

v t e

House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

Paul I of Russia

Children

Emperor Alexander I Grand Duke Konstantine Pavlovich Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna Grand Duchess Olga Pavlovna Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna Emperor Nicholas I Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich

Grandchildren

Grand Duchess Maria Mikhailovna Grand Duchess Elizabeth Mikhailovna Grand Duchess Catherine Mikhailovna Grand Duchess Alexandra Mikhailovna Grand Duchess Anna Mikhailovna

Alexander I of Russia

Children

Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna Grand Duchess Elizabeth Alexandrovna

Nicholas I of Russia

Children

Emperor Alexander II Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaievna Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna Grand Duchess Alexandra Nikolaevna Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich

Grandchildren

Grand Duke Nicholas Konstantinovich Grand Duchess Olga Constantinovna Grand Duchess Vera Constantinovna Grand Duke Konstantine Konstantinovich Grand Duke Dimitry Konstantinovich Grand Duke Vyacheslav Konstantinovich Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich Grand Duke Peter Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich Grand Duke George Mikhailovich Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich Grand Duke Alexei Mikhailovich

Great grandchildren

Prince John Konstantinovich Prince Gabriel Constantinovich Princess Tatiana Constantinovna Prince Constantine Constantinovich Prince Oleg Konstantinovich Prince Igor Constantinovich Prince Georgy Konstantinovich Princess Vera Constantinovna Princess Natalia Constantinovna Princess Marina Petrovna Prince Roman Petrovich Princess Nadejda Petrovna Princess Sofia Petrovna Princess Nina Georgievna Princess Xenia Georgievna Princess Irina Alexandrovna Prince Andrei Alexandrovich Prince Feodor Alexandrovich Prince Nikita Alexandrovich Prince Dmitri Alexandrovich Prince Rostislav Alexandrovich Prince Vasili Alexandrovich

Great-great grandchildren

Prince Vsevolod Ivanovich Princess Catherine Ivanovna Prince Nicholas Romanovich Prince Dimitri Romanovich Princess Xenia Andreevna Prince Michael Andreevich Prince Andrew Andreevich Princess Olga Andreevna Prince Michael Feodorovich Princess Irene Feodorovna Prince Nikita Nikitich Prince Alexander Nikitich Princess Nadejda Dimitriievna Prince Rostislav Rostislavovich Prince Nicholas Rostislavovich Princess Marina Vassilievna

Greatx3 grandchildren

Princess Natalia Nikolaevna Princess Elizabeth Nikolaevna Princess Tatiana Nikolaevna Prince Alexis Andreevich Prince Peter Andreevich Prince Andrew Andreevich Prince Michael Mikhailovich Prince Feodor Nikitich Princess Stephena Rostislavovna Princess Alexandra Rostislavovna Prince Rostislav Rostislavovich Prince Nikita Rostislavovich Prince Nicholas Christopher Prince Daniel Joseph Princess Heather

Greatx4 grandchildren

Prince Cory Christopher Princess Karlyn Princess Chelle Princess Madison Prince Jackson Daniel

Alexander II of Russia

Children

Grand Duchess Alexandra Alexandrovna Tsesarevich
Tsesarevich
Nicholas Alexandrovich Emperor Alexander III Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich

Grandchildren

Grand Duke Alexander Vladimirovich Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich Grand Duke Boris Vladimirovich Grand Duke Andrei Vladimirovich Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlovich

Great grandchildren

Grand Duchess Maria Kirillovna Grand Duchess Kira Kirillovna Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich

Great-great grandchild

Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna

Alexander III of Russia

Children

Emperor Nicholas II Grand Duke Alexander Alexandrovich Grand Duke George Alexandrovich Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna

Nicholas II
Nicholas II
of Russia

Children

Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich

v t e

Royal houses of Europe

Nordic countries

Denmark

Knýtlinga Fairhair Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Finland

Bjelbo Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov

Norway

Fairhair Knýtlinga Hardrada Gille Sverre Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Sweden

Munsö Stenkil Sverker Eric Bjelbo Estridsen Mecklenburg Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Vasa Palatinate-Zweibrücken Hesse-Kassel Holstein-Gottorp Bernadotte

Iceland

Fairhair Bjelbo Estridsen Griffins Palatinate-Neumarkt Bonde Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Britain and Ireland

England

Mercia Wuffing Kent Sussex Essex Bernicia Deira Northumbria Uí Ímair Wessex Knýtlinga Normandy Angevin Plantagenet Lancaster York Tudor

Scotland

Fergus Óengus Strathclyde Mann and the Isles Alpin Northumbria Bernicia Uí Ímair Galloway Dunkeld Sverre Balliol Bruce Stuart

Wales

Dinefwr Aberffraw Gwynedd Mathrafal Cunedda Tudor

Ireland

Ulaid Dál Riata Érainn Corcu Loígde Laigin Connachta Uí Néill Ó Gallchobhair Ó Domhnail Ó Néill Ó Máel Sechlainn Mac Murchada Ó Briain Mac Lochlainn Ó Conchobhair

Gaelic Ireland

Laigin Síl Conairi Ulaid Dáirine Osraige Cruthin Dál nAraidi Connachta Uí Fiachrach Uí Briúin Uí Néill Síl nÁedo Sláine Clann Cholmáin Eóganachta Chaisil Glendamnach Raithlind Uí Dúnlainge Uí Ímair
Uí Ímair
(Norse) Uí Ceinnselaig Dál gCais Ó Briain Mac Carthaig Ó Conchobhair Ó Ruairc De Burgh (Norman) FitzGerald (Norman) Ó Domhnaill Ó Néill

Great Britain

Stuart Orange-Nassau Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Windsor

Eastern Europe

Albania

Angevin Progon Arianiti Thopia Kastrioti Dukagjini Wied Zogu Ottoman Savoy

Armenia2

Orontid Artaxiad Arsacid Bagratid Artsruni Rubenids Hethumids Lusignan Savoy

Bosnia

Boričević Kulinić Kotromanić Kosača Ottoman Habsburg-Lorraine

Bulgaria

Dulo Krum Cometopuli Asen Smilets Terter Shishman Sratsimir Battenberg Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Croatia

Trpimirović Domagojević Svačić Ottoman Luxembourg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine Bonaparte Savoy (disputed)

Cyprus2

Plantagenet Lusignan Ottoman Savoy

Georgia1

Pharnavazid Artaxiad Arsacid Ottoman Chosroid Bagrationi

Greece

Argead Macedonian Doukas Komnenos Angelos Laskaris Palaiologos Ottoman Wittelsbach Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Lithuania

Mindaugas Gediminids Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

Moldavia

Dragoș (Drăgoșești) Rossetti Bogdan-Muşat Movilești Drăculeşti Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Racoviță Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Basarab

Montenegro

Vojislavljević Balšić Ottoman Crnojević Petrović-Njegoš

Romania

House of Basarab Rossetti Bogdan-Mușat Movilești Drăculești Ghica Cantacuzene Cantemirești Romanov Racoviță Ottoman Mavrocordato Ypsilantis Soutzos Mourousi Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Romania/Royal family

Russia1

Rurik Borjigin Godunov Shuysky Vasa Romanov

Serbia

Vlastimirović Vukanović Nemanjić Lazarević Mrnjavčević Dejanović Branković Ottoman Obrenović Karađorđević

Turkey1

Ottoman

Ukraine

Rurikids Piast Gediminids Olshanski Olelkovich Giray Romanov Habsburg-Lorraine

1 Transcontinental country. 2 Entirely in Southwest Asia
Asia
but having socio-political connections with Europe.

Western Europe

Belgium

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

France

Merovingian Carolingian Capet Valois Bourbon Bonaparte Orléans

Italy

Aleramici Appiani Bonaparte Bourbon-Parma Bourbon-Two Sicilies Carolingian Della Rovere Este Farnese Flavian Gonzaga Grimaldi Habsburg Julio-Claudian Malatesta Malaspina Medici Montefeltro Nerva–Antonine Ordelaffi Orsini Palaiologos Pallavicini Savoy Severan Sforza Visconti

Luxembourg

Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Bourbon-Parma

Monaco

Grimaldi

Netherlands

Bonaparte Orange-Nassau (Mecklenburg) (Lippe) (Amsberg)

Portugal

Vímara Peres Burgundy Aviz Habsburg Spanish Braganza

Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Spain

Asturias Barcelona Jiménez Burgundy Champagne Capet Évreux Trastámara Habsburg Bourbon

Bonaparte Savoy

Central Europe

Austria

Babenberg Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Bohemia

Přemyslid Piast Luxembourg Jagiellon Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Germany

Ascania Carolingian Conradines Ottonian Luitpolding Salian Süpplingenburg Hohenstaufen Welf Habsburg Hanover Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Nassau Luxembourg Wittelsbach Schwarzburg Brunswick-Lüneburg House of Pomerania Hohenzollern Württemberg Oldenburg Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg Orange-Nassau Nassau-Weilburg Mecklenburg Vasa Palatine Zweibrücken Hesse Holstein-Gottorp Romanov Bonaparte Wettin Lippe Zähringen

Hungary

Árpád Přemyslid Wittelsbach Angevin Luxembourg Hunyadi Jagiellon Szapolyai Ottoman Habsburg Habsburg-Lorraine

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein

Poland

Piast Přemyslid Samborides Griffins Jagiellon Valois Báthory Vasa Wiśniowiecki Sobieski Wettin Leszczyński Poniatowski

After partitions:

Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Kingdom of Poland Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Wettin Duchy of Warsaw Lefebvre Duchy of Gdańsk Hohenzollern Duchy of Poznań

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 69724780 GND: 118749

.