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Holstein
Holstein
(German pronunciation: [ˈhɔlʃtaɪn]) (Northern Low Saxon: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin
Latin
and historical English: Holsatia) is the region between the rivers Elbe
Elbe
and Eider. It is the southern half of Schleswig-Holstein, the northernmost state of Germany. Holstein
Holstein
once existed as the German County of Holstein
Holstein
(German: Grafschaft Holstein; 811–1474), the later Duchy of Holstein
Duchy of Holstein
(German: Herzogtum Holstein; 1474–1866), and was the northernmost territory of the Holy Roman Empire. The history of Holstein
Holstein
is closely intertwined with the history of the Danish Duchy of Schleswig
Schleswig
(Danish: Slesvig). The capital of Holstein
Holstein
is Kiel. Holstein's name comes from the Holcetae, a Saxon tribe mentioned by Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen
as living on the north bank of the Elbe, to the west of Hamburg. The name means "dwellers in the wood" (Northern Low Saxon: Hol(t)saten; German: Holzsassen).

The Limes Saxoniae

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 The County of Holstein 1.3 Partitions of the County of Holstein
Holstein
(1111–1474) 1.4 The Duchy of Holstein 1.5 Partitions of the Duchy of Holstein
Duchy of Holstein
(1474–1866) 1.6 United Holstein

2 Geography 3 Notes 4 References 5 External links

History[edit] Origins[edit] After the Migration Period
Migration Period
of the Early Middle Ages, Holstein
Holstein
was adjacent to the Obotrites
Obotrites
on the coast of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and the land of the Danes
Danes
in Jutland. With the conquest of Old Saxony
Old Saxony
by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
circa 800, he granted the land north of the Eider River
Eider River
(Schleswig) to the Danes
Danes
by the Treaty of Heiligen signed in 811. The ownership of what would late become eastern Holstein
Holstein
(districts of Plön
Plön
and Ostholstein) was given to the Obotrites, namely the Wagrians, and the Saxon elite was deported to various areas of the empire. After 814, however,the Saxons were restored to Western Holstein. The Wagrians were pushed out of the Limes Saxoniae
Limes Saxoniae
- the new border running from the Elbe
Elbe
River near Boizenburg
Boizenburg
northwards along the Bille River to the mouth of the Schwentine
Schwentine
at the Kiel
Kiel
Fjord and the Baltic Sea. For the following 300 years, Holstein
Holstein
continued to be a part of Saxony. The County of Holstein[edit]

Undivided Holstein
Holstein
by 1250 with neighbouring states[note 1]

The new county of Holstein
Holstein
was established in 1111; it was first a fief of the Duchy of Saxony, then of the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, and finally of the Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck. With the establishment of the new territorial unit, expansion to the East began and the Wagrians were finally defeated in 1138. The County of Holstein
Holstein
was ruled by the House of Schaumburg; the first count was Adolf I, Count of Holstein. Holstein
Holstein
was temporarily occupied by Denmark
Denmark
after the Battle of Stellau
Battle of Stellau
(1201), but was reconquered by the Count of Schauenburg and his allies in the Battle of Bornhöved (1227). Partitions of the County of Holstein
Holstein
(1111–1474)[edit] The Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein
Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein
partitioned Holstein
Holstein
several times among the inheriting sons into up to six lines, named after their towns of residence:

Holstein-Itzehoe, branch county between 1261 and 1290, partitioned from Holstein, repartitioned into Holstein-Pinneberg, Holstein-Plön and Holstein-Rendsburg Holstein-Kiel, branch county between 1261 and 1390, partitioned from Holstein, in 1273 Holstein-Segeberg (first) was partitioned from Holstein-Kiel, but reverted in 1308, but then lost to Holstein-Pinneberg, Holstein-Plön and Holstein-Rendsburg
Holstein-Rendsburg
in 1316; Holstein- Kiel
Kiel
acquired Holstein-Plön in 1350, and merged itself into Holstein-Rendsburg Holstein-Pinneberg, branch county between 1290 and 1640, partitioned from Holstein-Itzehoe, acquired a share of Holstein-Segeberg in 1316, merged into the Duchy of Holstein Holstein-Plön, branch county between 1290 and 1390, partitioned from Holstein-Itzehoe, acquired a share of Holstein-Segeberg in 1316, merged into Holstein-Kiel Holstein-Rendsburg, branch county between 1290 and 1474, partitioned from Holstein-Itzehoe, acquired a share of Holstein-Segeberg (first) in 1316, and Holstein- Kiel
Kiel
in 1390, in 1381/1384 Holstein-Segeberg (second) was partitioned from Holstein-Rendsburg, but reverted in 1403, elevated to ducal rank in 1474 Holstein-Segeberg (first), branch county between 1273 and 1308, partitioned from and reverted to Holstein-Kiel, but seized by allied Holstein-Pinneberg, Holstein-Plön, and Holstein-Rendsburg, partitioning Segeberg in three shares, each merged into one of the lines in 1316 Holstein-Segeberg (second), branch county between 1381/1384 and 1403, partitioned from and reverted to Holstein-Rendsburg

In 1386 King Oluf II of Denmark
Denmark
and his mother-regent, Queen Margaret I, enfeoffed in Nyborg
Nyborg
Gerhard VI, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg
Holstein-Rendsburg
and his cognatic successors with the Duchy of Schleswig.[1] He thus became as Gerhard II duke of Schleswig. Until 1390 the Rendsburg
Rendsburg
branch united by inheritance all branches except of that of Holstein-Pinneberg. When the Holstein-Rendsburg
Holstein-Rendsburg
line of the Schauenburg counts became extinct with the death of Adolf VIII of Holstein-Rendsburg
Holstein-Rendsburg
(and in personal union as Adolf I Duke of Schleswig) in 1459, Christian I of Denmark
Denmark
inherited – from his maternal uncle Adolf I – the Duchy of Schleswig, a Danish fief. Through the Treaty of Ribe (1460) Christian was elected Count of Holstein-Rendsburg, then still a Saxe-Lauenburgian subfief within the Holy Roman Empire. The Duchy of Holstein[edit] Main article: Duchy of Holstein

Duchy of Holstein
Duchy of Holstein
about 1477

Duchy of Holstein
Duchy of Holstein
in the 15th century

In 1474 Lauenburg's liege lord, the German Emperor Frederick III, elevated Christian I as Count of Holstein-Rendsburg
Holstein-Rendsburg
to Duke of Holstein, thus becoming an immediate imperial (reichsunmittelbar) vassal (see imperial immediacy). The Duchy of Holstein
Duchy of Holstein
retained that status until the dissolution of the Empire in 1806. Partitions of the Duchy of Holstein
Duchy of Holstein
(1474–1866)[edit] Main article: Holstein-Glückstadt Main article: Holstein-Gottorp In 1490, the Duchy of Holstein
Duchy of Holstein
was divided into Holstein-Segeberg and Holstein-Gottorp. Holstein-Segeberg remained with the Danish king and was also known as Royal Holstein; later it came to be known as Holstein-Glückstadt. Holstein-Gottorp, also known as Ducal Holstein, was given to a cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg, to which the kings of Denmark
Denmark
belonged. Between 1533 and 1544 King Christian III of Denmark
Denmark
ruled the entire Duchies of Holstein
Holstein
and of Schleswig
Schleswig
also in the name of his then still minor half-brothers John the Elder and Adolf. In 1544 they partitioned the Duchies of Holstein
Holstein
(a fief of the Holy Roman Empire) and of Schleswig
Schleswig
(a Danish fief) in an unusual way, following negotiations between the brothers and the Estates of the Realm
Estates of the Realm
of the duchies, which had constituted in 1460 by the Treaty of Ribe and strictly opposed a factual partition. The elder three brothers determined their youngest brother Frederick for a career as Lutheran administrator of an ecclesiastical state within the Holy Roman Empire.[2] So the revenues of the duchies were divided in three equal shares by assigning the revenues of particular areas and landed estates to each of the elder brothers, while other general revenues, such as taxes from towns and customs dues, were levied together but then shared among the brothers. The estates, whose revenues were assigned to the parties, made Holstein
Holstein
and Schleswig
Schleswig
look like patchworks, technically inhibiting the emergence of separate new duchies, as intended by the estates of the duchies. The secular rule in the fiscally divided duchies thus became a condominium of the parties. As dukes of Holstein and Schleswig
Schleswig
the rulers of both houses bore the formal title of "Duke of Schleswig, Holstein, Ditmarsh
Ditmarsh
and Stormarn". The three shares are usually called:

Gottorp
Gottorp
ducal share in Holstein
Holstein
and Schleswig, partitioned from ducal Holstein
Holstein
in 1544, acquired half of Haderslev
Haderslev
share in 1581 (thus thereafter simply called ducal share), merged into the royal share in 1773 with its ruler receiving in return the prior Danish-held County of Oldenburg. Haderslev
Haderslev
ducal share in Holstein
Holstein
and Schleswig, partitioned from ducal Holstein
Holstein
in 1544, halfed between Gottorp
Gottorp
and royal share in 1581 Royal share in Holstein
Holstein
and Schleswig, acquired half of Haderslev share in 1581, the County of Holstein-Pinneberg
Holstein-Pinneberg
in 1640 and the Gottorp
Gottorp
share in 1713 (northern part) and 1773 (southern part), thus then comprising all of Holstein. Between 1648 and 1773 the royal share used to be called Holstein-Glückstadt
Holstein-Glückstadt
after its capital Glückstadt. Parts of the former County of Holstein-Pinneberg
Holstein-Pinneberg
were transformed 1649/50 into the Imperial County of Rantzau, which fell back to the Danish Crown in 1726.

The dynastic name Holstein-Gottorp
Holstein-Gottorp
comes as convenient usage from the technically more correct Duke of Schleswig
Schleswig
and Holstein
Holstein
at Gottorp. Adolf, the third son of Duke and King Frederick I and the second youngest half-brother of King Christian III, founded the dynastic branch called House of Holstein-Gottorp, which is a cadet branch of the then royal Danish House of Oldenburg. The Danish monarchs and the Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp
Holstein-Gottorp
ruled both duchies together as to general government, however, collected their revenues in their separate estates. John the Elder conveniently called Duke of Schleswig-Holstein- Haderslev
Haderslev
produced no issue, so no branch emerged from his side. Similar to the above-mentioned agreement Christian III's youngest son John the Younger gained for him and his heirs a share in Holstein's and Schleswig's revenues in 1564, comprising a third of the royal share, thus a ninth of Holstein
Holstein
and Schleswig
Schleswig
as to the fiscal point of view. John the Younger and his heirs, however, had no share in the condominial rule, so they were not ruling but mere titular dukes. The share of John the Elder, who died in 1581, was halved between Adolf and Frederick II, thus increasing again the royal share by a fiscal sixth of Holstein
Holstein
and Schleswig.[3] As an effect the complicated fiscal division of both separate duchies, Holstein
Holstein
and Schleswig, with shares of each party scattered in both duchies, provided them with a condominial government binding both together, partially superseding their legally different affiliation as Holy Roman and Danish fiefs. The County of Holstein-Pinneberg, which had remained a separately ruled territory in Holstein
Holstein
until its line was extinct in 1640, was merged into the then royal share of the Duchy of Holstein. The Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
Holstein-Gottorp
became emperor of Russia in 1762 as Peter III and was planning an attack on Denmark
Denmark
to recover the Holstein-Gottorp
Holstein-Gottorp
lands possessions in Schleswig, which were seized by the Danish king in 1713. Although Peter was soon overthrown by his wife, Catherine the Great, the Danes
Danes
determined to rid themselves of this problem. In 1773, they exchanged the County of Oldenburg
County of Oldenburg
for the Gottorp
Gottorp
lands in Holstein, bringing all of Holstein
Holstein
under their control. Thus, Holstein was again united in one state. The territory of Holstein
Holstein
was enlarged by the conquest of the independent Republic of Dithmarschen
Dithmarschen
in 1559, which was divided among the three ducal houses. After 1581 the southern part remained to the Danish Crown, the northern part was ruled by the House of Gottorp until 1773. United Holstein[edit] With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1806 Holstein's imperial vassal status turned void. It thus became a sovereign state. Because of its personal union with Denmark, the Duchy of Holstein
Duchy of Holstein
did not come under French occupation during the Napoleonic era
Napoleonic era
(however, the neighboring duchy of Lauenburg was annexed by France in 1811 and became a part of Bouches-de-l'Elbe). From 1815 to 1864 it was a member of the German Confederation, though still in personal union with Denmark
Denmark
(the King of Denmark
Denmark
being also Duke of Holstein).

Map of the Duchy of Holstein
Duchy of Holstein
c1815-66

Following the death of King Frederick VII of Denmark
Denmark
(House of Oldenburg) in 1863, the inheritance of Schleswig
Schleswig
and Holstein
Holstein
was disputed. The new king, Christian IX (House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg), made his claim to the Danish throne through a female line. The Duke of Augustenborg, a minor scion from another cadet line of the House of Oldenburg, claimed the Duchies, and soon the German Confederation, led by Prussia
Prussia
and Austria, went to the Second Schleswig
Schleswig
War with Denmark, quickly defeating it in 1864 and forcing it to cede the duchies. However, the duchies were not given to the Duke of Augustenborg. In 1865 an arrangement was worked out between Prussia
Prussia
and Austria
Austria
where the Austrians occupied and administered Holstein, while the Prussians did the same in Schleswig. This arrangement came to an end with the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
of 1866, which resulted in Schleswig
Schleswig
and Holstein both being incorporated into Prussia
Prussia
as the Province of Schleswig-Holstein. Holstein, meanwhile including former Saxe-Lauenburg
Saxe-Lauenburg
(as of 1876) and the former Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck and Region of Lübeck (both as of 1937) regained statehood, now united with Schleswig, in 1946, when the British occupation government elevated the province to the State of Schleswig-Holstein, followed by the official dissolution of Prussia
Prussia
in 1947.

Jutland
Jutland
and Northernmost Germany
Germany
showing Schleswig
Schleswig
and Holstein
Holstein
in today's German Federal State of Schleswig-Holstein.

For a list of rulers, see Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein
Counts of Schauenburg and Holstein
and List of rulers of Schleswig-Holstein. Geography[edit] As of 1864, Holstein
Holstein
bordered Denmark
Denmark
in the north, the Principality of Lübeck (formerly the Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck, an exclave of the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg), the Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck, and the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg
Saxe-Lauenburg
in the east, and the Kingdom of Hanover and the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
in the south. It also borders the North Sea
North Sea
in the west and the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
in the east. Its only major island is Fehmarn, originally a part of the Duchy of Schleswig
Schleswig
until 1867. Cities in Holstein
Holstein
included Kiel, Altona, Glückstadt, Rendsburg, Segeberg, Heiligenhafen, Oldenburg in Holstein, and Plön. It had an area of 8,385 km2. Notes[edit]

^ Neighbours clockwise starting in the West: Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (purple), Danish Schleswig
Schleswig
(orange shadowed), Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck (purple), Free Imperial City of Lübeck (yellow), Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg
Saxe-Lauenburg
(green), Duchy of Brunswick
Duchy of Brunswick
and Lunenburg (pink).

References[edit]

^ Esben Albrectsen, "Das Abel-Geschlecht und die Schauenburger als Herzöge von Schleswig", Marion Hartwig and Frauke Witte (trls.), in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 52-71, here pp. 63seq. ISBN 978-3-529-02606-5 ^ In 1551 Frederick became administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Hildesheim, comprising ecclesiastical and secular power, and, however, lacking secular power Bishop of Schleswig
Schleswig
with the pertaining revenues from episcopal estates. ^ Cf. Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen, "Die dänischen Könige als Herzöge von Schleswig
Schleswig
und Holstein", Frauke Witte and Marion Hartwig (trls.), in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein
Holstein
und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 73–109, here pp. 87seq. ISBN 978-3-529-02606-5

External links[edit]

Map of Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
in 1730

v t e

Lower Saxon Circle
Lower Saxon Circle
(1500–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire

Ecclesiastical

Bremen1 Halberstadt1 Hildesheim Lübeck Magdeburg1 Ratzeburg2 Schwerin1

Secular

Bremen3 Brunswick and Lunenburg

Blankenburg4 Calenberg5 Celle5 Grubenhagen6 Hanover7 Wolfenbüttel

Holstein

Glückstadt Gottorp8 Pinneberg9

Mecklenburg

Güstrow10 Schwerin Strelitz11

Rantzau12 Regenstein Saxe-Lauenburg5

Cities

Bremen Goslar Hamburg Lübeck Mühlhausen Nordhausen

1 until 1648.   2 until 1701.   3 from 1648.   4 until 1731.   5 until 1705.   6 until 1596.   7 from 1708.   8 until 1773.   9 until 1640.   10 until 1695.   11 from 1701.   12 until 1734. Circles est. 1500: Bavarian, Swabian, Upper Rhenish, Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Franconian, (Lower) Saxon Circles est. 1512: Austrian, Burgundian, Upper Saxon, Electoral Rhenish     ·     Unencircled territories

v t e

States of the German Confederation
German Confederation
(1815–66)

Empires

Austria1

Kingdoms

Prussia1 Bavaria Saxony Hanover Württemberg

Electorates

Hesse-Kassel

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse-Darmstadt Luxembourg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

Duchies

Anhalt

Bernburg2 Dessau2 Köthen3

Brunswick Holstein Limburg4 Nassau Saxe-Lauenburg Ernest

Altenburg5 Coburg-Saalfeld6 Coburg-Gotha5 Gotha-Altenburg6 Hildburghausen6 Meiningen

Principalities

Hesse-Homburg Hohenzollern

Hechingen7 Sigmaringen7

Liechtenstein Lippe Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Waldeck and Pyrmont

City-states

Bremen Frankfurt Hamburg Lübeck

1 w/o areas listed under other territories 2 Merged with Anhalt from 1863 3 until 1847 4 from 1839 5 from 1826 6 until 1826 7 until 1850 8 1849–60 9 as of 1849 10 until 1837 11 until 1829 12 until 1848/57 13 until 1848 14 as of 1848 15 as of 1829 16 as of 1864

Coordinates: 54°10′00″N 9°40′00″E / 54.1667°N 9.66667°E

.