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Holden, formally known as General Motors
General Motors
Holden, is an Australian automobile importer and a former automobile manufacturer with its headquarters in Port Melbourne, Victoria. The company was founded in 1856 as a saddlery manufacturer in South Australia. In 1908 it moved into the automotive field, becoming a subsidiary of the United States-based General Motors
General Motors
(GM) in 1931, when the company was renamed General Motors-Holden's Ltd. It was renamed Holden
Holden
Ltd in 1998, and General Motors
General Motors
Holden
Holden
in 2005. Holden
Holden
sells the remaining stock of the locally produced range of Commodore vehicles, and imported GM models. Holden
Holden
has offered badge engineered models in sharing arrangements with Chevrolet, Isuzu, Nissan, Opel, Suzuki, Toyota
Toyota
and Vauxhall Motors. In 2013 the vehicle lineup consisted of models from GM Korea, GM Thailand, GM in the US, and self-developed Commodore, Caprice, and Ute. Holden
Holden
also distributed the European Opel
Opel
brand in Australia
Australia
in 2012 until the Opel
Opel
brand's Australian demise in mid-2013.[1] From 1994 to 2017, all Australian-built Holden
Holden
vehicles were manufactured in Elizabeth, South Australia, and engines were produced at the Fishermans Bend
Fishermans Bend
plant in Melbourne. Historically, production or assembly plants were operated in all mainland states of Australia. The consolidation of car production at Elizabeth was completed in 1988, but some assembly operations continued at Dandenong
Dandenong
until 1994. General Motors
General Motors
assembly plants were operated in New Zealand from 1926 until 1990 by General Motors
General Motors
New Zealand Limited in an earlier and quite separate operation from Holden
Holden
in Australia. Although Holden's involvement in exports has fluctuated since the 1950s, the declining sales of large cars in Australia
Australia
led the company to look to international markets to increase profitability. From 2010 Holden incurred losses due to the strong Australian dollar, and reductions of government grants and subsidies.[2] This led to the announcement on 11 December 2013 that Holden
Holden
would cease vehicle and engine production by the end of 2017. However, the company will continue to have a large and ongoing presence in Australia
Australia
importing and selling cars as national sales company.[3] Holden
Holden
will retain their design centre, but with reduced staffing.[4] On 20 October 2017, the end of the era for the Australian manufacturing industry came with the closure of the vehicle plant in Elizabeth, South Australia. The brand will continue as an importer of vehicles.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 1940s 1.3 1950s 1.4 1960s 1.5 1970s 1.6 1980s 1.7 1990s 1.8 2000s 1.9 2010s

2 Corporate affairs and identity

2.1 Exports 2.2 Leadership

3 Motorsport 4 Notes 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Early history[edit]

Holden
Holden
and Frost premises, Grenfell Street, Adelaide

In 1852, James Alexander Holden
James Alexander Holden
emigrated to South Australia
Australia
from Walsall,[5] England and in 1856 established J.A. Holden
Holden
& Co, a saddlery business in Adelaide.[6] In 1879 J A Holden’s eldest son Henry James (HJ) Holden, became a partner and effectively managed the company.[7] In 1885, German-born H. A. Frost
H. A. Frost
joined the business as a junior partner and J.A. Holden
Holden
& Co became Holden
Holden
& Frost Ltd.[8] Edward Holden, James' grandson, joined the firm in 1905 with an interest in automobiles.[9][10] From there, the firm evolved through various partnerships and, in 1908, Holden
Holden
& Frost moved into the business of minor repairs to car upholstery.[11] The company began re-body older chassis using motor bodies produced by F T Hack and Co from 1914. Holden
Holden
& Frost mounted the body, painted and trimmed it.[12] The company began to produce complete motorcycle sidecar bodies after 1913.[13] After 1917, wartime trade restrictions led the company to start full-scale production of vehicle body shells. H.J. Holden
Holden
founded a new company in late 1917, and registered Holden's Motor Body Builders Ltd (HMBB) on 25th February 1919 specialising in car bodies and using the former F T Hack & Co facility at 400 King William Street in Adelaide
Adelaide
before erecting a large 4 story factory on the site.[14][15]

Holden
Holden
Body badge on a 1928 Chevrolet
Chevrolet
tourer

By 1923, HMBB were producing 12,000 units per year.[11] During this time, HMBB assembled bodies for Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
of Australia until its Geelong
Geelong
plant was completed.[16] From 1924, HMBB became the exclusive supplier of car bodies for GM in Australia, with manufacturing taking place at the new Woodville plant.[17] These bodies were made to suit a number of chassis imported from manufacturers such as Chevrolet
Chevrolet
and Dodge.[11] In 1926 General Motors (Australia) was established with assembly plants at Newstead, Queensland; Marrickville, New South Wales; City Road, Melbourne; Birkenhead, South Australia; and Cottesloe, Western Australia[18] using bodies produced by Holden
Holden
Motor Body Builders and imported complete knock down (CKD) chassis.[19] In 1930 alone, the still independent Woodville plant built bodies for Austin, Chrysler, DeSoto, Morris, Hillman, Humber, Hupmobile
Hupmobile
and Willys-Overland
Willys-Overland
as well GM cars. The last of this line of business was the assembly of Hillman Minx sedans in 1948.[20] The Great Depression
Great Depression
led to a substantial downturn in production by Holden, from 34,000 units annually in 1930 to just 1,651 units one year later.[11] In 1931 General Motors purchased Holden
Holden
Motor Body Builders and merged it with General Motors (Australia) Pty Ltd to form General Motors-Holden's Ltd (GM-H).[13] Throughout the 1920s Holden
Holden
also supplied tramcars to the Melbourne
Melbourne
& Metropolitan Tramways Board, of which several examples have been preserved in both Australia
Australia
and New Zealand. 1940s[edit]

The Holden
Holden
50-2106 utility launched in 1951, three years after the 48-215 sedan.

Holden's second full-scale car factory, located in Fishermans Bend (Port Melbourne), was completed in 1936, with construction beginning in 1939 on a new plant in Pagewood, New South Wales.[13] However, World War II
World War II
delayed car production with efforts shifted to the construction of vehicle bodies, field guns, aircraft and engines.[17] Before the war ended, the Australian Government took steps to encourage an Australian automotive industry.[21] Both GM and Ford provided studies to the Australian Government outlining the production of the first Australian-designed car. Ford's proposal was the government's first choice, but required substantial financial assistance. GM's study was ultimately chosen because of its low level of government intervention.[22] After the war, Holden
Holden
returned to producing vehicle bodies, this time for Buick, Chevrolet, Pontiac
Pontiac
and Vauxhall.[23] The Oldsmobile Ace
Oldsmobile Ace
was also produced from 1946 to 1948.[24] From here, Holden
Holden
continued to pursue the goal of producing an Australian car. This involved compromise with GM, as Holden's managing director, Laurence Hartnett, favoured development of a local design, while GM preferred to see an American design as the basis for "Australia's Own Car".[25] In the end, the design was based on a previously rejected post-war Chevrolet
Chevrolet
proposal.[26] The Holden
Holden
was launched in 1948, creating long waiting lists extending through 1949 and beyond.[27][28] The name "Holden" was chosen in honour of Sir Edward Holden, the company's first chairman and grandson of J.A. Holden. Other names considered were "GeM", "Austral", "Melba", "Woomerah", "Boomerang", "Emu" and "Canbra", a phonetic spelling of Canberra.[29] Although officially designated "48-215", the car was marketed simply as the "Holden".[30] The unofficial usage of the name "FX" originated within Holden, referring to the updated suspension on the 48-215 of 1953.[31][32] 1950s[edit]

Holden's FC series was the first to be tested at the Lang Lang proving ground.

During the 1950s, Holden
Holden
dominated the Australian car market. GM invested heavily in production capacity, which allowed the company to meet increased post-war demand for motor cars.[13] Less expensive four-cylinder cars did not offer Holden's ability to deal with rugged rural areas.[22][33] 48-215 sedans were produced in parallel with the 50-2106 coupé utility from 1951; the latter was known colloquially as the "ute" and became ubiquitous in Australian rural areas as the workhorse of choice. Production of both the utility and sedan continued with minor changes until 1953, when they were replaced by the facelifted FJ model, introducing a third panel van body style.[34] The FJ was the first major change to the Holden
Holden
since its 1948 introduction. Over time it gained iconic status and remains one of Australia's most recognisable automotive symbols.[35] A new horizontally slatted grille dominated the front-end of the FJ, which received various other trim and minor mechanical revisions.[36][37] In 1954 Holden
Holden
began exporting the FJ to New Zealand.[38] Although little changed from the 48-215, marketing campaigns and price cuts kept FJ sales steady until a completely redesigned model was launched.[39] At the 2005 Australian International Motor Show
Australian International Motor Show
in Sydney, Holden
Holden
paid homage to the FJ with the Efijy concept car.[40] Holden's next model, the FE, launched in 1956; offered in a new station wagon body style dubbed "Station Sedan" in the company's sales literature.[41] In the same year Holden
Holden
commenced exports to Malaya, Thailand
Thailand
and North Borneo.[38] Strong sales continued in Australia, and Holden
Holden
achieved a market share of more than 50 percent in 1958 with the revised FC model.[42] This was the first Holden
Holden
to be tested on the new Holden
Holden
Proving Ground based in Lang Lang, Victoria.[43] 1957 saw Holden's export markets grow to 17 countries, with new additions including Indonesia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Fiji, Sudan, the East Africa region and South Africa.[38] Indonesian market cars were assembled locally by P.T. Udatin. The opening of the Dandenong, Victoria, production facility in 1956 brought further jobs; by 1959 Holden
Holden
employed 19,000 workers country-wide.[44] In 1959 complete knock down assembly began in South Africa and Indonesia.[38] 1960s[edit] In 1960, Holden
Holden
introduced its third major new model, the FB. The car's style was inspired by 1950s Chevrolets, with tailfins and a wrap-around windshield with "dog leg" A-pillars. By the time it was introduced, many considered the appearance dated. Much of the motoring industry at the time noted that the adopted style did not translate well to the more compact Holden.[45] The FB became the first Holden that was adapted for left-hand-drive markets, enhancing its export potential, and as such was exported to New Caledonia, New Hebrides, the Philippines, and Hawaii.[38][46]

The EK of 1961 was Holden's response to the Ford Falcon, with the availability of automatic transmission.

In 1960, Ford unveiled the new Falcon in Australia, only months after its introduction in the United States. To Holden's advantage, the Falcon was not durable, particularly in the front suspension, making it ill-suited for Australian conditions.[47] In response to the Falcon, Holden
Holden
introduced the facelifted EK series in 1961; the new model featured two-tone paintwork and optional Hydramatic
Hydramatic
automatic transmission.[48] A restyled EJ series came in 1962, debuting the new luxury oriented Premier model.[49] The EH update came a year later bringing the new Red motor, providing better performance than the previous Grey motor.[50] The HD series of 1965 saw the introduction of the Powerglide automatic transmission.[51] At the same time, an "X2" performance option with a more powerful version of the 179-cubic-inch (2.9 L) six-cylinder engine was made available.[52] In 1966, the HR was introduced, including changes in the form of new front and rear styling and higher-capacity engines. More significantly, the HR fitted standard front seat belts; Holden
Holden
thus became the first Australian automaker to provide the safety device as standard equipment across all models.[53] This coincided with the completion of the production plant in Acacia Ridge, Queensland.[13] By 1963, Holden
Holden
was exporting cars to Africa, the Middle East, South-East Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Caribbean.[38] Holden
Holden
began assembling the compact HA series Vauxhall Viva in 1964. This was superseded by the Holden Torana
Holden Torana
in 1967, a development of the Viva ending Vauxhall production in Australia.[54] Holden
Holden
offered the LC, a Torana with new styling, in 1969 with the availability of Holden's six-cylinder engine. In the development days, the six-cylinder Torana was reserved for motor racing, but research had shown that there was a business case for such a model.[55] The LC Torana was the first application of Holden's new three-speed Tri-Matic automatic transmission.[56] This was the result of Holden's A$16.5 million transformation of the Woodville, South Australia factory for its production.[13]

The celebrated Holden Monaro
Holden Monaro
coupé, introduced in 1968 and based on the mainstream Kingswood, has since gained a cult following.

Holden's association with the manufacture of Chevrolets and Pontiacs ended in 1968, coinciding with the year of Holden's next major new model, the HK .[57] This included Holden's first V8 engine, a Chevrolet
Chevrolet
engine imported from Canada.[58] Models based on the HK series included an extended-length prestige model, the Brougham, and a two-door coupé, the Monaro.[59] The mainstream Holden Special
Holden Special
was rebranded the Kingswood, and the basic fleet model, the Standard, became the Belmont.[60] On 3 March 1969 Alexander Rhea, managing director of General Motors-Holden's at the time, was joined by press photographers and the Federal Minister of Shipping and Transport, Ian Sinclair as the two men drove the two millionth Holden,[61] an HK Brougham off the production line.[13] This came just over half a decade since the one millionth car, an EJ Premier sedan rolled off the Dandenong
Dandenong
line on 25 October 1962.[62] Following the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
V8 fitted to the HK, the first Australian-designed and mass-produced V8, the Holden
Holden
V8 engine
V8 engine
debuted in the Hurricane concept of 1969 before fitment to facelifted HT model. This was available in two capacities: 253 cubic inches (4.1 L) and 308 cubic inches (5.0 L).[63] Late in HT production, use of the new Tri-Matic automatic transmission, first seen in the LC Torana was phased in as Powerglide stock was exhausted, but Holden's official line was that the HG of 1971 was the first full-size Holden
Holden
to receive it.[56][64][65]

Holden's HX (pictured), was an evolution of the record-selling HQ, with more than 480,000 units shifted throughout the car's lifetime.

Despite the arrival of serious competitors—namely, the Ford Falcon, Chrysler
Chrysler
Valiant, and Japanese cars—in the 1960s, Holden's locally produced large six- and eight-cylinder cars remained Australia's top-selling vehicles. Sales were boosted by exporting the Kingswood sedan, station wagon, and utility body styles to Indonesia, Trinidad and Tobago, Pakistan, the Philippines, and South Africa in complete knock down form.[66] 1970s[edit] Holden
Holden
launched the new HQ series in 1971.[67] At this time, the company was producing all of its passenger cars in Australia, and every model was of Australian design; however, by the end of the decade, Holden
Holden
was producing cars based on overseas designs. The HQ was thoroughly re-engineered, featuring a perimeter frame and semi-monocoque (unibody) construction. Other firsts included an all-coil suspension and an extended wheelbase for station wagons, while the utilities and panel vans retained the traditional coil/leaf suspension configuration.[68] The series included the new prestige Statesman brand, which also had a longer wheelbase, replacing the Brougham.[69] The Statesman remains noteworthy because it was not marketed as a "Holden", but rather a "Statesman".[70]

The UC, Holden's final iteration of the Torana was replaced by an interim four-cylinder version of the Commodore until Camira was launched in 1982.

The HQ framework led to a new generation of two-door Monaros, and, despite the introduction of the similar sized competitors, the HQ range became the top-selling Holden
Holden
of all time, with 485,650 units sold in three years.[71] 14,558 units were exported and 72,290 CKD kits were constructed.[38] The HQ series was facelifted in 1974 with the introduction of the HJ, heralding new front panel styling and a revised rear fascia.[72] This new bodywork was to remain, albeit with minor upgrades through the HX and HZ series.[73] Detuned engines adhering to government emission standards were brought in with the HX series, whilst the HZ brought considerably improved road handling and comfort with the introduction of "Radial Tuned Suspension" (RTS).[74] As a result of GM's toying with the Wankel rotary engine, as used by Mazda
Mazda
of Japan, an export agreement was initiated in 1975. This involved Holden
Holden
exporting with powertrains, HJ, and later, HX series Premiers as the Mazda
Mazda
Roadpacer AP. Mazda
Mazda
then fitted these cars with the 13B rotary engine and three-speed automatic transmission. Production ended in 1977, after just 840 units sold.[75][76] During the 1970s, Holden
Holden
ran an advertising jingle "Football, Meat Pies, Kangaroos and Holden
Holden
cars", based on the "Baseball, Hot Dogs, Apple Pies and Chevrolet" jingle used by Chevrolet
Chevrolet
in the United States.[77] Also, development of the Torana continued in with the larger mid-sized LH series released in 1974, offered only as a four-door sedan.[78] The LH Torana was one of the few cars worldwide engineered to accommodate four-, six-and eight-cylinder engines.[79] This trend continued until Holden
Holden
introduced the Sunbird in 1976; essentially the four-cylinder Torana with a new name.[78] Designated LX, both the Sunbird and Torana introduced a three-door hatchback variant.[80] A final UC update appeared in 1978.[81] During its production run, the Torana achieved legendary racing success in Australia, achieving victories at the Mount Panorama Circuit
Mount Panorama Circuit
in Bathurst, New South Wales.[82]

The Commodore premiering in 1978 followed the success of its Kingswood forebear, becoming Holden's bestselling vehicle to date.

In 1975, Holden
Holden
introduced the compact Gemini, the Australian version of the "T-car", based on the Opel
Opel
Kadett C. The Gemini was an overseas design developed jointly with Isuzu, GM's Japanese affiliate; and was powered by a 1.6-litre four-cylinder engine.[83] Fast becoming a popular car, the Gemini rapidly attained sales leadership in its class, and the nameplate lived on until 1987.[84] Holden's most popular car to date, the Commodore, was introduced in 1978 as the VB.[85] The new family car was loosely based on the Opel Rekord E body shell, but with the front from the Opel
Opel
Senator grafted to accommodate the larger Holden
Holden
six-cylinder and V8 engines. Initially, the Commodore maintained Holden's sales leadership in Australia.[86] However, some of the compromises resulting from the adoption of a design intended for another market hampered the car's acceptance. In particular, it was narrower than its predecessor and its Falcon rival, making it less comfortable for three rear-seat passengers.[87] With the abandonment of left-hand drive markets, Holden
Holden
exported almost 100,000 Commodores to markets such as New Zealand, Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Indonesia, Malta
Malta
and Singapore.[38] Holden
Holden
discontinued the Torana in 1979 and the Sunbird in 1980. After the 1978 introduction of the Commodore, the Torana became the "in-between" car, surrounded by the smaller and more economical Gemini and the larger, more sophisticated Commodore. The closest successor to the Torana was the Camira, released in 1982 as Australia's version of GM's medium-sized "J-car".[88]

1980s[edit]

After a good start, sales of the Camira, Holden's version of the global "J-car" platform slumped significantly. This placed a huge financial burden on the Australian subsidiary, which was already operating at a loss at this time.

The 1980s were challenging for Holden
Holden
and the Australian automotive industry. The Australian
The Australian
Government tried to revive the industry with the Button car plan, which encouraged car makers to focus on producing fewer models at higher, more economical volumes, and to export cars.[89] The decade opened with the shut-down of the Pagewood, New South Wales production plant and introduction of the light commercial Rodeo, sourced from Isuzu
Isuzu
in Japan.[13] The Rodeo was available in both two- and four-wheel drive chassis cab models with a choice of petrol and diesel powerplants.[90] The range was updated in 1988 with the TF series, based on the Isuzu
Isuzu
TF.[13] Other cars sourced from Isuzu
Isuzu
during the 1980s were the four-wheel drive Jackaroo (1981), the Shuttle (1982) van and the Piazza (1986) three-door sports hatchback.[91] The second generation Holden Gemini
Holden Gemini
from 1985 was also based on an Isuzu
Isuzu
design, although, its manufacture was undertaken in Australia.[92] While GM Australia's commercial vehicle range had originally been mostly based on Bedford
Bedford
products, these had gradually been replaced by Isuzu
Isuzu
products. This process began in the 1970s and by 1982 Holden's commercial vehicle arm no longer offered any Bedford
Bedford
products.[93] The new Holden WB
Holden WB
commercial vehicles and the Statesman WB
Statesman WB
limousines were introduced in 1980. However, the designs, based on the HQ and updated HJ, HX and HZ models from the 1970s were less competitive than similar models in Ford's lineup. Thus, Holden
Holden
abandoned those vehicle classes altogether in 1984.[67] Sales of the Commodore also fell, with the effects of the 1979 energy crisis
1979 energy crisis
lessening, and for the first time the Commodore lost ground to the Ford Falcon. Sales in other segments also suffered when competition from Ford intensified, and other Australian manufacturers: Mitsubishi, Nissan
Nissan
and Toyota
Toyota
gained market share.[94] When released in 1982, the Camira initially generated good sales, which later declined because buyers considered the 1.6-litre engine underpowered, and the car's build and ride quality below-average.[88] The Camira lasted just seven years, and contributed to Holden's accumulated losses of over A$500 million by the mid-1980s.[95]

The second generation Commodore (VN Calais pictured) overcame the previous generation's width problems.

In 1984, Holden
Holden
introduced the VK Commodore, with significant styling changes from the previous VH. The Commodore was next updated in 1986 as the VL, which had new front and rear styling.[96] Controversially, the VL was powered by the 3.0-litre Nissan
Nissan
RB30 six-cylinder engine and had a Nissan-built, electronically controlled four-speed automatic transmission. Holden
Holden
even went to court in 1984 to stop local motoring magazine Wheels from reporting on the matter.[97] The engine change was necessitated by the legal requirement that all new cars sold in Australia
Australia
after 1986 had to consume unleaded petrol.[98] Because it was unfeasible to convert the existing six-cylinder engine to run on unleaded fuel, the Nissan
Nissan
engine was chosen as the best engine available. However, changing exchange rates doubled the cost of the engine and transmission over the life of the VL.[99] The decision to opt for a Japanese-made transmission led to the closure of the Woodville, South Australia
Australia
assembly plant. Confident by the apparent sign of turnaround, GM paid off Holden's mounted losses of A$780 million on 19 December 1986.[100] At GM headquarters' request, Holden
Holden
was then reorganised and recapitalised, separating the engine and car manufacturing divisions in the process.[100] This involved the splitting of Holden
Holden
into Holden's Motor Company (HMC) and Holden's Engine Company (HEC).[101] For the most part, car bodies were now manufactured at Elizabeth, South Australia, with engines as before, confined to the Fishermans Bend
Fishermans Bend
plant in Port Melbourne, Victoria. The engine manufacturing business was successful, building four-cylinder Family II engines for use in cars built overseas.[102] The final phase of the Commodore's recovery strategy involved the 1988 VN, a significantly wider model powered by the American-designed, Australian-assembled 3.8-litre Buick
Buick
V6 engine.[87] Holden
Holden
began to sell the subcompact Suzuki
Suzuki
Swift-based Barina in 1985. The Barina was launched concurrently with the Suzuki-sourced Holden Drover, followed by the Scurry later on in 1985.[103] In the previous year, Nissan
Nissan
Pulsar hatchbacks were rebadged as the Holden
Holden
Astra, as a result of a deal with Nissan.[104] This arrangement ceased in 1989 when Holden
Holden
entered a new alliance with Toyota, forming a new company: United Australian Automobile Industries
United Australian Automobile Industries
(UAAI). UAAI resulted in Holden
Holden
selling rebadged versions of Toyota's Corolla and Camry, as the Holden Nova
Holden Nova
and Apollo respectively, with Toyota
Toyota
re-branding the Commodore as the Lexcen.[105]

1990s[edit]

The VS Statesman/Caprice of 1995, represented a mild facelift of the VR, which in turn was an update of the 1990 VQ—Holden's long-wheelbase version of the VN Commodore series.

The company changed throughout the 1990s, increasing its Australian market share from 21 percent in 1991 to 28.2 percent in 1999.[106] Besides manufacturing Australia's best selling car, which was exported in significant numbers, Holden
Holden
continued to export many locally produced engines to power cars made elsewhere. In this decade, Holden
Holden
adopted a strategy of importing cars it needed to offer a full range of competitive vehicles.[107] During 1998, General Motors-Holden's Ltd name was shortened to " Holden
Holden
Ltd".[108] On 26 April 1990, GM's New Zealand subsidiary Holden
Holden
New Zealand announced that production at the assembly plant based in Trentham would be phased out and vehicles would be imported duty-free—this came after the 1984 closure of the Petone
Petone
assembly line due to low output volumes.[109] During the 1990s, Holden, other Australian automakers and trade unions pressured the Australian Government to halt the lowering of car import tariffs. By 1997, the federal government had already cut tariffs to 22.5 percent, from 57.5 percent ten years earlier; by 2000, a plan was formulated to reduce the tariffs to 15 percent. Holden
Holden
was critical, saying that Australia's population was not large enough, and that the changes could tarnish the local industry.[110]

Commodore VT, introduced in 1997, marked the Commodore's global expansion.

Holden
Holden
re-introduced its defunct Statesman title in 1990—this time under the Holden
Holden
marque, as the Statesman and Caprice. For 1991, Holden
Holden
updated the Statesman and Caprice with a range of improvements, including the introduction of four-wheel anti-lock brakes (ABS);[111] although, a rear-wheel system had been standard on the Statesman Caprice from March 1976.[78] ABS was added to the short-wheelbase Commodore range in 1992.[112] Another returning variant was the full-size utility, and on this occasion it was based on the Commodore.[113] The VN Commodore received a major facelift in 1993 with the VR—compared to the VN, approximately 80 percent of the car model was new. Exterior changes resulted in a smoother overall body and a "twin-kidney" grille—a Commodore styling trait that remained until the 2002 VY model and,[114] as of 2013, remains a permanent staple on HSV variants. Holden
Holden
introduced the all-new VT Commodore in 1997, the outcome of a A$600 million development programme that spanned more than five years. The new model featured a rounded exterior body shell, improved dynamics and many firsts for an Australian-built car. Also, a stronger body structure increased crash safety.[115] The locally produced Buick-sourced V6 engine
V6 engine
powered the Commodore range, as did the 5.0-litre Holden
Holden
V8 engine, and was replaced in 1999 by the 5.7-litre LS unit.[116]

The 1998 Holden Astra
Holden Astra
continued Holden's trend of sourcing its mid-size and smaller model lines from Opel
Opel
in Europe.

The UAAI badge-engineered cars first introduced in 1989 sold in far fewer numbers than anticipated, but the Holden
Holden
Commodore, Toyota Camry, and Corolla were all successful when sold under their original nameplates.[117] The first generation Nova and the donor Corolla were produced at Holden's Dandenong, Victoria
Dandenong, Victoria
facility until 1994.[118] UAAI was dissolved in 1996, and Holden
Holden
returned to selling only GM products.[100] The Holden Astra
Holden Astra
and Vectra, both designed by Opel
Opel
in Germany, replaced the Toyota-sourced Holden Nova
Holden Nova
and Apollo. This came after the 1994 introduction of the Opel
Opel
Corsa replacing the already available Suzuki
Suzuki
Swift as the source for the Holden
Holden
Barina.[119] Sales of the full-size Holden Suburban
Holden Suburban
SUV sourced from Chevrolet
Chevrolet
commenced in 1998—lasting until 2001.[120] Also in 1998, local assembly of the Vectra began at Elizabeth, South Australia. These cars were exported to Japan and Southeast Asia with Opel
Opel
badges.[121][122] However, the Vectra did not achieve sufficient sales in Australia
Australia
to justify local assembly, and reverted to being fully imported in 2000.[123] 2000s[edit] Holden's market surge from the 1990s reversed in the 2000s decade. In Australia, Holden's market share dropped from 27.5 percent in 2000 to 15.2 percent in 2006.[106][124] From March 2003, Holden no longer held the number one sales position in Australia, losing ground to Toyota.[125] This overall downturn affected Holden's profits; the company recorded a combined gain of A$842.9 million between 2002 and 2004, and a combined loss of A$290 million between 2005 and 2006.[126] Factors contributing to the loss included the development of an all-new model, the strong Australian dollar and the cost of reducing the workforce at the Elizabeth plant, including the loss of 1,400 jobs after the closure of the third-shift assembly line in 2005, after two years in operation.[127] Holden
Holden
fared better in 2007, posting an A$6 million loss.[128] This was followed by an A$70.2 million loss in the 2008,[129] an A$210.6 million loss in 2009, and a profit of A$112 million in 2010.[130] On 18 May 2005, " Holden
Holden
Ltd" became "GM Holden
Holden
Ltd", coinciding with the resettling to the new Holden
Holden
headquarters on 191 Salmon Street, Port Melbourne, Victoria.[131]

The Monaro coupé was resurrected in 2001 as a low-volume niche model. Unanticipated overseas demand proved otherwise, with the Monaro selling in the UK as a Vauxhall Monaro and throughout the United States as the Pontiac
Pontiac
GTO.[132]

Holden
Holden
caused controversy in 2005 with their Holden
Holden
Employee Pricing television advertisement, which ran between October and December 2005. The campaign publicised, "for the first time ever, all Australians can enjoy the financial benefit of Holden
Holden
Employee Pricing". However, this did not include a discounted dealer delivery fee and savings on factory fitted options and accessories that employees received. At the same time, employees were given a further discount between 25 and 29 percent on selected models.[133] Holden
Holden
revived the Monaro coupe in 2001. Based on the VT Commodore architecture, the coupe attracted worldwide attention after being shown as a concept car at Australian auto shows.[134] The VT Commodore received its first major update in 2002 with the VY series. A mildly facelifted VZ model launched in 2004, introducing the High Feature engine.[135] This was built at the Fishermans Bend
Fishermans Bend
facility completed in 2003, with a maximum output of 900 engines per day. This has reportedly added A$5.2 billion to the Australian economy; exports account for about A$450 million alone.[136] After the VZ, the High Feature engine powered the all-new Holden Commodore
Holden Commodore
(VE). In contrast to previous models, the VE no longer used an Opel-sourced platform adapted both mechanically and in size,[137] but was based on the GM Zeta platform
GM Zeta platform
that was earmarked to become a "Global RWD Architecture", until plans were cancelled due to the 2007/08 global financial crisis.

Holden
Holden
updated the Commodore with the VE series in 2006, Holden's first "clean-sheet" design since 1971.

Throughout the 1990s, Opel
Opel
had also been the source of many Holden models. To increase profitability, Holden
Holden
looked to the South Korean Daewoo brand for replacements after acquiring a 44.6 percent stake—worth US$251 million—in the company in 2002 as a representative of GM.[138][139] This was increased to 50.9 percent in 2005,[140] but when GM further increased its stake to 70.1 percent around the time of its 2009 Chapter 11 reorganisation, Holden's interest was relinquished and transferred to another (undisclosed) part of GM.[139][141] The commencement of the Holden-branded Daewoo models began with the 2005 Holden
Holden
Barina, which based on the Daewoo Kalos, replaced the Opel Corsa as the source of the Barina.[142] In the same year, the Viva, based on the Daewoo Lacetti, replaced the entry-level Holden
Holden
Astra Classic, although the new-generation Astra introduced in 2004 continued on.[143] The Captiva crossover SUV came next in 2006. After discontinuing the Frontera and Jackaroo models in 2003, Holden
Holden
was only left with one all-wheel drive model: the Adventra, a Commodore-based station wagon.[144] The fourth model to be replaced with a South Korean alternative was the Vectra by the mid-size Epica in 2007.[145] As a result of the split between GM and Isuzu, Holden lost the rights to use the "Rodeo" nameplate. Consequently, the Holden Rodeo was facelifted and relaunched as the Colorado in 2008.[146] Following Holden's successful application for a A$149 million government grant to build a localised version of the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Cruze in Australia
Australia
from 2011, Holden
Holden
in 2009 announced that it would initially import the small car unchanged from South Korea as the Holden
Holden
Cruze.[147][148] Following the government grant announcement, Kevin Rudd, Australia's Prime Minister at the time, stated that production would support 600 new jobs at the Elizabeth facility; however, this failed to take into account Holden's previous announcement, whereby 600 jobs would be shed when production of the Family II engine
Family II engine
ceased in late 2009.[149] In mid-2013, Holden
Holden
sought a further A$265 million, in addition to the A$275 million that was already committed by the governments of Canberra, South Australia
Australia
and Victoria, to remain viable as a car manufacturer in Australia. A source close to Holden
Holden
informed the Australian news publication that the car company is losing money on every vehicle that it produces and consequently initiated negotiations to reduce employee wages by up to A$200 per week to cut costs, following the announcement of 400 job cuts and an assembly line reduction of 65 (400 to 335) cars per day. Between 2001 to 2012, Holden
Holden
received over A$150 million a year in subsidy from Australian government. The subsidy from 2007 was more than Holden's capital investment of the same period. From 2004, Holden
Holden
was only able to make a profit in 2010 and 2011.[150] 2010s[edit] In March 2012, Holden
Holden
was given a $270 million lifeline by the Gillard Federal Government, Weatherill and Baillieu ministries. In return, Holden
Holden
planned to inject over $1 billion into car manufacturing in Australia. They estimated the new investment package would return around $4 billion to the Australian economy and see GM Holden
Holden
continue making cars in Australia
Australia
until at least 2022.[151] Industry Minister Kim Carr
Kim Carr
confirmed on 10 July 2013 that talks had been scheduled between the Australian government and Holden.[152] On 13 August 2013, 1,700 employees at the Elizabeth plant in northern Adelaide
Adelaide
voted to accept a three-year wage freeze in order to decrease the chances of the production line's closure in 2016. Holden's ultimate survival, though, depended on continued negotiations with the Federal Government—to secure funding for the period from 2016 to 2022—and the final decision of the global headquarters in Detroit, US.[153] Following an unsuccessful attempt to secure the extra funding required from the new Liberal/National coalition government, on 10 December 2013,[154] General Motors
General Motors
announced that Holden
Holden
would cease engine and vehicle manufacturing operations in Australia
Australia
by the end of 2017.[155] As a result, 2,900 jobs would be lost over four years.[156] Beyond 2017 Holden's Australian presence will consist of: a national sales company, a parts distribution centre and a global design studio.[154] In May 2014 GM reversed their decision to abandon the Lang Lang Proving Ground and decided to keep it as part of their engineering capability in Australia.[157] In 2015, Holden
Holden
again began selling a range of Opel-derived cars comprising the Astra VXR and Insignia VXR (both based on the OPC models sold by Vauxhall) and Cascada. Later that year, Holden
Holden
also announced plans to sell the European Astra and the Korean Cruze alongside each other from 2017.[158] In December 2015, Belgian entrepreneur Guido Dumarey commenced negotiations to buy the Commodore manufacturing plant in South Australia, with a view to continue producing a rebadged Zeta-based premium range of rear and all-wheel drive vehicles for local and export sales.[159] The proposal was met with doubt in South Australia,[160] and it later came to nothing.[161] On 20 October 2017 it ceased manufacturing vehicles in Australia. Corporate affairs and identity[edit]

Holden
Holden
logos from 1928 (left) and 1972 (right).

2007 sales and production[162]

Vehicle sales Units

Passenger vehicles 104,848

Light commercial vehicles 33,554

Sport utility vehicles 11,091

Total 146,680

Vehicle production Units

Total 107,795

Engine production Units

Family II 136,699

High Feature 132,722

Total 269,421

Exports Units

Engines 173,463

Vehicles 36,534

Total 209,997

On 8 May 2015 Jeff Rolfs, Holden's CFO, became interim chairman and managing director. Holden
Holden
announced on 6 February 2015 that Mark Bernhard would return to Holden
Holden
as chairman and managing director, the first Australian to hold the post in 25 years.[163] In 2010 vehicles were sold countrywide through the Holden
Holden
Dealer Network (310 authorised stores and 12 service centres), which employed more than 13,500 people.[164] In 1987, Holden Special Vehicles
Holden Special Vehicles
(HSV) was formed in partnership with Tom Walkinshaw, who primarily manufactured modified, high-performance Commodore variants.[165] To further reinforce the brand, HSV introduced the HSV Dealer Team
HSV Dealer Team
into the V8 Supercar fold in 2005 under the naming rights of Toll HSV Dealer Team.[166] The logo, or " Holden
Holden
lion and stone" as it is known, has played a vital role in establishing Holden's identity. In 1928, Holden's Motor Body Builders appointed Rayner Hoff
Rayner Hoff
to design the emblem. The logo refers to a prehistoric fable, in which observations of lions rolling stones led to the invention of the wheel. With the 1948 launch of the 48-215, Holden
Holden
revised its logo and commissioned another redesign in 1972 to better represent the company.[167] The emblem was reworked once more in 1994.[168]

Sales in the Australian market between 1991 and 2006

Exports[edit] Holden
Holden
began to export vehicles in 1954, sending the FJ to New Zealand.[169] Exports to New Zealand have continued ever since, but to broaden their export potential, Holden
Holden
began to cater their Commodore, Monaro and Statesman/Caprice models for both right- and left-hand drive markets. The Middle East is now Holden's largest export market, with the Commodore sold as the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Lumina since 1998, and the Statesman since 1999 as the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Caprice.[121] Commodores are also sold as the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Lumina in Brunei, Fiji
Fiji
and South Africa, and as the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Omega in Brazil.[164][170] Pontiac
Pontiac
in North America also imported Commodore sedans from 2008 through to 2009 as the G8. The G8's cessation was a consequence of GM's Chapter 11 bankruptcy resulting in the demise of the Pontiac
Pontiac
brand.[171] Sales of the Monaro began in 2003 to the Middle East as the Chevrolet Lumina Coupe. Later on that year, a modified version of the Monaro began selling in the United States (but not Canada) as the Pontiac GTO, and under the Monaro name through Vauxhall dealerships in the United Kingdom. This arrangement continued through to 2005 when the car was discontinued.[172] The long-wheelbase Statesman sales in the Chinese market as the Buick
Buick
Royaum began in 2005, before being replaced in 2007 by the Statesman-based Buick
Buick
Park Avenue.[173] Statesman/Caprice exports to South Korea also began in 2005. These Korean models were sold as the Daewoo Statesman, and later as the Daewoo Veritas
Daewoo Veritas
from 2008.[174] Holden's move into international markets has been profitable; export revenue increased from A$973 million in 1999 to just under $1.3 billion in 2006.[170][175] Since 2011 the WM Caprice has been exported to North America as the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Caprice PPV, a version of the Caprice built exclusively for law enforcement in North America sold only to police.[176] Since 2007, the HSV-based Commodore has been exported to the United Kingdom as the Vauxhall VXR8.[177] In 2013, it was announced that exports of the Commodore would resume to North America in the form of the VF Commodore as the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
SS sedan for the 2014 model year.[178] The Chevrolet
Chevrolet
SS Sedan was imported to the United States (but again, not to Canada) again for 2015 with only minor changes, notably the addition of Magnetic Ride Control suspension and a Tremec TR-6060 manual transmission.[179] For the 2016 model year, the SS sedan received a facelift based on the VF Series II Commodore unveiled in September 2015.[180][181][182] In 2017, production of Holden's last two American exports, the SS and the Caprice PPV was discontinued. Leadership[edit]

Edward Holden (1917–1934) Laurence Hartnett
Laurence Hartnett
(1934–1946) Harold E. Bettle (1946–1953) Earl C. Daum (1953–1959) Harlow C. Gage (1959–1962) David L. Heglund (1962–1966) Max C. Wilson (1966–1968) Alexander D. Rhea (1968–1970) A. C. "Bill" Gibbs (1970–1973) Damon Martin (1973–1976) Charles S. "Chuck" Chapman (1976–1987) John G. Bagshaw (1987–1990) William J. Hamel (1990–1997) James R. Wiemels (1997–1999) Peter Hanenberger (1999–2003) Denny Mooney (2003–2007) Chris Gubbey (2007–2008) Mark Reuss (2008–2009) Alan Batey (2009–2010) Michael Devereux (2010–2014) Gerry Dorizas (2014–2014) Jeff Rolfs (Interim chairman and managing director) (2014–2015) Mark Bernhard (2015–present)

Motorsport[edit]

Garth Tander
Garth Tander
driving a Holden VF Commodore
Holden VF Commodore
for the Holden
Holden
Racing Team in 2015.

Holden
Holden
has been involved with factory backed teams in Australian touring car racing since 1968. The main factory-backed teams have been the Holden Dealer Team
Holden Dealer Team
(1969–1987) and the Holden
Holden
Racing Team (1990–2016). Since 2017, Triple Eight Race Engineering
Triple Eight Race Engineering
has been Holden's factory team. Holden
Holden
has won the Bathurst 1000
Bathurst 1000
32 times,[183] more than any other manufacturer,[184] and has won the Australian Touring Car and Supercars Championship
Supercars Championship
title 20 times. Brad Jones Racing, Charlie Schwerkolt Racing, Erebus Motorsport, Tekno Autosports and Walkinshaw Andretti United
Walkinshaw Andretti United
also run Holden
Holden
Commodores in the series.

Notes[edit]

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confirm V8 Supercar alliance". HSV Dealer Team. 21 November 2005. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 20 February 2008.  ^ Wright (2004), p. 152. ^ "The Story of the Holden
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Lion". GM Holden. Archived from the original on 8 February 2008.  ^ Tuckey (2003), p. 120. ^ a b "Vehicle Exports". GM Holden. Retrieved 23 August 2008.  ^ Hammerton, Ron; Pettendy, Marton (13 July 2009). " Holden
Holden
in US comeback". GoAuto. Retrieved 15 July 2009.  ^ "Very Last Holden Monaro
Holden Monaro
Up For Auction". Motor1.com. 1 February 2006. Archived from the original on 21 February 2016. Retrieved 20 January 2016.  ^ Pettendy, Marton (11 April 2007). "Holden's Chinese Buick". GoAuto. Retrieved 3 March 2008.  ^ Mathioudakis, Bryon (5 September 2008). "First look: Veritas a veritable Statesman". GoAuto. Retrieved 5 September 2008.  ^ "Financial Results 1998 – 2003". General Motors. Archived from the original on 21 July 2008.  ^ " Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Caprice PPV – Discontinued Police Car". GM Fleet. Retrieved 2018-01-12.  ^ " Vauxhall VXR8
Vauxhall VXR8
6.2 GTS". Autocar. 26 February 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2017.  ^ "2017 SS 4-Door Sports Sedan Chevrolet". www.chevrolet.com. Retrieved 2018-01-12.  ^ " Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Pressroom - United States - SS Sedan". media.gm.com. Retrieved 2018-01-12.  ^ " Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Pressroom - United States - SS Sedan". media.gm.com. Retrieved 2018-01-12.  ^ "2016 Chevrolet
Chevrolet
SS Designed for Performance". media.gm.com. Retrieved 2018-01-12.  ^ " Holden Commodore
Holden Commodore
VFII; The Quickest, Most Powerful, Most Advanced Commodore Ever". media.gm.com. Retrieved 2018-01-12.  ^ "Lowndes scores sixth Bathurst 1000
Bathurst 1000
victory". Speedcafe. 11 October 2015. Retrieved 14 October 2015. Richards meanwhile picked up his fourth victory, handing Holden
Holden
its 30th win on the mountain in the process.  ^ " Holden
Holden
Chases 30th Bathurst Win". Holden. 9 October 2013. Archived from the original on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 

See also[edit]

The Death of Holden List of Holden vehicles
List of Holden vehicles
by nameplate

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Holden
Holden
vehicles.

Books

Bebbington, Terry (1998). 50 Years of Holden. Hornsby, New South Wales: Clockwork Media. ISBN 0-947216-59-6.  Darwin, Norm (2002). 100 Years of GM in Australia. Ballarat, Victoria: Hand Publishing. ISBN 0-646-41476-3.  Davis, Tony (1987). Aussie Cars. Hurstville, New South Wales: Marque Publishing. ISBN 0-947079-01-7.  Davis, Tony; Kennedy, Ewan; Kennedy, Alistair (1998). The Holden Heritage: Eighth Edition. Blakehurst, New South Wales: Marque Publishing. ISBN 0-947079-57-2.  Davis, Pedr; Davis, Tony (1988). Project VN: An Australian Car For the 1990s. Hurstville, New South Wales: Marque Publishing. ISBN 0-947079-06-8.  Dowling, Joshua (2003). Monaro: rebirth of a legend. Punchbowl, New South Wales: Bookworks. ISBN 1-876953-13-6.  Earl, Peter (2002). Information, Opportunism and Economic Coordination. Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 1-84064-738-8.  Balderstone, Simon; Bowan, John; Lewis, Wendy (2006). Events that shaped Australia. Frenchs Forest, New South Wales: New Holland Publishers. ISBN 978-1-74110-492-9.  Loffler, Don (2000). Still Holden
Holden
Together: Stories of the First Holden
Holden
Model. Kent Town, South Australia: Wakefield Press. ISBN 1-86254-531-6.  Loffler, Don (2002). The FJ Holden: A Favourite Australian Car. Kent Town, South Australia: Wakefield Press. ISBN 978-1-86254-583-0.  Loffler, Don (2006) [1998]. She's a Beauty!: The Story of the First Holdens (New Enlarged ed.). Kent Town, South Australia: Wakefield Press. ISBN 1-86254-734-3.  Robinson, Peter (2006). AutoBiography: The inside story of Holden's all-new VE Commodore. Woolloomooloo, New South Wales: Focus Publishing. ISBN 1-921156-10-4.  Strauss, Richard (1998). Up for Rego: A Social History of the Holden Kingswood. North Melbourne, Victoria: Pluto Press Australia. ISBN 1-86403-054-2.  Tuckey, Bill (1999). Commodore Lion King: Celebrating 21 Years. Middle Park, Victoria: Quil Visual Communications. ISBN 0-646-38231-4.  Tuckey, Bill (2003). Australians and Their Cars: 100 Years of Motoring. Woolloomooloo, New South Wales: Focus Publishing. ISBN 1-920683-36-4.  Wright, John (1998). Heart of the Lion: The 50 Year History of Australia's Holden. Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86448-744-5. 

Internet

Davis, Tony; Kennedy, Alistair; Kennedy, Ewan (February 2007), The Holden
Holden
Heritage – 13th Edition, Port Melbourne, Victoria: GM Holden 

Part One, Part Two, Part Three (PDF).

Mendelssohn, Joanna (28 June 2017), Celebrating the feminist Holden, The Conversation. Wagner, David Paul, Canowindra Motors Holden
Holden
Museum. australiaforvisitors.com. Photographic record of this Holden
Holden
museum that closed in 2016.

Magazines

"Number Crunching". Wheels. Sydney, New South Wales. May 2003.  "Reborn!". Motor Manual. Melbourne, Victoria: Newspress. June 1985.  Carey, John (November 2005). " Holden
Holden
Efijy". Wheels. Sydney, New South Wales.  Carey, John (November 2005). " Holden
Holden
Barina: Korea-built mini goes large on value". Wheels. Sydney, New South Wales.  Carey, John (November 2005). " Holden
Holden
Viva: Better than when it was a Daewoo. Just". Wheels. Sydney, New South Wales.  Garnier, Peter, ed. (20 March 1969). "News and Views: Hon I Sinclair, Federal Minister of Shipping and Transport, and A.D. Rea, managing director of GMH, drive the 2,000,000th Holden
Holden
off the production line". Autocar. Vol. 130 no. 3814. London, United Kingdom.  Luck, Rob (September 1971). "Bold New Breed". Modern Motor. Modern Magazines (Holdings).  McCarthy, Mike; McKay, Peter; Newton, Bruce; Robinson, Peter (October 2006). "2006 Collector's Edition VE Commodore: The Full Story". Wheels. Sydney, New South Wales.  McCarthy, Mike (September 2007). " Mazda
Mazda
Roadpacer AP". Wheels. Sydney, New South Wales.  Newton, Bruce (June 2007). "Sneer Miss". Wheels. Sydney, New South Wales.  Ponchard, Nathan (November 2006). "At last, Holden
Holden
finds a Seoul mate". Wheels. Sydney, New South Wales. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 23 August 2008.  Wright, John (May 2004). "Badgeology". Wheels. Sydney, New South Wales. 

External links[edit]

Official website

v t e

Holden, a marque of General Motors, automobile timeline, 1948–present

Type 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Type

8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Subcompact

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Compact

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Torana (HB) Torana (LC/LJ/TA) Gemini (TX/TC/TD/TE/TF/TG) Gemini (RB)

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Mid-size

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Malibu (EM)

Mid-size

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(FE/FC) Standard/ Special
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(FB/EK) Standard/Special/Premier (EJ/EH) Standard/Special/Premier (HD/HR)

Commodore/Calais (VB/VC/VH/VK/VL)

Insignia (GA)

Full-size

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Brougham (HK/HT/HG) Statesman† (HQ/HJ/HX/HZ/WB)

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Sports

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Utility

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Van

Panel van
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(FJ) Panel van
Panel van
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Panel van
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(HQ/HJ/HX/HZ/WB)

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Mid-size SUV

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Colorado 7/Trailblazer (RG)

Full-size SUV

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Full-size SUV

List of Holden
Holden
vehicles † HQ–WB Statesmans not marketed under the "Holden" brand, but rather the separate "Statesman" brand.

v t e

Holden

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Historic

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Motors (c.1971–2006; up to 49%) Subaru
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(25%)

UzDaewooAvto
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50%

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(1919–1980) General Motors
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General Motors
Diesel Division (1938–1987) General Motors
General Motors
Diesel (1949–1969) Ghandhara Industries
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Hughes Aircraft
(1985–1997) Hughes Electronics
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(1985–1997) Hughes Network Systems (1987–2003) HughesNet (DirecWay/DirecPC) (1996–2003) Kettering University National City Lines NUMMI
NUMMI
(1984–2009) New Venture Gear
New Venture Gear
(36%, 1990–2002) Nexteer (2009–2010) North American Aviation
North American Aviation
(1933–1948) Nuvell Financial Services
Nuvell Financial Services
(1997–2008) PanAmSat (1995–2003) Remy Electric
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(1918–1994) Rochester Products Division Terex United Australian Automobile Industries
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(1989–1996) Winton Motor Carriage Company Yellow Coach Manufacturing Company
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(1925–1943)

Places

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People

William C. Durant
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Other

General Motors
General Motors
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General Motors
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Category Commons

v t e

Automotive industry
Automotive industry
in Australia

Automotive industry Economy of Australia Transport in Australia

Australian vehicle manufacturers

Alpha Sports BCI Bus Bolwell Borland Racing Developments Bush Ranger Bustech Coach Concepts Coach Design Custom Coaches Denning Manufacturing Devaux Cars DRB Sports Cars Elfin Sports Cars Express Coach Builders GDLS-Australia Jacer Minetti Sports Cars Nota P&D Coachworks PRB RFW Thales Australia Volgren

Defunct vehicle manufacturers

Alan B Denning Ansair Austral Australian Autobus Australian Motor Industries Birrana Boltons Bowin Cars Brabham British Motor Corporation (Australia) Buckle Motors Caldwell Vale Centurion Cheetah Racing Cars Coachmaster Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation Comeng Denning Duncan & Fraser Ford Australia Ford Performance Vehicles Giocattolo
Giocattolo
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Special
Vehicles Holden

Holden Special
Holden Special
Vehicles

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Components

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Subsidiaries of foreign companies

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Australia Chery
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Business associations

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S&P/ASX 50 companies (alpha–sorted)

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Other notable companies

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Corporate controversies and collapses

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