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Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
(/ˈhoʊ ˈtʃiː ˈmɪn/;[2] Vietnamese: [hò tɕǐ mīɲ] ( listen), Saigon: [hò tɕǐ mɨ̄n] ( listen); Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung,[3][4][5] also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist
Communist
revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam. Hồ was also Prime Minister (1945–55) and President (1945–69) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
(North Vietnam). He was a key figure in the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
in 1945, as well as the People's Army of Vietnam
Vietnam
(PAVN) and the Việt Cộng (NLF or VC) during the Vietnam War. Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
led the Việt Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the Communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
in 1945 and defeating the French Union
French Union
in 1954 at the battle of Điện Biên Phủ. He officially stepped down from power in 1965 due to health problems. After the war, Saigon, the former capital of the Republic of Vietnam, was renamed Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
City. Any description of Ho's life before he came to power in Vietnam
Vietnam
is necessarily fraught with ambiguity. He is known to have used at least 50 and perhaps as many as 200 pseudonyms.[6] (Duiker says at least 75.)[7]:582 His place of birth and date of birth are products of academic consensus since neither is known with certainty. "Official biographies, and there are at least four, vary on names, dates, places and other hard facts. Unofficial biographies vary even more widely."[8]

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 First sojourn in France 1.2 In the United States 1.3 In the United Kingdom

2 Political education in France 3 In the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and China 4 Independence movement

4.1 Birth of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam

5 Becoming president and Vietnam
Vietnam
War 6 Personal life 7 Death 8 Legacy and personality cult 9 International influence 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Early life[edit] Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
was born and given the name of Nguyễn Sinh Cung (as appeared in a letter from the director of Collège Quốc học, dated 7 August 1908),[3][4][5] in 1890 in the village of Hoàng Trù (the name of the local temple near Làng Sen), his mother's village. Although this is his generally accepted birth year, at various times he used five different birth years; 1890,[9] 1891,[10] 1892,[11] 1894[12] and 1895.[13] From 1895, he grew up in his father Nguyễn Sinh Sắc (Nguyễn Sinh Huy)'s village of Làng Sen, Kim Liên, Nam Đàn, Nghệ An Province. He had three siblings: his sister Bạch Liên (or Nguyễn Thị Thanh), a clerk in the French Army; his brother Nguyễn Sinh Khiêm (or Nguyễn Tất Đạt), a geomancer and traditional herbalist; and another brother (Nguyễn Sinh Nhuận) who died in his infancy. As a young child, Cung studied with his father before more formal classes with a scholar named Vuong Thuc Do. Cung quickly mastered Chinese writing, a prerequisite for any serious study of Confucianism, while honing his colloquial Vietnamese writing.[7]:21 In addition to his studious endeavors, he was fond of adventure, and loved to fly kites and go fishing.[7]:21 Following Confucian tradition, at the age of 10, his father gave him a new name: Nguyễn Tất Thành ("Nguyễn the Accomplished"). Although he had a terrible childhood, between the ages of 14 and 18 he was able to study at a grammar school in Hue.[citation needed] Thành's father was a Confucian scholar and teacher, and later an imperial magistrate in the small remote district of Binh Khe (Qui Nhơn). He was demoted for abuse of power after an influential local figure died several days after having received 102 strokes of the cane as punishment for an infraction.[7]:21Thành's father was eligible to serve in the imperial bureaucracy but refused because it meant serving the French.[14] This exposed Thành to rebellion at a young age and seemed to be the norm for the province where Thành came of age. In deference to his father, Thành received a French education, attended lycée in Huế, the alma mater of his later disciples, Phạm Văn Đồng and Võ Nguyên Giáp
Võ Nguyên Giáp
and his later enemy, Ngô Đình Diệm. First sojourn in France[edit] Previously, it was believed that Thành was involved in an anti-slavery (anti-corvée) demonstration of poor peasants in Huế
Huế
in May 1908, which endangered his student status at Collège Quốc học. However, a document from the Centre des archives d'Outre-mer
Centre des archives d'Outre-mer
in France shows that he was admitted to Collège Quốc học on 8 August 1908, which was several months after the anti-corvée demonstration (9–13 April 1908).[4] The exaggeration of revolutionary credentials was common among Vietnamese communist leaders, as shown in Tôn Đức Thắng's falsified participation in the 1919 Black Sea revolt. Later in life, Hồ would claim the 1908 revolt had been the moment when his revolutionary outlook emerged, but his application to the French Colonial Administrative School in 1911 undermines this version of events. He chose to leave school in order to find a chance to go abroad. Because his father had been dismissed, he no longer had any hope for a governmental scholarship and went southward, taking a position at Dục Thanh school in Phan Thiết
Phan Thiết
for about six months, then traveled to Saigon. Thành worked as a kitchen helper on a French steamer, the Amirale de Latouche-Tréville while using the alias "Văn Ba". The steamer departed on 5 June 1911 and arrived in Marseille, France on 5 July 1911. The ship then left for Le Havre and Dunkirk, returning to Marseille
Marseille
in mid-September. There he applied for the French Colonial Administrative School but his application was rejected. Instead, he decided to begin traveling the world by working on ships and visited many countries from 1911 to 1917. In the United States[edit] In 1912, while working as the cook's helper on a ship, Thành traveled to the United States. From 1912–13, he may have lived in New York City (Harlem) and Boston, where he claimed to have worked as a baker at the Parker House Hotel. The only evidence that Thành was in the United States
United States
is a letter to French colonial administrators dated 15 December 1912 and postmarked New York City
New York City
(but he gave as his address Poste Restante in Le Havre and stated that he was a sailor) [15]:20 and a postcard to Phan Chu Trinh in Paris
Paris
where he mentioned working at the Parker House Hotel. Inquiries to the Parker House management revealed no records of his ever having worked there.[7]:51 Among a series of menial jobs, he claimed to have worked for a wealthy family in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
between 1917–18, and for General Motors
General Motors
as a line manager.[16]:46 It is believed that while in the United States, he made contact with Korean nationalists, an experience that developed his political outlook, but Sophie Quinn-Judge admits that this is "in the realm of conjecture".[15]:20 In the United Kingdom[edit] At various points between 1913 and 1919, Thành claimed to have lived in West Ealing, and later in Crouch End, Hornsey. He reportedly worked as either a chef or dish washer (reports vary) at the Drayton Court Hotel in West Ealing.[17] It is claimed that he trained as a pastry chef under Auguste Escoffier
Auguste Escoffier
at the Carlton Hotel in the Haymarket, Westminster, but there is no evidence to support this.[15]:25 [18] However, the wall of New Zealand House, home of the New Zealand High Commission, which now stands on the site of the Carlton Hotel, displays a blue plaque, stating that Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
worked there in 1913. Thành was also employed as a pastry boy on the Newhaven–Dieppe ferry route in 1913.[19] Political education in France[edit]

Ho Chi Minh, 1921

From 1919 to 1923, while living in France, Thành began to show an interest in politics, being influenced by his friend and Socialist Party of France comrade Marcel Cachin. Thành claimed to have arrived in Paris
Paris
from London
London
in 1917, but the French police only had documents recording his arrival in June 1919.[15] He joined a group of Vietnamese nationalists in Paris
Paris
whose leaders were Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Văn Trường, and Nguyễn Thế Truyền. They had been publishing newspaper articles advocating for Vietnamese independence under the pseudonym Nguyễn Ái Quốc ("Nguyễn the Patriot") prior to the arrival of Nguyễn Tất Thành in Paris
Paris
in 1919.[20] Following World War I, the group petitioned for recognition of the civil rights of the Vietnamese people
Vietnamese people
in French Indochina
French Indochina
to the Western powers at the Versailles peace talks, but was ignored.[21] Citing the principle of self-determination outlined prior to the peace accords, they requested the allied powers to end French colonial rule of Vietnam
Vietnam
and ensure the formation of an independent government. Prior to the conference, the group sent their letter to allied leaders, including Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau
Georges Clemenceau
and U.S. President Woodrow Wilson. They were unable to obtain consideration at Versailles, but the episode would later help establish Nguyễn Ái Quốc as a symbol of the anti-colonial movement at home in Vietnam.[22] Since Nguyễn Tất Thành was the public face behind the publication of the document (although it was written by Phan Văn Trường),[23] he soon became known as Nguyễn Ái Quốc and first used the name in September during an interview with a Chinese newspaper correspondent.[7]

A plaque in Compoint Lane, District 17, Paris
Paris
indicates where Ho Chi Minh lived from 1921–1923

Many authors have speculated that 1919 was a lost "Wilsonian moment" when the future Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
could have adopted a pro-American and less radical position if only President Wilson had received him. However, the available evidence shows that at the time of the Versailles Conference he was committed to a Socialist program. While the conference was ongoing, Nguyễn Ái Quốc was already delivering speeches on the prospects of Bolshevism
Bolshevism
in Asia and was attempting to persuade French Socialists to join Vladimir Lenin's Third Communist International.[24] In December 1920, Quốc officially became a representative to the Congress of Tours of the Socialist Party of France, voted for the Third International
Third International
and was a founding member of the Parti Communiste Français (FCP). Taking a position in the Colonial Committee of the PCF, he tried to draw his comrades' attention towards people in French colonies including Indochina, but his efforts were often unsuccessful. During this period he began to write journal articles and short stories as well as running his Vietnamese nationalist group. In May 1922, Quốc wrote an article for a French magazine criticizing the use of English words by French sportswriters.[1]:21 The article implored Prime Minister Raymond Poincaré
Raymond Poincaré
to outlaw such Franglais
Franglais
as le manager, le round and le knock-out. While living in Paris, he reportedly had a relationship with a dressmaker named Marie Brière. His articles and speeches caught the attention of Dmitry Manuilsky, who would soon sponsor his trip to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and under whose tutelage he would become a high-ranking member of the Soviet Comintern.[25]:23-24 In the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and China[edit]

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In 1923, Quốc left Paris
Paris
for Moscow
Moscow
carrying a passport with the name Chen Vang, a Chinese merchant,[7]:86 where he was employed by the Comintern, studied at the Communist
Communist
University of the Toilers of the East,[7]:92[26] and participated in the Fifth Comintern
Comintern
Congress in June 1924, before arriving in Canton (present-day Guangzhou), China, in November 1924 using the name Ly Thuy.

External video

Booknotes interview with William Duiker on Hồ Chí Minh: A Life, 12 November 2000, C-SPAN

In 1925–26, Quốc organized "Youth Education Classes" and occasionally gave socialist lectures to Vietnamese revolutionary young people living in Canton at the Whampoa Military Academy. These young people would become the seeds of a new revolutionary, pro-communist movement in Vietnam
Vietnam
several years later. According to William Duiker, he lived with and married a Chinese woman, Zeng Xueming
Zeng Xueming
(Tăng Tuyết Minh), on 18 October 1926.[1] When his comrades objected to the match, he told them: "I will get married despite your disapproval because I need a woman to teach me the language and keep house."[1] She was 21 and he was 36. They married in the same place where Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
had married earlier, and then lived in the residence of a Comintern
Comintern
agent, Mikhail Borodin.[1] Hoàng Văn Chí
Hoàng Văn Chí
argued that in June 1925, Hồ betrayed Phan Bội Châu, the famous leader of a rival revolutionary faction and his father's old friend, to French Secret Service agents in Shanghai
Shanghai
for 100,000 piastres.[27] A source states that Hồ later claimed he did it because he expected Châu's trial to stir up anti-French sentiment and because he needed the money to establish a communist organization.[27] In Ho Chi Minh: A Life, William Duiker considered but rejected this hypothesis.[7]:126–128 Other sources claim that Nguyễn Thượng Huyện was responsible for Chau's capture. Chau, sentenced to lifetime house arrest, never denounced Quốc. Chiang Kai-shek's 1927 anti-communist coup triggered a new era of exile for Quốc. He left Canton again in April 1927 and returned to Moscow, spending part of the summer of 1927 recuperating from tuberculosis in the Crimea, before returning to Paris
Paris
once more in November. He then returned to Asia by way of Brussels, Berlin, Switzerland, and Italy, where he sailed to Bangkok, Thailand, arriving in July 1928. "Although we have been separated for almost a year, our feelings for each other do not have to be said in order to be felt", he reassured Minh in an intercepted letter.[1] In this period, he served as a senior agent undertaking Comintern
Comintern
activities in Southeast Asia. Quốc remained in Thailand, staying in the Thai village of Nachok,[1]:44 and xiii until late 1929 when he moved on to India, then Shanghai. In early 1930, in Hong Kong, he chaired a meeting with representatives from two Vietnamese communist parties in order to merge them into a unified organization, Communist
Communist
Party of Vietnam. In June 1931, he was arrested in Hong Kong. To reduce French pressure for extradition, it was (falsely) announced in 1932 that Quốc had died.[1]: 57–58 The British quietly released him in January 1933. He moved to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and in Moscow
Moscow
studied and taught at the Lenin Institute.[28] It is said that in this period he lost his positions in the Comintern
Comintern
because of a concern that he had betrayed the organization. His influence among his Vietnamese comrades faded significantly. This view, however, has been refuted by Ton That Thien's research as well as the work of Hong Ha, who researched the Comintern
Comintern
archives. Contrary to the beliefs of many students of Ho, he was a member of the inner cricle of the Comintern, a protégé of Dmitry Manuilsky
Dmitry Manuilsky
and a member in good standing of the Comintern throughout the turbulent purges of Stalin.[25][29] In 1938, Quốc returned to China and served as an advisor to the Chinese Communist
Chinese Communist
armed forces, which later forced China's government into exile on Taiwan.[15] He was also the senior Comintern
Comintern
agent in charge of Asian affairs.[25]:39 Around 1940, Quốc began regularly using the name "Hồ Chí Minh",[15] a Vietnamese name combining a common Vietnamese surname (Hồ, 胡) with a given name meaning "He Who has been enlightened" (from Sino-Vietnamese 志 明: Chí meaning 'will' (or spirit) and Minh meaning "bright").[7]:248–49 Independence movement[edit] In 1941, Ho returned to Vietnam
Vietnam
to lead the Viet Minh
Viet Minh
independence movement. The Japanese occupation of Indochina that year, the first step toward invasion of the rest of Southeast Asia, created an opportunity for patriotic Vietnamese.[14] The "men in black" were a 10,000 member guerrilla force that operated with the Viet Minh.[30] He oversaw many successful military actions against the Vichy French
Vichy French
and Japanese occupation of Vietnam
Vietnam
during World War II, supported closely but clandestinely by the United States
United States
Office of Strategic Services, and later against the French bid to reoccupy the country (1946–54). He was jailed in China by Chiang Kai-shek's local authorities before being rescued by Chinese Communists.[1]:198 Following his release in 1943, he returned to Vietnam.

Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
(fifth from left, standing) with the OSS in 1945

In April 1945, Ho met with the OSS agent Archimedes Patti and offered to provide intelligence to the allies provided that he could have "a line of communication with the allies."[31] The OSS agreed to this and later sent a military team of OSS members to train Ho's men and Ho himself was treated for malaria and dysentery by an OSS doctor.[32] Following the August Revolution
August Revolution
(1945) organized by the Viet Minh, Ho became Chairman of the Provisional Government (Premier of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam) and issued a Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.[33] Although he convinced Emperor Bảo Đại
Bảo Đại
to abdicate, his government was not recognized by any country. He repeatedly petitioned American President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
for support for Vietnamese independence,[34] citing the Atlantic Charter, but Truman never responded.[35] Several sources relate how,[36] during a power struggle in 1945, the Viet Minh
Viet Minh
killed members of rival groups, such as the leader of the Constitutional Party, Bui Quang Chieu, the head of the Party for Independence, and Ngo Dinh Diem's brother, Ngo Dinh Khoi.[37] Ho, when asked by a reporter about the murder of Ta Thu Thau, a leading Trotskyist and personal friend, answered matter-of-factly, "Anyone who does not follow the line determined by me will be smashed."[38][39] In 1946, future Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion
David Ben-Gurion
and Ho became acquainted when they stayed at the same hotel in Paris.[40][41] Ho offered Ben-Gurion a Jewish home-in-exile in Vietnam.[40][41] Ben-Gurion declined, telling Ho: "I am certain we shall be able to establish a Jewish Government in Palestine."[40][41] In 1946, when Ho traveled outside of the country, his subordinates imprisoned 2,500 non-communist nationalists and forced 6,000 others to flee.[42] Hundreds of political opponents were jailed or exiled in July 1946, notably members of the Nationalist Party of Vietnam
Vietnam
and the Dai Viet National Party, after a failed attempt to raise a coup against the Vietminh government.[43] All rival political parties were hereafter banned and local governments were purged[44] to minimize opposition later on. However, it was noted that the Democratic Republic of Vietnam's first Congress had over two-thirds of its members come from non- Viet Minh
Viet Minh
political factions, some without an election. NPV party leader Nguyễn Hải Thần was named Vice President.[45] They also held four out of ten ministerial positions.[46] Birth of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam[edit] On 2 September 1945, following Emperor Bảo Đại's abdication, Ho read the Declaration of Independence of Vietnam,[47] under the name of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. In Saigon, with violence between rival Vietnamese factions and French forces increasing, the British commander, General Sir Douglas Gracey, declared martial law. On 24 September, the Viet Minh
Viet Minh
leaders responded with a call for a general strike.[48] In September 1945, a force of 200,000 Republic of China
Republic of China
Army troops arrived in Hanoi
Hanoi
to accept the surrender of the Japanese occupiers in northern Indochina. Ho made a compromise with their general, Lu Han, to dissolve the Communist
Communist
Party and to hold an election which would yield a coalition government. When Chiang forced the French to give the French concessions in Shanghai
Shanghai
back to China in exchange for withdrawing from northern Indochina, Ho had no choice but to sign an agreement with France on 6 March 1946, in which Vietnam
Vietnam
would be recognized as an autonomous state in the Indochinese Federation and the French Union. The agreement soon broke down. The purpose of the agreement, for both the French and Vietminh, was for Chiang's army to leave North Vietnam. Fighting broke out in the North soon after the Chinese left. Historian Professor Liam Kelley of the University of Hawaii at Manoa on his Le Minh Khai's SEAsian History Blog challenged the authenticity of the alleged quote where Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
said he would rather sniff French shit than eat Chinese shit, noting that Stanley Karnow provided no source for the extended quote attributed to Ho in his 1983 Vietnam: A History, and that the original quote was most likely forged by the Frenchman Paul Mus in his 1952 book Viêt-Nam: Sociologie d’une Guerre, Mus was a supporter of French colonialism in Vietnam
Vietnam
and Ho knew that there was no danger of Chinese troops staying in Vietnam, and in fact the Vietnamese at the time were busy spreading anti-French propaganda as evidence of French atrocities in Vietnam
Vietnam
emerged, while Ho showed no qualms about accepting Chinese aid after 1949.[49][50]

Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
(right) with Võ Nguyên Giáp
Võ Nguyên Giáp
(left) in Hanoi, 1945

The Viet Minh
Viet Minh
then collaborated with French colonial forces to massacre supporters of the Vietnamese nationalist movements in 1945-6.[51] The Communists eventually suppressed all non-Communist parties but failed to secure a peace deal with France. In the final days of 1946, after a year of diplomatic failure and many concessions in agreements such as the Dalat and Fontainebleau conferences, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
government found that war was inevitable. The bombardment of Haiphong by French forces at Hanoi
Hanoi
only strengthened the belief that France had no intention of allowing an autonomous, independent state in Vietnam. On 19 December 1946, Ho, representing his government, declared war against the French Union, marking the beginning of the Indochina War.[52] The Vietnam
Vietnam
National Army, by then mostly armed with machetes and muskets immediately attacked, waging assault against French positions, smoking them out with straw bundled with chili pepper, destroying armored vehicles with "lunge mines" (a hollow-charge warhead on the end of a pole, detonated by thrusting the charge against the side of a tank; typically a suicide weapon[53]) and Molotov cocktails, holding off attackers by using roadblocks, landmines and gravel. After two months of fighting, the exhausted Viet Minh
Viet Minh
forces withdrew after systematically destroying any valuable infrastructure. Ho was reported to be captured by a group of French soldiers led by Jean-Étienne Valluy at Việt Bắc in Operation Lea. The person in question turned out to be a Viet Minh advisor, who was later killed trying to escape. According to journalist Bernard Fall, after fighting the French for several years, Ho decided to negotiate a truce. The French negotiators arrived at the meeting site: a mud hut with a thatched roof. Inside they found a long table with chairs and were surprised to discover in one corner of the room a silver ice bucket containing ice and a bottle of good Champagne which should have indicated that Ho expected the negotiations to succeed. One demand by the French was the return to French custody of a number of Japanese military officers (who had been helping the Vietnamese armed forces by training them in the use of weapons of Japanese origin), in order for them to stand trial for war crimes committed during World War II. Ho replied that the Japanese officers were allies and friends whom he could not betray. Then he walked out, to seven more years of war.[54] In February 1950, after the successful removal of the French border's blockade,[55] Ho met with Stalin and Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
in Moscow
Moscow
after the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
recognized his government. They all agreed that China would be responsible for backing the Viet Minh.[56] Mao's emissary to Moscow
Moscow
stated in August that China planned to train 60,000–70,000 Viet Minh
Viet Minh
in the near future.[57] The road to the outside world was open for Viet Minh
Viet Minh
forces to receive additional supplies which would allow them to escalate the fight against the French regime throughout Indochina. At the outset of the conflict, Ho reportedly told a French visitor, "You can kill ten of my men for every one I kill of yours. But even at those odds, you will lose and I will win."[58] In 1954, after the crushing defeat of French Union
French Union
forces at Battle of Dien Bien Phu, France was forced to give up its fight against the Viet Minh. The Viet Minh
Viet Minh
murdered between 100,000 and 150,000 civilians during the war.[59] Becoming president and Vietnam
Vietnam
War[edit]

Effigies of "Charles DeGaulle and Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
are hanged" by Students demonstration in Saigon, July 1964, observing the tenth anniversary of the July 1954 Geneva Agreements

The 1954 Geneva Accords concluded between France and the Viet Minh, allowing the latter's forces to regroup in the North whilst anti-communist groups settled in the South. Ho's Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
relocated to Hanoi
Hanoi
and became the government of North Vietnam, a communist-led one-party state. Following the Geneva Accords, there was to be a 300-day period in which people could freely move between the two regions of Vietnam, later known as South Vietnam
Vietnam
and North Vietnam. During the 300 days, Diệm and U.S. CIA
CIA
adviser Colonel Edward Lansdale
Edward Lansdale
staged a campaign to convince people to move to South Vietnam. The campaign was particularly focused on Vietnam's Catholics, who were to provide Diệm's power base in his later years, with the use of the slogan "God has gone south". Between 800,000 and 1,000,000 people migrated to the south, mostly Catholics. At the start of 1955, French Indochina was dissolved, leaving Diệm in temporary control of the south.[60][61] All the parties at Geneva called for reunification elections, but could not agree on the details. Recently appointed Viet Minh
Viet Minh
acting foreign minister Pham Van Dong proposed elections under the supervision of "local commissions". The US, with the support of Britain and the Associated States of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, suggested UN supervision. This plan was rejected by Soviet representative Vyacheslav Molotov, who argued for a commission composed of an equal number of communist and non-communist members, which could determine "important" issues only by unanimous agreement.[62]:89, 91, 97 The negotiators were unable to agree on a date for the elections for reunification. The DRV argued that the elections should be held within 6 months of the ceasefire, while the Western allies sought to have no deadline. Molotov proposed June 1955, then later softened this to any time in 1955 and finally July 1956.[63]:610 The Diem government supported reunification elections, but only with effective international supervision, arguing that genuinely free elections were otherwise impossible in the totalitarian North.[62]:107 By the afternoon of 20 July the remaining outstanding issues were resolved as the parties agreed that the partition line should be at the 17th parallel and that the elections for a reunified government should be held in July 1956, two years after the ceasefire.[63]:604 The "Agreement on the Cessation of Hostilities in Vietnam" was signed only by French and Viet Minh
Viet Minh
military commands, with no participation or consultation of the State of Vietnam.[62]:97 Based on a proposal by Chinese delegation head Zhou Enlai, an International Control Commission (ICC) chaired by India, with Canada and Poland as members, was placed in charge of supervising the ceasefire.[63]:603[62]:90,97 Because issues were to be decided unanimously, Poland's presence in the ICC provided the communists with effective veto power over supervision of the treaty.[62]:97–98 The unsigned "Final Declaration of the Geneva Conference" called for reunification elections, which the majority of delegates expected to be supervised by the ICC. The Viet Minh
Viet Minh
never accepted ICC authority over such elections, insisting that the ICC's "competence was to be limited to the supervision and control of the implementation of the Agreement on the Cessation of Hostilities by both parties."[62]:99 Of the nine nations represented, only the United States
United States
and the State of Vietnam
Vietnam
refused to accept the declaration. U.S. undersecretary of state Walter Bedell Smith
Walter Bedell Smith
delivered a "unilateral declaration" of the US position, reiterating: "We shall seek to achieve unity through free elections supervised by the United Nations to ensure that they are conducted fairly."[62]:95,99–100

Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
with East German sailors in Stralsund
Stralsund
harbor during his 1957 visit to East Germany

Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
with members of the East German Young Pioneers near Berlin, 1957

Between 1953 and 1956, the North Vietnamese government instituted various agrarian reforms, including "rent reduction" and "land reform", which resulted in significant political oppression. During the land reform, testimony from North Vietnamese witnesses suggested a ratio of one execution for every 160 village residents, which extrapolated nationwide would indicate nearly 100,000 executions. Because the campaign was concentrated mainly in the Red River Delta area, a lower estimate of 50,000 executions became widely accepted by scholars at the time.[62]:143[64][65][66] However, declassified documents from the Vietnamese and Hungarian archives indicate that the number of executions was much lower than reported at the time, although likely greater than 13,500.[67][68][69] As early as June 1956 the idea of overthrowing the South Vietnamese government was presented at a politburo meeting. In 1959, Ho began urging the Politburo to send aid to the Viet Cong
Viet Cong
in South Vietnam
Vietnam
and a "people's war" on the South was approved at a session in January 1959 and this decision was confirmed by the Politburo in March.[70][71] North Vietnam
North Vietnam
invaded Laos
Laos
in July 1959 aided by the Pathet Lao, and used 30,000 men to build a network of supply and reinforcement routes running through Laos
Laos
that became known as the Ho Chi Minh trail[72]. It allowed the North to send manpower and materiel to the Viet Cong
Viet Cong
with much less exposure to South Vietnamese forces, achieving a considerable advantage.[73] To counter the accusation that North Vietnam
North Vietnam
was violating the Geneva Accord, the independence of the Việt Cộng was stressed in communist propaganda. North Vietnam created the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam
Vietnam
in December 1960 as a "united front", or political branch of the Viet Cong intended to encourage the participation of non-communists.[70][71] At the end of 1959, conscious that the national election would never be held and that Diem intended to purge opposing forces (mostly ex-Viet Minh) from the South Vietnamese government, Ho informally chose Lê Duẩn
Lê Duẩn
to become the next party leader. This was interpreted by Western analysts as a loss of influence for Ho, who was said to actually have preferred the more moderate Võ Nguyên Giáp
Võ Nguyên Giáp
for the position.[74] Lê Duẩn
Lê Duẩn
was officially named party leader in 1960, leaving Ho to function in a secondary role, as head of state and member of the Politburo. Ho nevertheless maintained considerable influence in the government. Tố Hữu, Lê Duẩn, Trường Chinh, and Phạm Văn Đồng
Phạm Văn Đồng
often shared dinner with him, and all of them remained key figures throughout and after the war. In 1963, Ho purportedly corresponded with South Vietnamese President Diem in hopes of achieving a negotiated peace.[1]:174 Between 1961 and 1963, 40,000 communist soldiers infiltrated into South Vietnam
Vietnam
from the North.[70] In late 1964, PAVN combat troops were sent southwest into officially neutral Laos
Laos
and Cambodia.[75] According to Chen Jian, during the mid-to-late 1960s, Le Duan permitted 320,000 Chinese volunteers into North Vietnam
North Vietnam
to help build infrastructure for the country, thereby freeing a similar number of PAVN personnel to go south.[76] However, there are no sources from Vietnam, the US, or the USSR that confirm the number of Chinese troops stationed in North Vietnam. By early 1965, U.S. combat troops began arriving in South Vietnam, first to protect the airbases around Chu Lai and Da Nang, later to take on most of the fight, as "More and more American troops were put in to replace Saigon
Saigon
troops who could not, or would not, get involved in the fighting".[77]

Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
meeting a North Vietnamese circus troupe after their performance at the Presidential Palace, Hanoi, 1967.

As fighting escalated, widespread aerial and artillery bombardment all over North Vietnam
North Vietnam
by the U.S. Air Force and Navy begin with Operation Rolling Thunder. In July 1967, Ho and most of the Politburo of Workers Party of Vietnam
Vietnam
met in a high-profile conference where they concluded the war had fallen into a stalemate, as the U.S. military presence forced the People's Army of Vietnam
Vietnam
to expend the majority of their resources simply maintaining the Ho Chi Minh trail
Ho Chi Minh trail
rather than in reinforcing their comrade's ranks in the South. With Ho's permission, the Viet Cong
Viet Cong
planned a massive Tet Offensive
Tet Offensive
that would commence on 31 January 1968, with the aim of taking much of the South by force and administering a heavy blow to the U.S. military. The offensive was executed at great cost and with heavy casualties on NLF's political branches and armed forces. The scope of the action shocked the world, which until then had been assured that the Communists were "on the ropes". The optimistic spin that the U.S. military command had sustained for years was no longer credible. The bombing of Northern Vietnam
Vietnam
and the Ho Chi Minh trail
Ho Chi Minh trail
was halted, and U.S and Vietnamese negotiators held discussions on how the war might be ended. From then on, Ho and his government's strategy, based on the idea of "avoiding conventional warfare and facing the might of the U.S. Army, which would wear them down eventually, while merely prolonging the conflict would lead to eventual acceptance of Hanoi's terms" materialized. Personal life[edit]

Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
watching a football game in his favorite fashion. His closest comrade – Prime Minister Phạm Văn Đồng
Phạm Văn Đồng
is the person sitting next to him in the right corner.

Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
meets school children in 1960

Other than a politician, Ho was also a writer, journalist, poet and polyglot. His father was a scholar and teacher, who received a high degree in the Nguyễn dynasty
Nguyễn dynasty
Imperial examination; Ho was taught to master Classical Chinese
Classical Chinese
at a young age. Before the August Revolution, he often wrote poetry in Chữ Hán
Chữ Hán
(the Vietnamese name for the Chinese writing system). One of those is Poems from the Prison Diary made when he was imprisoned by the police of the Republic of China. This poetry chronicle is Vietnam
Vietnam
National Treasure No. 10, and was translated into many languages. It is used in Vietnamese high schools.[78] After Vietnam
Vietnam
gained independence from France, the new government exclusively promoted Chữ Quốc Ngữ
Chữ Quốc Ngữ
(Vietnamese writing system in Latin characters) to eliminate illiteracy. Ho started to create more poems in the modern Vietnamese language
Vietnamese language
for dissemination to a wider range of readers. After he became President until the appearance of serious health problems, a short poem of his was regularly published in the newspaper Nhân Dân
Nhân Dân
Tết
Tết
(Lunar new year) edition to encourage his people in working, studying or fighting Americans in the new year. Because of staying nearly 30 years in exile, Ho could speak fluently, as well as read and write professionally, in French, English, Russian, Cantonese and Mandarin in addition to his mother tongue Vietnamese.[7] In the 1920s, he was bureau chief/editor of many newspapers which he established to criticize French Colonial Government of Indochina and serving communism propaganda purposes. Examples are Le Paria (The Pariah) first published in Paris
Paris
1922 or Thanh Nien (Youth) first published on 21 June 1925 (21 June was named by The Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
Government as Vietnam
Vietnam
Revolutionary Journalism Day). In many state official visits to Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and China, he often talked directly to their communist leaders without interpreters especially about top secret information. While being interviewed by Western journalists, he used French.[79] His Vietnamese had a strong accent from his birthplace in the central province of Nghệ An, but could be widely understood through the country.[note 1]

Stilt house of "Uncle Ho" in Hanoi

As president, Ho held formal receptions for foreign heads of state and ambassadors at the Presidential Palace, but he personally did not live there. He ordered the building of a stilt house at the back of the palace, which is today known as the Presidential Palace Historical Site. His hobbies (according to his secretary Vũ Kỳ) included reading, gardening, feeding fish (many of which are still[when?] living) and visiting schools and children's homes.[81] Ho remained in Hanoi
Hanoi
during his final years, demanding the unconditional withdrawal of all non-Vietnamese troops in South Vietnam. By 1969, with negotiations still dragging on, Ho's health began to deteriorate from multiple health problems, including diabetes which prevented him from participating in further active politics. However, he insisted that his forces in the south continue fighting until all of Vietnam
Vietnam
was reunited under his regime regardless of the length of time that it might take, believing that time was on his side.[81] Death[edit]

Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
Mausoleum, Hanoi.

With the outcome of the Vietnam
Vietnam
War still in question, Hồ Chí Minh died at 09:47 on the morning of 2 September 1969 from heart failure at his home in Hanoi, aged 79. His embalmed body is currently on display in a mausoleum in Ba Đình Square
Ba Đình Square
in Hanoi
Hanoi
despite his will stating that he wanted to be cremated.[7]:565 News of his death was withheld from the North Vietnamese public for nearly 48 hours because he had died on the anniversary of the founding of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. A week of mourning for his death was decreed in North Vietnam from September 4 to 11, 1969.[82] He was not initially replaced as president, but a "collective leadership" composed of several ministers and military leaders took over, known as the Politburo. During North Vietnam's final campaign, a famous song written by composer Huy Thuc was often sung by People's Army of Vietnam
Vietnam
soldiers, "Bác vẫn cùng chúng cháu hành quân" ("You are still marching with us, Uncle Ho").[83] Six years after his death, at the Fall of Saigon, several PAVN tanks in Saigon
Saigon
displayed a poster with those same words on it. Veteran Australian journalist Denis Warner wrote in The Sun News-Pictorial on 1 May, 1975, that "When the North Vietnamese marched into Saigon
Saigon
yesterday, they were led by a man who wasn't there". [84] Legacy and personality cult[edit] See also: Nông Thị Xuân, Nông Đức Mạnh, Nguyễn Thị Minh Khai, and Zeng Xueming

Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
statue outside Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
City Hall, Ho Chi Minh City

Temple devoted to Nguyễn Sinh Sắc, Hồ Chí Minh's father

Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
statue and the Vietnamese flag

The former capital of South Vietnam, Saigon, was officially renamed Ho Chi Minh City on 2 July 1976[85] by the new VCP-controlled National Assembly of Vietnam. However, the name provokes strong anti-communist feeling in a substantial number of Vietnamese. Many Vietnamese, especially those living abroad, continue to refer to the city as Sài Gòn, in rejection of the new communist-imposed name and in honor of the former capital of anti-communist Republic of Vietnam.[86] Ho's embalmed body is on display in Hanoi
Hanoi
in a granite mausoleum modeled after Lenin's Tomb in Moscow. Streams of people queue each day, sometimes for hours, to pass his body in silence. This is reminiscent of other Communist
Communist
leaders like Vladimir Lenin, Mao Zedong, Kim il-sung, and Kim Jong-il. The Ho Chi Minh Museum
Ho Chi Minh Museum
in Hanoi
Hanoi
is dedicated to his life and work.

Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
holding his god-daughter, baby Elizabeth (Babette) Aubrac, and Elizabeth's mother, Lucie Aubrac
Lucie Aubrac
in 1946

Shrine devoted to Ho Chi Minh

In Vietnam
Vietnam
today, Ho's image appears on the front of all Vietnamese currency notes. His portrait and bust are featured prominently in most of Vietnam's public buildings, in classrooms (both public and private schools) and in some families' altars. There is at least one temple dedicated to him, built in Vĩnh Long
Vĩnh Long
shortly after his death, in 1970, in Viet Cong-controlled areas.[87] His birthday (19 May) is celebrated as an official state holiday.[88] The communist regime has maintained a personality cult around Ho since the 1950s in the North, and later extended it to the South, which it sees as a crucial part in their propaganda campaign about Ho and the Party's past. Ho is frequently honored in schools to schoolchildren. He is even glorified to a religious status as an "immortal saint" by the Vietnamese Communist
Communist
Party, and some people worship the President, according to a BBC report.[86] Publications about Ho's non-celibacy are banned in Vietnam, because the Party maintains that Ho had no romantic relationship with anyone in his lifetime in order to portray a puritanical image of Ho to the Vietnamese public, and advance the image of Ho as "the father of the [communist] revolution"[89] and of a "celibate married only to the cause of revolution".[90] William Duiker's Ho Chi Minh: A Life (2000) presents much information on Ho's relationships.[7]:605, fn 58 The government requested substantial cuts in the official Vietnamese translation of Duiker's book, which was refused.[91] In 2002, the Vietnamese government suppressed a review of Duiker's book in the Far Eastern Economic Review.[91] International influence[edit]

Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
bust in Kolkata, India

Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
is considered one of the most influential leaders in the world. TIME
TIME
magazine listed him in the list of 100 Most Important People of the Twentieth Century (Time 100) in 1998[92][93]. His thought and revolution inspired many leaders and people in Asia, Africa, and Latin America during the decolonization movement on a global scale after World War II. As a communist, he was one of the international figures which were highly praised in the Communist world[94]. Various places, boulevards and squares named after him around the world, especially in socialist states and former communist states. In Russia, there is a Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
square and monument in Moscow, Ho Chi Minh boulevard in Saint Peterburg
Saint Peterburg
and Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
square in Ulyanovsk (the birthplace of Lenin, a sister city of Vinh, birthplace of Ho Chi Minh). According to the Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as many as 20 countries across Asia, Europe, America and Africa have erected statues in remembrance of President Ho Chi Minh[95]. Busts, statues and memorial plaques and exhibitions are displayed in destinations on his extensive world journey in exile from 1911 to 1941 including France, Great Britain, Russia, China and Thailand [96]. Many activists and musicians wrote songs about Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
and his revolutionism during Vietnam
Vietnam
War in different languages to demonstrate against the US. Spanish songs are composed by Félix Pita Rodríguez, Carlos Puebla
Carlos Puebla
and Alí Primera. In addition, Chile
Chile
a folk singer Víctor Jara
Víctor Jara
referenced Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
in his anti-war song "El derecho de vivir en paz" ("The Right to Live in Peace"). In English, Ewan MacColl wrote "The Ballad of Ho Chi Minh" and Pete Seeger
Pete Seeger
got "Teacher Uncle Ho". There are also songs about him in Russian by Vladimir Fere and in German by Kurt Demmler. In 1987, UNESCO
UNESCO
officially recommended to member states that they "join in the commemoration of the centenary of the birth of President Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
by organizing various events as a tribute to his memory", considering "the important and many-sided contribution of President Ho Chi Minh in the fields of culture, education and the arts" who "devoted his whole life to the national liberation of the Vietnamese people, contributing to the common struggle of peoples for peace, national independence, democracy and social progress."[97]

Notes[edit]

^ He sometimes went on-air to deliver important political messages and encourage soldiers.[80]

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j Brocheux, Pierre (12 March 2007). Ho Chi Minh: A Biography. Cambridge University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-521-85062-9.  ^ "Ho Chi Minh". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ a b Trần Quốc Vượng. "Lời truyền miệng dân gian về Hồ Chí Minh". BBC Vietnamese. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ a b c Vũ Ngự Chiêu. "Vài vấn nạn lịch sử thế kỷ XX: Hồ Chí Minh—Nhà ngoại giao, 1945–1946". Hợp Lưu Magazine. Note: See the document in French, from Centre des archives d'Outre-mer [CAOM] (Aix)/Gouvernement General de l'Indochine [GGI]/Fonds Residence Superieure d'Annam [RSA]/carton R1, and the note in English at the end of the cited article. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ a b Nguyễn Vĩnh Châu. "Phỏng vấn sử gia Vũ Ngự Chiêu về những nghiên cứu lịch sử liên quan đến Hồ Chí Minh". Hợp Lưu Magazine. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ Duncanson, Dennis J. " Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
in Hong Kong 1931-1932". 57 (Jan-Mar 1957). The China Quarterly: 85.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Duiker, William J. Ho Chi Minh: A Life. New York: Hyperion, 2000. ^ Pike, Douglas (3 August 1976). "Ho Chi Minh: A Post-War Re-evaluation". Mexico City: 30th Annual Congress of Orientalists. Retrieved 21 December 2017.  ^ Tran Dan Tien, Nhung mau chuyen ve doi hoat dong cua Ho Chu Tich (Hanoi:Nha Xuat Ban Van Hoc 1972) (1948). ^ Yen Son. “Nguyen Ai Quoc, the Brilliant Champion of the Revolution.” Thuong Tin Hanoi. 30 Aug. 1945. ^ In his application to the French Colonial School – “Nguyen Tat Thanh, born 1892 at Vinh, son of Mr. Nguyen Sinh Huy (subdoctor in literature)” ^ He told Paris
Paris
Police (Surete) he was born January 15, 1894. ^ Ton That Thien 18, 1890 is the most likely year of his birth. There is troubling conflicting evidence, however. When he was arrested in Hong Kong in 1931, he attested in court documents that he was 36. The passport he used to enter Russia in 1921 also gave the year 1895 as his birth date. His application to the Colonial School in Paris
Paris
gave his birth year as 1892 ^ a b Hunt, Michael H. (2016). The World Transformed 1945 To the Present. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-0-19-937102-0.  ^ a b c d e f "Quinn-Judge", "Sophie" (2002). Hồ Chí Minh: The Missing Years. University of California Press.  ^ Winter, Marcus (1989). Uncle Ho: Father Of A Nation. Limehouse Press, London.  ^ " The Drayton Court
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Past and Present: The North. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Cognoscenti Books.  ^ Harries, David. "Maritime Sussex". Sussex Express. Retrieved 12 June 2015.  ^ Phong, Huy; Anh, Yen (1989). "Unmasking Ho Chi Minh". "Viet Quoc". Archived from the original on 10 May 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ For a thumbnail of a photograph in the Library of Congress collection showing Quốc at the Versailles Conference, see "Ho Chi Minh, 1890–1969, half-length, standing, facing left; as a member of French Socialist Party at Versailles Peace Conference, 1919", Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Online Catalog. ^ Huynh, Kim Kháhn, Vietnamese Communism, 1925–1945. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1982; pg. 60. ^ Tran Dan, Tien. "Ho Chi Minh, Life and Work". Communist
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Party of Vietnam
Vietnam
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Ho Chi Minh
and the Comintern
Comintern
(PDF). Singapore: Information and Resource Center. ISBN 978-9810021399. Retrieved 20 December 2017.  ^ Obituary in The New York Times, 4 September 1969 ^ a b Davidson, Phillip B., Vietnam
Vietnam
at War: The History: 1946–1975 (1991), p. 4. Hoàng Văn Chí. From Colonialism to Communism
Communism
(1964), p. 18. ^ "Ho Chi Minh". u-s-history.com.  ^ Hong Ha (2010). Bác Hồ Trên Đất Nước Lê-Nin. Nhà Xuất Bản Thanh Niên.  ^ " Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
Was Noted for Success in Blending Nationalism and Communism", The New York Times ^ Interview with Archimedes L. A. Patti, 1981, http://openvault.wgbh.org/catalog/vietnam-bf3262-interview-with-archimedes-l-a-patti-1981 ^ Interview with OSS officer Carleton Swift, 1981, http://openvault.wgbh.org/catalog/vietnam-9dc948-interview-with-carleton-swift ^ Zinn, Howard (1995). A People's History of the United States: 1492–present. New York: Harper Perennial. p. 460. ISBN 0-06-092643-0.  ^ "Collection of Letters by Ho Chi Minh". Rationalrevolution.net. Retrieved 26 September 2009.  ^ Zinn, Howard (1995). A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper Perennial. p. 461. ISBN 0-06-092643-0.  ^ The Black Book of Communism ^ Joseph Buttinnger, Vietnam: A Dragon Embattled, vol 1 (New York: Praeger, 1967) ^ Ngo, Van (2 November 2010). In The Crossfire: Adventures of a Vietnamese Revolutionary. Oakland, CA: AK Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-1849350136.  ^ Lind, Michael (18 October 1999). Vietnam: The Necessary War. New York: Free Press. p. 141. ISBN 978-0684842547.  ^ a b c "Ben-gurion Reveals Suggestion of North Vietnam's Communist Leader". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 8 November 1966. Retrieved 5 September 2015.  ^ a b c "ISRAEL WAS EVERYTHING". Nytimes.com. 21 June 1987. Retrieved 5 September 2015.  ^ Currey, Cecil B. Victory At Any Cost (Washington: Brassey's, 1997), p. 126 ^ Tucker, Spencer. Encyclopedia of the Vietnam
Vietnam
War: a political, social, and military history (vol. 2), 1998 ^ Colvin, John. Giap: the Volcano under the Snow (New York: Soho Press, 1996), p. 51 ^ Vietnamese profile of Nguyễn Hải Thần ^ vi:Chính phủ Liên hiệp Kháng chiến Việt Nam ^ " Vietnam
Vietnam
Declaration of Independence". Coombs.anu.edu.au. 2 September 1945. Archived from the original on 6 October 2009. Retrieved 26 September 2009.  ^ Karnow, Stanley. Vietnam: a History. ^ https://leminhkhai.wordpress.com/2012/09/01/ho-chi-minh-said-what/ proof that he runs the blog ^ " Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and Vietnam
Vietnam
in 1945". 25 April 2013.  ^ Turner, Robert F. (1975). Vietnamese Communism: Its Origins and Development. Hoover Institution Press. pp. 57–9, 67–9, 74.  and "Myths of the Vietnam
Vietnam
War". Southeast Asian Perspectives. September 1972. pp. 14–8. ; also Dommen, Arthur J. (2001). The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans. Indiana University Press. pp. 153–4.  ^ vi:Lời kêu gọi toàn quốc kháng chiến ^ "Lone Sentry: New Weapons for Jap Tank Hunters (U.S. WWII Intelligence Bulletin, March 1945)". www.lonesentry.com. Retrieved 2016-05-27.  ^ Fall, Bernard. Last reflections on a War, p. 88. New York: Doubleday (1967). ^ vi:Chiến dịch Biên giới ^ Luo, Guibo. pp. 233–36 ^ Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, "Chronology", p. 45. ^ McMaster, H.R. (1997) "Dereliction of Duty: Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, The Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies that Led to Vietnam", pg. 35. ^ Dommen, Arthur J. (2001), The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans, Indiana University Press, pg. 252. ^ Maclear, pp. 65–68. ^ Jacobs, pp. 43–53. ^ a b c d e f g h Turner, Robert F. (1975). Vietnamese Communism: Its Origin and Development. Hoover Institution Press. :75 ^ a b c Logevall, Fredrik (2012). Embers of War: The fall of an Empire and the making of America's Vietnam. random House. ISBN 978-0-679-64519-1.  ^ cf. Gittinger, J. Price, " Communist
Communist
Land Policy in Viet Nam", Far Eastern Survey, Vol. 29, No. 8, 1957, p. 118. ^ Courtois, Stephane (1997). The Black Book of Communism. Harvard University Press. p. 569. ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2.  ^ Dommen, Arthur J. (2001), The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans, Indiana University Press, p. 340, gives a lower estimate of 32,000 executions. ^ vu tuong (25 May 2007). "Newly released documents on the land reform" (Mailing list). Vietnam
Vietnam
Studies Group. Retrieved 30 November 2017. Vu Tuong: There is no reason to expect, and no evidence that I have seen to demonstrate, that the actual executions were less than planned; in fact the executions perhaps exceeded the plan if we consider two following factors. First, this decree was issued in 1953 for the rent and interest reduction campaign that preceded the far more radical land redistribution and party rectification campaigns (or waves) that followed during 1954–1956. Second, the decree was meant to apply to free areas (under the control of the Viet Minh government), not to the areas under French control that would be liberated in 1954–1955 and that would experience a far more violent struggle. Thus the number of 13,500 executed people seems to be a low-end estimate of the real number. This is corroborated by Edwin Moise in his recent paper "Land Reform in North Vietnam, 1953–1956" presented at the 18th Annual Conference on SE Asian Studies, Center for SE Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley (February 2001). In this paper, Moise (7–9) modified his earlier estimate in his 1983 book (which was 5,000) and accepted an estimate close to 15,000 executions. Moise made the case based on Hungarian reports provided by Balazs, but the document I cited above offers more direct evidence for his revised estimate. This document also suggests that the total number should be adjusted up some more, taking into consideration the later radical phase of the campaign, the unauthorized killings at the local level, and the suicides following arrest and torture (the central government bore less direct responsibility for these cases, however).  ^ Szalontai, Balazs (November 2005). "Political and Economic Crisis in North Vietnam, 1955–56" (PDF). Cold War
Cold War
History. 5 (4): 395–426. Retrieved 30 November 2017.  ^ Vu, Tuong (2010). Paths to Development in Asia: South Korea, Vietnam, China, and Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. p. 103. ISBN 9781139489010. Clearly Vietnamese socialism followed a moderate path relative to China. ... Yet the Vietnamese 'land reform' campaign ... testified that Vietnamese communists could be as radical and murderous as their comrades elsewhere.  ^ a b c Ang, Cheng Guan (2002). The Vietnam
Vietnam
War from the Other Side. RoutledgeCurzon. pp. 55–58, 76. ISBN 0-7007-1615-7.  ^ a b "The History Place — Vietnam
Vietnam
War 1945–1960". Retrieved 21 December 2017.  ^ The Economist, 26 February 1983. ^ Lind, 1999 ^ Cheng Guan Ang & Ann Cheng Guan, The Vietnam
Vietnam
War from the Other Side, p. 21. (2002) ^ Davidson, Vietnam
Vietnam
at War: the history, 1946–1975, 1988 ^ Chen Jian. "China's Involvement in the Vietnam
Vietnam
Conflict, 1964–69", China Quarterly, No. 142 (June 1995), pp. 366–69. ^ " Vietnam
Vietnam
Veterans Against the War: History of the U.S. War in Vietnam". vvaw.org.  ^ Translated version:

French – Người tình nguyện vào ngục Bastille dịch "Nhật ký trong tù" Czech – by cs:Ivo Vasiljev. Korean – "Prison Diary" published in Korean Archived 16 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine. by Ahn Kyong Hwan. English – by Steve Bradbury, Tinfish Press

Older version – by Aileen Palmer

Spanish – [1] by Félix Pita Rodríguez Romanian – by ro:Constantin Lupeanu Russian – by Pavel Antokolsky

^ [iMarx] Full translated – English subtitle-Interview President Ho Chi Minh – 1964. YouTube. 19 December 2011.  ^ Marr, David, Vietnam: State, War, and Revolution (1945–1946), 2013, University of California Press [2] ^ a b Phỏng vấn Vũ Kỳ – Thư ký của chủ tịch Hồ Chí Minh. YouTube. 10 August 2011.  ^ " Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
dies of heart attack". The Globe and Mail. September 4, 1969. p. 1.  ^ Vietnamese article on Huy Thuc ^ The Sun News-Pictorial, 1 May, 1975, p. 1 ^ "Nghị quyết của Quốc hội nước Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam về việc chính thức đặt tên thành phố Sài Gòn – Gia Định là thành phố Hồ Chí Minh". wikisource.org.  ^ a b Marsh, Viv (6 June 2012). "Uncle Ho's legacy lives on in Vietnam". BBC News. Retrieved 2 December 2012.  ^ "Đền Thờ Bác Hồ". SkyDoor.  ^ Trawicky, Bernard (30 April 2009). Anniversaries and Holidays. American Library Association. p. 84. ISBN 9780838910047. Retrieved 18 May 2017.  ^ Dinh, Thuy. "The Writer's Life Stephen B. Young and Hoa Pham Young: Painting in Lacquer". The Zenith by Duong Thu Huong. Da Mau magazine. Retrieved 25 December 2013.  ^ Baker, Mark (15 August 2002). "Uncle Ho: a legend on the battlefield and in the boudoir". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 25 December 2013.  ^ a b "Great 'Uncle Ho' may have been a mere mortal". The Age. 15 August 2002. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ " TIME
TIME
Magazine -- U.S. Edition -- April 13, 1998 Vol. 151 No. 14".  ^ Stanley Karnow, 13 April 1998, Ho Chi Minh, TIME ^ Interview with William Duiker on Hồ Chí Minh: A Life, 12 November 2000 ^ "Remembering Vietnam's late President Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
in foreign countries - Tuoi Tre News".  ^ The places where President Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
lived and worked in Thailand, Vietnam
Vietnam
Breaking News, 19 May 2017 ^ "UNESCO. General Conference; 24th; Records of the General Conference, 24th session, Paris, 20 October to 20 November 1987, v. 1: Resolutions; 1988" (PDF). Retrieved 26 September 2009. 

Further reading[edit] Essays

Bernard B. Fall, ed., 1967. Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
on Revolution and War, Selected Writings 1920–1966. New American Library.

Biography

Morris, Virginia and Hills, Clive. 2018. Ho Chi Minh's Blueprint for Revolution: In the Words of Vietnamese Strategists and Operatives, McFarland & Co Inc. William J. Duiker. 2000. Ho Chi Minh: A Life. Theia. Jean Lacouture. 1968. Ho Chi Minh: A Political Biography. Random House. Khắc Huyên. 1971. Vision Accomplished? The Enigma of Ho Chi Minh. The Macmillan Company. David Halberstam. 1971. Ho. Rowman & Littlefield. Hồ chí Minh toàn tập. NXB chính trị quốc gia Sophie Quinn-Judge. 2003. Ho Chi Minh: The missing years. C. Hurst & Co. ISBN 1-85065-658-4 Tôn Thất Thiện, Was Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
a Nationalist? Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
and the Comintern
Comintern
Information and Resource Centre, Singapore, 1990

Việt Minh, NLF and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam

William J. Duiker. 1981. The Communist
Communist
Road to Power in Vietnam. Westview Press. Hoang Van Chi. 1964. From colonialism to communism. Praeger. Trương Như Tảng. 1986. A Viet Cong
Viet Cong
Memoir. Vintage.

War in Vietnam

Frances FitzGerald. 1972. Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam. Little, Brown and Company.

American foreign policy

Henry A. Kissinger. 1979. White House Years. Little, Brown. Richard Nixon. 1987. No More Vietnams. Arbor House Pub Co.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Ho Chi Minh

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ho Chi Minh

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
(category)

Works by or about Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
at Internet Archive The Drayton Court
The Drayton Court
Hotel Hồ Chí Minh
Hồ Chí Minh
obituary, The New York Times, 4 September 1969 TIME
TIME
100: Hồ Chí Minh Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
selected writings Hồ Chí Minh's biography Satellite photo of the mausoleum on Google Maps Final Tribute to Hồ from the Central Committee of the Vietnam Workers' Party[permanent dead link] Bibliography: Writings by and about Hồ Chí Minh

Political offices

Preceded by Bảo Đại as Emperor President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam 2 September 1945 – 2 September 1969 Succeeded by Tôn Đức Thắng

Preceded by Trần Trọng Kim as Prime Minister of the Empire of Vietnam Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam 2 September 1945 – 20 September 1955 Succeeded by Phạm Văn Đồng

Party political offices

Preceded by New title Chairman of the Workers' Party of Vietnam 1951–1969 Succeeded by None

Preceded by Trường Chinh First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam 1956–1960 Succeeded by Lê Duẩn

v t e

Vietnamese independence movement

Events

Bombardment of Tourane Siege of Saigon Capture of the Citadel of Saigon Conquest of Cochinchina Ba Dinh uprising / Cần Vương Pacification of Tonkin Hanoi
Hanoi
Poison Plot World War I 1916 Cochinchina uprising Thái Nguyên uprising Bazin assassination Yên Bái mutiny Nghệ-Tĩnh Soviets World War II 1940 Cochinchina uprising Japanese coup d'état in French Indochina August Revolution Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam First Indochina War Battle of Dien Bien Phu Geneva Conference

Organisations

Cần Vương Đông Du Duy Tân
Duy Tân
hội Empire of Vietnam Nguyễn dynasty Tonkin Free School Việt Nam Quang Phục Hội Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth League Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng Viet Minh Communist
Communist
Party of Vietnam

Revolutionaries

Cường Để Đinh Công Tráng Ho Chi Minh Huỳnh Thúc Kháng Lương Văn Can Ngô Đức Kế Nguyễn An Ninh Nguyễn Quang Bích Nguyễn Quyền Nguyễn Thái Học Nguyễn Thần Hiến Nguyễn Thành Nguyễn Thiện Thuật Nguyễn Thượng Hiền Nguyễn Trung Trực Nguyen Xuan On Phạm Bành Phan Bội Châu Phan Chu Trinh Phan Đình Phùng Phan Thanh Giản Phan Xích Long Tạ Thu Thâu Tôn Thất Thuyết Trần Cao Vân Trương Định Vũ Hồng Khanh

Emperors

Tự Đức Hàm Nghi Thành Thái Duy Tân Bảo Đại

French rulers

Albert Sarraut Jean Decoux French Indochina

Governor-General

Collaborators

Hoàng Cao Khải Trần Bá Lộc

v t e

Heads of state of Vietnam
Vietnam
since 1945

Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
(1945–76)

Hồ Chí Minh Huỳnh Thúc Kháng1 Tôn Đức Thắng

State of Vietnam
Vietnam
(1949–55)

Bảo Đại Ngô Đình Diệm1

Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
(1955–75)

Ngô Đình Diệm Dương Văn Minh2 Nguyễn Khánh2 Provisional Leadership Committee3 Dương Văn Minh2 Phan Khắc Sửu2 Nguyễn Văn Thiệu2 Trần Văn Hương Dương Văn Minh

Republic of South Vietnam
Vietnam
(1969–76)

Nguyễn Hữu Thọ

Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Vietnam
(1976–present)

Tôn Đức Thắng
Tôn Đức Thắng
(1976–1980) Nguyễn Hữu Thọ
Nguyễn Hữu Thọ
(1980–1981)1 Council of State (1981–1987) (Chairman: Trường Chinh)3 Council of State (1987–1992) (Chairman: Võ Chí Công)3 Lê Đức Anh
Lê Đức Anh
(1992–1997) Trần Đức Lương
Trần Đức Lương
(1997–2006) Nguyễn Minh Triết
Nguyễn Minh Triết
(2006–2011) Trương Tấn Sang(2011–2016) Trần Đại Quang
Trần Đại Quang
(2016–present)

1acting 2military 3collective leadership

v t e

Prime Ministers of Vietnam

Empire of Vietnam (1945)

Trần Trọng Kim

Republic of Cochinchina (1946–49)

Nguyễn Văn Thinh Lê Văn Hoạch Nguyễn Văn Xuân Trần Văn Hữu

Provisional Central Government of Vietnam (1948–49)

Nguyễn Văn Xuân

State of Vietnam (1949–55)

Bảo Đại Nguyễn Phan Long Trần Văn Hữu Nguyễn Văn Tâm Bửu Lộc Phan Huy Quát Ngô Đình Diệm

Republic of Vietnam (1955–75)

Nguyễn Ngọc Thơ2 Nguyễn Khánh2 Nguyễn Xuân Oánh1, 2 Nguyễn Khánh2 Trần Văn Hương2 Nguyễn Xuân Oánh1, 2 Phan Huy Quát2 Nguyễn Cao Kỳ2 Nguyễn Văn Lộc Trần Văn Hương Trần Thiện Khiêm Nguyễn Bá Cẩn Vũ Văn Mẫu

Democratic Republic of Vietnam (1945–76)

Ho Chi Minh Phạm Văn Đồng

Republic of South Vietnam (1975–76)

Huỳnh Tấn Phát

Socialist Republic of Vietnam (1976–)

Phạm Văn Đồng Phạm Hùng Võ Văn Kiệt1 Đỗ Mười Võ Văn Kiệt Phan Văn Khải Nguyễn Tấn Dũng Nguyễn Xuân Phúc

1acting 2head of a military government

v t e

Heads of the Central Committee of the Communist
Communist
Party of Vietnam

Chairman (1951–69)

Hồ Chí Minh

General Secretaries (1930-present)

Trịnh Đình Cửu1 Trần Phú Lê Hồng Phong Hà Huy Tập Nguyễn Văn Cừ Trường Chinh Hồ Chí Minh1 Lê Duẩn Trường Chinh Nguyễn Văn Linh Đỗ Mười Lê Khả Phiêu Nông Đức Mạnh Nguyễn Phú Trọng

1provisional

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam
Vietnam
War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist
Communist
insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam
Vietnam
War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist
Communist
insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA
CIA
and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

Communism
Communism
portal Socialism portal Politics portal Literature portal Cold War
Cold War
portal Asia portal Vietnam
Vietnam
portal Biography portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 39391273 LCCN: n80126088 ISNI: 0000 0001 1057 0291 GND: 11855168X SELIBR: 283146 SUDOC: 028429591 BNF: cb120266704 (data) NDL: 00443

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