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The HISTORY OF WRITING traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks and also the study and description of these developments.

In the history of how systems of representation of language through graphic means have evolved in different human civilizations, more complete writing systems were preceded by proto-writing , systems of ideographic or early mnemonic symbols. True writing, in which the content of a linguistic utterance is encoded so that another reader can reconstruct, with a fair degree of accuracy, the exact utterance written down is a later development. It is distinguished from proto-writing which typically avoids encoding grammatical words and affixes, making it more difficult or impossible to reconstruct the exact meaning intended by the writer unless a great deal of context is already known in advance. One of the earliest forms of written expression is cuneiform .

CONTENTS

* 1 Inventions of writing * 2 Writing systems * 3 Recorded history
Recorded history

* 4 Developmental stages

* 4.1 Literature
Literature
and writing

* 5 Locations and timeframes

* 5.1 Proto-writing
Proto-writing

* 5.2 Bronze Age
Bronze Age
writing

* 5.2.1 Cuneiform script * 5.2.2 Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
* 5.2.3 Elamite script * 5.2.4 Indus script * 5.2.5 Early Semitic alphabets * 5.2.6 Anatolian hieroglyphs * 5.2.7 Chinese writing * 5.2.8 Cretan and Greek scripts * 5.2.9 Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica

* 5.3 Iron Age
Iron Age
writing * 5.4 Writing in the Greco-Roman civilizations * 5.5 Writing during the Middle Ages * 5.6 Renaissance
Renaissance
and the modern era

* 6 Writing materials * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 Citations * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

INVENTIONS OF WRITING

See also: List of languages by first written accounts Sumer
Sumer
, an ancient civilization of southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
, is believed to be the place where written language was first invented around 3100 BC Limestone Kish tablet from Sumer
Sumer
with pictographic writing; may be the earliest known writing, 3500 BC. Ashmolean Museum
Ashmolean Museum

Writing numbers for the purpose of record keeping began long before the writing of language. See History of writing ancient numbers for how the writing of numbers began.

It is generally agreed that true writing of language (not only numbers) was independently conceived and developed in at least two ancient civilizations and possibly more. The two places where it is most certain that the concept of writing was both conceived and developed independently are in ancient Sumer
Sumer
(in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
) around 3100 BC, and Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
by 300 BC, as no precursors have been found to either of these in their respective regions. Several Mesoamerican scripts are known, the oldest being from the Olmec
Olmec
or Zapotec of Mexico
Mexico
.

Independent writing systems also arose in Egypt around 3100 BC and in China around 1200 BC, but historians debate whether these writing systems were developed completely independently of Sumerian writing or whether either or both were inspired by Sumerian writing via a process of cultural diffusion . That is, it is possible that the concept of representing language using writing, though not necessarily the specifics of how such a system worked, was passed on by traders or merchants traveling between the two regions.

Ancient Chinese characters
Chinese characters
are considered by many to be an independent invention, because there is no evidence of contact between ancient China and the literate civilizations of the Near East, and because of the distinct differences between the Mesopotamian and Chinese approaches to logography and phonetic representation. Egyptian script is dissimilar from Mesopotamian cuneiform, but similarities in concepts and in earliest attestation suggest that the idea of writing may have come to Egypt from Mesopotamia. In 1999, Archaeology Magazine reported that the earliest Egyptian glyphs date back to 3400 BC, which "challenge the commonly held belief that early logographs, pictographic symbols representing a specific place, object, or quantity, first evolved into more complex phonetic symbols in Mesopotamia."

Similar debate surrounds the Indus script of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Indus Valley civilization in Ancient India
India
(2600 BC). In addition, the script is still undeciphered and there is debate over whether the script is true writing at all, or instead some kind of proto-writing or non-linguistic sign system.

An additional possibility is the undeciphered Rongorongo script of Easter Island . It is debated whether this is true writing, and if it is, whether it is another case of cultural diffusion of writing. The oldest example is from 1851, 139 years after their first contact with Europeans. One explanation is that the script was inspired by Spain
Spain
's written annexation proclamation in 1770.

Various other known cases of cultural diffusion of writing exist, where the general concept of writing was transmitted from one culture to another but the specifics of the system were independently developed. Recent examples are the Cherokee syllabary
Cherokee syllabary
, invented by Sequoyah
Sequoyah
, and the Pahawh Hmong system for writing the Hmong language .

WRITING SYSTEMS

Main article: Writing system
Writing system

Symbolic communication systems are distinguished from writing systems in that one must usually understand something of the associated spoken language to comprehend the text. In contrast, symbolic systems such as information signs , painting , maps , and mathematics often do not require prior knowledge of a spoken language. Every human community possesses language, a feature regarded by many as an innate and defining condition of mankind (see Origin of language
Origin of language
). However the development of writing systems, and their partial supplantation of traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic, uneven and slow. Once established, writing systems on the whole change more slowly than their spoken counterparts, and often preserve features and expressions that no longer exist in the spoken language. The greatest benefit of writing is that it provides the tool by which society can record information consistently and in greater detail, something that could not be achieved as well previously by spoken word. Writing allows societies to transmit information and share knowledge.

RECORDED HISTORY

Main articles: Recorded history
Recorded history
and Early literature

Human history and prehistory

↑ before Homo
Homo
( Pliocene
Pliocene
epoch )

Prehistory
Prehistory
(three-age system )

Stone Age
Stone Age
Lower Paleolithic
Lower Paleolithic

* Homo
Homo
* Homo
Homo
erectus

Middle Paleolithic Early Homo
Homo
sapiens Upper Paleolithic
Upper Paleolithic
Behavioral modernity
Behavioral modernity
Neolithic
Neolithic
Cradle of civilization
Cradle of civilization
Bronze Age

* China * Europe * India
India
* Near East

Iron Age
Iron Age
Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse

* China * Europe * India
India
* Japan * Korea * Near East * Nigeria

RECORDED HISTORY

Ancient history
Ancient history
Earliest records Post-classical history Modern history

* Early * Later * Contemporary

Future
Future

* v * t * e

Scholars make a reasonable distinction between prehistory and history of early writing, but have disagreed concerning when prehistory becomes history and when proto-writing became "true writing". The definition is largely subjective. Writing, in its most general terms, is a method of recording information and is composed of graphemes , which may in turn be composed of glyphs .

The emergence of writing in a given area is usually followed by several centuries of fragmentary inscriptions. Historians mark the "historicity" of a culture by the presence of coherent texts in the culture's writing system(s).

The invention of writing was not a one-time event, but a gradual process initiated by the appearance of symbols , possibly first for cultic purposes.

DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES

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A conventional "proto-writing to true writing" system follows a general series of developmental stages:

* Picture writing system: glyphs (simplified pictures) directly represent objects and concepts. In connection with this the following substages may be distinguished:

* Mnemonic: glyphs primarily a reminder; * Pictographic: glyphs directly represent an object or a concept such as (A) chronological, (B) notices, (C) communications, (D) totems, titles, and names, (E) religious, (F) customs, (G) historical, and (H) biographical; * Ideographic: graphemes are abstract symbols which directly represent an idea or concept.

* Transitional system: graphemes refer not only to the object or idea which it represents but to its name as well.

* Phonetic system: graphemes refer to sounds or spoken symbols, and the form of the grapheme is not related to its meanings. This resolves itself into the following substages:

* Verbal: grapheme (logogram ) represents a whole word; * Syllabic: grapheme represents a syllable; * Alphabetic: grapheme represents an elementary sound.

The best known picture writing system of ideographic or early mnemonic symbols are:

* Jiahu symbols , carved on tortoise shells in Jiahu
Jiahu
, c. 6600 BC * Vinča signs ( Tărtăria tablets ), c. 5300 BC * Early Indus script , c. 3100 BC

In the Old World, true writing systems developed from neolithic writing in the Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
( 4th millennium BC ). The Sumerian archaic (pre-cuneiform ) writing and the Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
are generally considered the earliest true writing systems, both emerging out of their ancestral proto-literate symbol systems from 3400–3100 BC with earliest coherent texts from about 2600 BC .

LITERATURE AND WRITING

Literature
Literature
and writing, though obviously connected, are not synonymous. The very first writings from ancient Sumer
Sumer
by any reasonable definition do not constitute literature. The same is true of some of the early Egyptian hieroglyphics
Egyptian hieroglyphics
and the thousands of ancient Chinese government records. The history of literature begins with the history of writing. Scholars have disagreed concerning when written record-keeping became more like literature than anything else, but "literature" can have several meanings. The term could be applied broadly to mean any symbolic record, from images and sculptures to letters. The oldest surviving literary texts date from a full millennium after the invention of writing, to the late 3rd millennium BC. The earliest literary authors known by name are Ptahhotep (who wrote in Egyptian ) and Enheduanna (who wrote in Sumerian ), dating to around the 24th and 23rd centuries BC, respectively. In the early literate societies, as much as 600 years passed from the first inscriptions to the first coherent textual sources: i.e. from around 3100 to 2600 BC.

LOCATIONS AND TIMEFRAMES

PROTO-WRITING

Main article: Proto-writing
Proto-writing
Further information: Neolithic
Neolithic
signs in China and prehistoric numerals See also: History
History
of communication Example of the Jiahu symbols , writing-like markings found on tortoise shells , dated around 6000 BC.

The first writing systems of the Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
were not a sudden invention. Rather, they were a development based on earlier traditions of symbol systems that cannot be classified as proper writing, but have many of the characteristics of writing. These systems may be described as "proto-writing". They used ideographic or early mnemonic symbols to convey information, but probably directly contained no natural language . These systems emerged in the early Neolithic period, as early as the 7th millennium BC
7th millennium BC
evidenced by the Jiahu symbols in China.

In 2003, tortoise shells were found in 24 Neolithic
Neolithic
graves excavated at Jiahu
Jiahu
, Henan
Henan
province, northern China, with radiocarbon dates from the 7th millennium BC. According to some archaeologists, the symbols carved on the shells had similarities to the late 2nd millennium BC oracle bone script . Others have dismissed this claim as insufficiently substantiated, claiming that simple geometric designs such as those found on the Jiahu
Jiahu
shells cannot be linked to early writing.

The Vinča signs show an evolution of simple symbols beginning in the 7th millennium BC, gradually increasing in complexity throughout the 6th millennium and culminating in the Tărtăria tablets of c. 5300 BC with their rows of symbols carefully aligned, evoking the impression of a text.

The Dispilio Tablet of the late 6th millennium is similar. The hieroglyphic scripts of the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
(Egyptian, Sumerian proto- Cuneiform and Cretan) seamlessly emerge from such symbol systems, so that it is difficult to say at what exact time writing developed from proto-writing. Further, very little is known about the symbols' meanings.

Even after the Neolithic, several cultures went through an intermediate stage of proto-writing before they used proper writing. The "Slavic runes " from the 7th and 8th centuries AD, mentioned by a few medieval authors, may have been such a system. The quipu of the Incas (15th century AD), sometimes called "talking knots", may have been of a similar nature. Another example is the pictographs invented by Uyaquk before the development of the Yugtun syllabary (c. 1900).

BRONZE AGE WRITING

Further information: History
History
of the alphabet

Writing emerged in many different cultures in the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
. Examples are the cuneiform writing of the Sumerians , Egyptian hieroglyphs , Cretan hieroglyphs , Chinese logographs, Indus script , and the Olmec
Olmec
script of Mesoamerica. The Chinese script likely developed independently of the Middle Eastern scripts, around 1600 BC. The pre-Columbian Mesoamerican writing systems (including Olmec
Olmec
and Maya scripts ) are also generally believed to have had independent origins. It is thought that the first true alphabetic writing was developed around 2000 BC for Semitic workers in the Sinai by giving mostly Egyptian hieratic glyphs Semitic values (see History
History
of the alphabet and Proto-Sinaitic alphabet ). The Ge\'ez writing system of Ethiopia is considered Semitic. It is likely to be of semi-independent origin, having roots in the Meroitic Sudanese ideogram system. Most other alphabets in the world today either descended from this one innovation, many via the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
, or were directly inspired by its design. In Italy, about 500 years passed from the early Old Italic alphabet to Plautus
Plautus
(750 to 250 BC), and in the case of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
, the corresponding time span is again similar, from the first Elder Futhark
Elder Futhark
inscriptions to early texts like the Abrogans (c. AD 200 to 750).

Cuneiform Script

Middle Babylonian legal tablet from Alalah in its envelope Main article: Cuneiform script

The original Sumerian writing system derives from a system of clay tokens used to represent commodities. By the end of the 4th millennium BC , this had evolved into a method of keeping accounts, using a round-shaped stylus impressed into soft clay at different angles for recording numbers. This was gradually augmented with pictographic writing using a sharp stylus to indicate what was being counted. Round-stylus and sharp-stylus writing were gradually replaced around 2700–2500 BC by writing using a wedge-shaped stylus (hence the term cuneiform ), at first only for logograms , but developed to include phonetic elements by the 29th century BC. About 2600 BC cuneiform began to represent syllables of the Sumerian language
Sumerian language
. Finally, cuneiform writing became a general purpose writing system for logograms, syllables, and numbers. From the 26th century BC, this script was adapted to the Akkadian language , and from there to others such as Hurrian and Hittite . Scripts similar in appearance to this writing system include those for Ugaritic and Old Persian .

Egyptian Hieroglyphs

Main article: Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs

Writing was very important in maintaining the Egyptian empire, and literacy was concentrated among an educated elite of scribes. Only people from certain backgrounds were allowed to train as scribes, in the service of temple, royal (pharaonic), and military authorities.

Geoffrey Sampson believes that most scholars hold that Egyptian hieroglyphs "came into existence a little after Sumerian script , and ... probably invented under the influence of the latter ..." This view, however, is strongly contested by other scholars. Dreyer's findings at Tomb UJ at Abydos in Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
clearly show place names written in hieroglyphs (up to four in number) recognizable as signs which persisted and were employed during later periods and which are written and read phonetically. The tomb is dated to c. 3250 BC and demonstrates that such writing (on bone and ivory labels) is a more advanced form of writing than was evident in Sumer
Sumer
at that date. It is argued, therefore, that the Egyptian writing system, which is in any case very different from the Mesopotamian, could not have been the result of influence from a less developed system existing at that date in Sumer.

Elamite Script

Main article: Proto-Elamite script

The undeciphered Proto-Elamite script emerges from as early as 3100 BC. It is believed to have evolved into Linear Elamite by the later 3rd millennium, and then replaced by Elamite Cuneiform adopted from Akkadian.

Indus Script

Main article: Indus script Sequence of ten Indus signs discovered near the northern gate of the Indus site Dholavira
Dholavira

The Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Indus script which dates back to the early Harappan phase of around 3000 BC in ancient north western India
India
and what is now Pakistan
Pakistan
, has not yet been deciphered. It is unclear whether it should be considered an example of proto-writing, or if it is actual writing of the logographic-syllabic type of the other Bronze Age writing systems. Mortimer Wheeler recognises the style of writing as boustrophedon , where "this stability suggests a precarious maturity".

Early Semitic Alphabets

Main article: Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
alphabets

The first pure alphabets (properly, "abjads ", mapping single symbols to single phonemes, but not necessarily each phoneme to a symbol) emerged around 1800 BC in Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
, as a representation of language developed by Semitic workers in Egypt, but by then alphabetic principles had a slight possibility of being inculcated into Egyptian hieroglyphs for upwards of a millennium. These early abjads remained of marginal importance for several centuries, and it is only towards the end of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
that the Proto-Sinaitic script
Proto-Sinaitic script
splits into the Proto-Canaanite alphabet (c. 1400 BC) Byblos syllabary and the South Arabian alphabet (c. 1200 BC). The Proto-Canaanite was probably somehow influenced by the undeciphered Byblos syllabary , and in turn inspired the Ugaritic alphabet (c. 1300 BC).

Anatolian Hieroglyphs

Main article: Anatolian hieroglyphs

Anatolian hieroglyphs are an indigenous hieroglyphic script native to western Anatolia
Anatolia
, used to record the Hieroglyphic Luwian language. It first appeared on Luwian royal seals from the 14th century BC.

Chinese Writing

Main articles: Chinese writing and Chinese characters
Chinese characters

The earliest confirmed evidence of the Chinese script yet discovered is the body of inscriptions on oracle bones from the late Shang dynasty (c. 1200–1050 BC). From the Shang Dynasty
Shang Dynasty
most of this writing has survived on bones or bronze implements (bronze script ). Markings on turtle shells, or jiaguwen , have been carbon-dated to around 1500 BC. Historians have found that the type of medium chosen depended on the subject of the writing.

There have recently been discoveries of tortoise-shell carvings dating back to c. 6000 BC, like Jiahu
Jiahu
Script , Banpo Script , but whether or not the carvings are complex enough to qualify as writing is under debate. At Damaidi in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region , 3,172 cliff carvings dating to 6000–5000 BC have been discovered, featuring 8,453 individual characters such as the sun, moon, stars, gods and scenes of hunting or grazing. These pictographs are reputed to be similar to the earliest characters confirmed to be written Chinese. If it is deemed to be a written language, writing in China will predate Mesopotamian cuneiform, long acknowledged as the first appearance of writing, by some 2,000 years; however it is more likely that the inscriptions are rather a form of proto-writing , similar to the contemporary European Vinca script .

Cretan And Greek Scripts

Main articles: Cretan hieroglyphs , Linear A , and Linear B
Linear B

Cretan hieroglyphs are found on artifacts of Crete
Crete
(early-to-mid-2nd millennium BC, MM I to MM III, overlapping with Linear A from MM IIA at the earliest). Linear B, the writing system of the Mycenaean Greeks , has been deciphered while Linear A has yet to be deciphered. The sequence and the geographical spread of the three overlapping, but distinct, writing systems can be summarized as follows:

WRITING SYSTEM GEOGRAPHICAL AREA TIME SPAN

Cretan Hieroglyphic Crete
Crete
c. 1625−1500 BC

Linear A Aegean islands
Aegean islands
(Kea , Kythera
Kythera
, Melos , Thera ), and Greek mainland ( Laconia ) c. 18th century−1450 BC

Linear B
Linear B
Crete
Crete
( Knossos
Knossos
), and mainland ( Pylos
Pylos
, Mycenae
Mycenae
, Thebes , Tiryns
Tiryns
) c. 1375−1200 BC

Mesoamerica

Main article: Mesoamerican writing systems

A stone slab with 3,000-year-old writing, the Cascajal Block , was discovered in the Mexican state of Veracruz, and is an example of the oldest script in the Western Hemisphere, preceding the oldest Zapotec writing dated to about 500 BC.

Of several pre-Columbian scripts in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
, the one that appears to have been best developed, and has been fully deciphered, is the Maya script
Maya script
. The earliest inscriptions which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BC, and writing was in continuous use until shortly after the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores in the 16th century AD. Maya writing used logograms complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs: a combination somewhat similar to modern Japanese writing.

IRON AGE WRITING

Main article: History
History
of the alphabet Cippus Perusinus , Etruscan writing near Perugia
Perugia
, Italy
Italy
. The beginning of the writing with the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
.

The Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
is simply the Proto-Canaanite alphabet as it was continued into the Iron Age
Iron Age
(conventionally taken from a cut-off date of 1050 BC). This alphabet gave rise to the Aramaic and Greek alphabets. These in turn led to the writing systems used throughout regions ranging from Western Asia to Africa and Europe. For its part the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
introduced for the first time explicit symbols for vowel sounds. The Greek and Latin alphabets in the early centuries of the Common Era gave rise to several European scripts such as the Runes and the Gothic and Cyrillic alphabets while the Aramaic alphabet evolved into the Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic abjads and the South Arabian alphabet gave rise to the Ge\'ez abugida . The Brahmic family of India
India
is believed by some scholars to have derived from the Aramaic alphabet as well.

WRITING IN THE GRECO-ROMAN CIVILIZATIONS

Early Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
on pottery in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens
Athens

The history of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
started when the Greeks borrowed the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
and adapted it to their own language. The letters of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
are more or less the same as those of the Phoenician alphabet, and in modern times both alphabets are arranged in the same order. The adapter(s) of the Phoenician system added three letters to the end of the series, called the "supplementals". Several varieties of the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
developed. One, known as Western Greek or Chalcidian , was used west of Athens and in southern Italy
Italy
. The other variation, known as Eastern Greek , was used in present-day Turkey
Turkey
and by the Athenians, and eventually the rest of the world that spoke Greek adopted this variation. After first writing right to left, like the Phoenicians, the Greeks eventually chose to write from left to right.

Greek is in turn the source for all the modern scripts of Europe. The most widespread descendent of Greek is the Latin script
Latin script
, named for the Latins
Latins
, a central Italian people who came to dominate Europe with the rise of Rome. The Romans learned writing in about the 5th century BC from the Etruscan civilization
Etruscan civilization
, who used one of a number of Italic scripts derived from the western Greeks. Due to the cultural dominance of the Roman state, the other Italic scripts have not survived in any great quantity, and the Etruscan language is mostly lost.

WRITING DURING THE MIDDLE AGES

With the collapse of the Roman authority in Western Europe, the literary development became largely confined to the Eastern Roman Empire and the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
. Latin, never one of the primary literary languages, rapidly declined in importance (except within the Church of Rome). The primary literary languages were Greek and Persian , though other languages such as Syriac and Coptic were important too.

The rise of Islam
Islam
in the 7th century led to the rapid rise of Arabic as a major literary language in the region. Arabic and Persian quickly began to overshadow Greek's role as a language of scholarship. Arabic script was adopted as the primary script of the Persian language
Persian language
and the Turkish language
Turkish language
. This script also heavily influenced the development of the cursive scripts of Greek, the Slavic languages
Slavic languages
, Latin , and other languages. The Arabic language
Arabic language
also served to spread the Hindu–Arabic numeral system throughout Europe. By the beginning of the second millennium the city of Cordoba in modern Spain, had become one of the foremost intellectual centers of the world and contained the world's largest library at the time. Its position as a crossroads between the Islamic and Western Christian worlds helped fuel intellectual development and written communication between both cultures.

RENAISSANCE AND THE MODERN ERA

By the 14th century a rebirth, or renaissance , had emerged in Western Europe, leading to a temporary revival of the importance of Greek, and a slow revival of Latin as a significant literary language. A similar though smaller emergence occurred in Eastern Europe, especially in Russia. At the same time Arabic and Persian began a slow decline in importance as the Islamic Golden Age
Islamic Golden Age
ended. The revival of literary development in Western Europe led to many innovations in the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
and the diversification of the alphabet to codify the phonologies of the various languages.

The nature of writing has been constantly evolving, particularly due to the development of new technologies over the centuries. The pen , the printing press , the computer and the mobile phone are all technological developments which have altered what is written, and the medium through which the written word is produced. Particularly with the advent of digital technologies, namely the computer and the mobile phone, characters can be formed by the press of a button, rather than making a physical motion with the hand.

The nature of the written word has recently evolved to include an informal, colloquial written style, in which an everyday conversation can occur through writing rather than speaking. Written communication can also be delivered with minimal time delay (e-mail , SMS
SMS
), and in some cases, with an imperceptible time delay (instant messaging ). Writing is a preservable means of communication. Some people regard the growth of multimedia literacy as the first step toward a postliterate society .

WRITING MATERIALS

Main article: Writing material

There is no very definite statement as to the material which was in most common use for the purposes of writing at the start of the early writing systems. In all ages it has been customary to engrave on stone or metal, or other durable material, with the view of securing the permanency of the record; and accordingly, in the very commencement of the national history of Israel, it is read of the two tables of the law written in stone, and of a subsequent writing of the law on stone. In the latter case there is this peculiarity, that plaster (sic , lime or gypsum) was used along with stone, a combination of materials which is illustrated by comparison of the practice of the Egyptian engravers, who, having first carefully smoothed the stone, filled up the faulty places with gypsum or cement, in order to obtain a perfectly uniform surface on which to execute their engravings. Metals, such as stamped coins , are mentioned as a material of writing; they include lead, brass, and gold. To the engraving of gems there is reference also, such as with seals or signets.

The common materials of writing were the tablet and the roll, the former probably having a Chaldean origin, the latter an Egyptian. The tablets of the Chaldeans are among the most remarkable of their remains. There are small pieces of clay, somewhat rudely shaped into a form resembling a pillow, and thickly inscribed with cuneiform characters. Similar use has been seen in hollow cylinders, or prisms of six or eight sides, formed of fine terra cotta, sometimes glazed, on which the characters were traced with a small stylus, in some specimens so minutely as to be capable of decipherment only with the aid of a magnifying-glass.

In Egypt the principal writing material was of quite a different sort. Wooden tablets are found pictured on the monuments; but the material which was in common use, even from very ancient times, was the papyrus . This reed, found chiefly in Lower Egypt, had various economic means for writing, the pith was taken out, and divided by a pointed instrument into the thin pieces of which it is composed; it was then flattened by pressure, and the strips glued together, other strips being placed at right angles to them, so that a roll of any length might be manufactured. Writing seems to have become more widespread with the invention of papyrus in Egypt. That this material was in use in Egypt from a very early period is evidenced by still existing papyrus of the earliest Theban dynasties. As the papyrus, being in great demand, and exported to all parts of the world, became very costly, other materials were often used instead of it, among which is mentioned leather, a few leather mills of an early period having been found in the tombs. Parchment
Parchment
, using sheepskins left after the wool was removed for cloth, was sometimes cheaper than papyrus, which had to be imported outside Egypt. With the invention of wood-pulp paper , the cost of writing material began a steady decline.

SEE ALSO

Main Phonetics , Palaeography
Palaeography
, logograms , Brahmi
Brahmi
, Devanagari
Devanagari
, logographic , Vinča signs , Asemic writing
Asemic writing
General Alphabet
Alphabet
, Palaeography
Palaeography
, Inscriptions , Book
Book
, Manuscript
Manuscript
, Shorthand
Shorthand
, Latin alphabet , writing system , ogham , Indus script , Mixtec
Mixtec
, uncials , Zapotec , Aurignacian , Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(kanji , hanja ), Ugarit
Ugarit
, katakana , Acheulean , Ethnoarchaeology , Hoabinhian , Gravettian , Oldowan , Uruk
Uruk
, Etruscan , Cretan hieroglyphs , Nabataean
Nabataean
, Luwian , Olmec
Olmec
, Busra , Tamil , Kannada
Kannada
, Grakliani Hill Other History
History
of numbers , History
History
of art ( Ancient art
Ancient art
), Oral literature , History
History
of developmental dyslexia

NOTES

* ^ writing usually does not convey the tone of the utterance. * ^ Beginning date refers to first attestations, the assumed origins of all scripts lie further back in the past.

CITATIONS

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rituals', Nature (30 April 2003), doi :10.1038/news030428-7 "Symbols carved into tortoise shells more than 8,000 years ago unearthed at a mass-burial site at Jiahu
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and Process. Cambridge University Press. pp. 245–6. ISBN 978-0-521-83861-0 . * ^ "Meroitic Writing System". Library.cornell.edu. 2004-04-04. Retrieved 2010-01-31. * ^ Geoffrey Sampson, Writing Systems: a Linguistic Introduction, Stanford University Press, 1990, p. 78. * ^ Gunther Dreyer. A Hundred Years at Abydos. * ^ Whitehouse, David (1999) \'Earliest writing\' found BBC * ^ A B William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol. 17, No. 3, Early Writing Systems. (Feb., 1986), pp. 420–436 (436). * ^ David N. Keightley, "Art, Ancestors, and the Origins of Writing in China", Representations, No. 56, Special