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The first 20th century constitution for Egypt is that of 1923, the first modern codified form of a national constitution.[1] It provided for monarchical dominance with the king as head of state with power to influence the legislature.[2]:192 The 1923 Constitution remained in effect throughout the remainder of the monarchy except for the period from 1930 to 1935 when the Constitution of 1930 was in effect.[2]:192

10 February 1953 second constitutional declaration

Following the Egyptian revolution of 1952 that led to the overthrow of the monarch, King Farouk, the Constitution of 1923 was abolished by decree in December 1952.Following the Egyptian revolution of 1952 that led to the overthrow of the monarch, King Farouk, the Constitution of 1923 was abolished by decree in December 1952.[2]:193 In 1953, a provisional constitution was proclaimed on 10 February, and Egypt was declared a republic on 18 June.[2]:193 The republic was governed under martial law until mid-1956.[2]:193

The Constitution of 1956 adopted by President Nasser was the first republican constitution and it stipulated the formation of the National Assembly on 22 July 1957. The assembly was made up of 350 elected members and remained effective until 10 February 1958, when the Egyptian-Syrian merger as the United Arab Republic was given force and the 1956 Constitution revoked.

The Provisional Constitution of the United Arab Republic was formulated in March 1958,[2]:194 and a joint Nati

The Constitution of 1956 adopted by President Nasser was the first republican constitution and it stipulated the formation of the National Assembly on 22 July 1957. The assembly was made up of 350 elected members and remained effective until 10 February 1958, when the Egyptian-Syrian merger as the United Arab Republic was given force and the 1956 Constitution revoked.

The Provisional Constitution of the United Arab Republic was formulated in March 1958,[2]:194 and a joint National Assembly was established.[2]:194 It first met on 21 July 1960 and lasted to 22 June 1961.

Following the 1961 secession of the Syrian Arab Republic from the United Arab Republic, on 21 May 1962, Nasser issued a National Charter that was approved by a 1,750-member National Congress of Popular Powers on 30 June.[2]:195–96 Though not a constitution, this charter was a distillation of Nasser's Arab socialist ideology and the basis for future constitutional efforts in the 1960s.[2]:195–96 On 27 September 1962, a presidential Constitutional Proclamation was made,[2]:196 which stipulated that the Provisional Constitution of 1958 should remain in force insofar as it did not contradict the Proclamation.

In March 1964, another provisional Constitution was declared, the "Constitution of the United Arab Republic",[2]:197 leading to a 350-elected member National Assembly.[2]:204 This Assembly lasted from 26 March 1964 to 12 November 1968. New elections were held on 20 January 1969, and the Assembly was valid until 30 August 1971. Egypt continued to be known officially as the United Arab Republic during this period.

In 1971, when President Anwar Sadat took office, he moved towards the adoption of a new democratic constitution that would allow more freedoms; the return to a more sound parliamentary life, correct democratic practice[citation needed] and made Sharia "a source of legislation" (Article II), amended in 1980 to read "the principal source of legislation." With the 1971 constitution, the country was renamed the Arab Republic of Egypt.

In 2005, President Hosni Mubarak asked the parliament to amend Article 76 of the constitution that defines how the President of Egypt is elected.

2011 Egyptian revolution

President Mohamed Morsi was removed from office in July 2013, and the 2012 constitution was suspended.President Mohamed Morsi was removed from office in July 2013, and the 2012 constitution was suspended.[6] A roadmap was put in place by the interim government, which included drafting a new constitution. A constitutional referendum took place from 14–15 January 2014,[7] with the overwhelming majority of voters approving the revised constitution.

List of written constitutions