The HISTORY OF JOURNALISM, or the development of the gathering and transmitting of news spans the growth of technology and trade, marked by the advent of specialized techniques for gathering and disseminating information on a regular basis that has caused, as one history of journalism surmises, the steady increase of "the scope of news available to us and the speed with which it is transmitted. Before the printing press was invented, word of mouth was the primary source of news. Returning merchants , sailors and travelers brought news back to the mainland, and this was then picked up by pedlars and travelling players and spread from town to town. Ancient scribes often wrote this information down. This transmission of news was highly unreliable, and died out with the invention of the printing press . Newspapers (and to a lesser extent magazines) have always been the primary medium of journalists since the 18th century, radio and television in the 20th century, and the Internet in the 21st century.
* 1 Early journalism
* 2 France * 3 Britain * 4 Germany * 5 Denmark * 6 Russia * 7 United States
* 8 Asia
* 8.1 China * 8.2 India
* 9 Latin America * 10 Radio and television * 11 Internet journalism * 12 Historiography * 13 See also * 14 Sources * 15 References
* 16 Further reading
* 16.1 Asia * 16.2 Britain * 16.3 British Empire * 16.4 France * 16.5 United States * 16.6 Magazines * 16.7 Historiography
* 17 Online sources
In Ancient Times, scribes wrote down and recorded events that occurred around them and were considered the earliest forms of journalists.
In 1556, the government of Venice first published the monthly Notizie
scritte ("Written notices") which cost one gazetta , a Venetian coin
of the time, the name of which eventually came to mean "newspaper".
These avvisi were handwritten newsletters and used to convey
political, military, and economic news quickly and efficiently
However, none of these publications fully met the modern criteria for proper newspapers, as they were typically not intended for the general public and restricted to a certain range of topics.
Early publications played into the development of what would today be
recognized as the newspaper, which came about around 1601. Around the
15th and 16th centuries, in
Single event news publications were printed in the broadsheet format, which was often posted. These publications also appeared as pamphlets and small booklets (for longer narratives, often written in a letter format), often containing woodcut illustrations . Literacy rates were low in comparison to today, and these news publications were often read aloud (literacy and oral culture were, in a sense, existing side by side in this scenario).
By 1400, businessmen in Italian and German cities were compiling hand
written chronicles of important news events, and circulating them to
their business connections. The idea of using a printing press for
this material first appeared in Germany around 1600. The first
gazettes appeared in German cities, notably the weekly Relation aller
Fuernemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien ("Collection of all
distinguished and memorable news") in Strasbourg starting in 1605. The
Avisa Relation oder Zeitung was published in
Wolfenbüttel from 1609,
and gazettes soon were established in
The news circulated between newsletters through well-established
channels in 17th century Europe. Antwerp was the hub of two networks,
one linking France, Britain, Germany, and the Netherlands; the other
After 1600 the national governments in France and
The first newspaper in France, the
Under the ancien regime, the most prominent magazines were Mercure de
Journal des sçavans , founded in 1665 for scientists, and
Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris. They were not totally quiescent politically—often they criticized Church abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. They supported the monarchy and they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution. During the Revolution new periodicals played central roles as propaganda organs for various factions. Jean-Paul Marat (1743–1793) was the most prominent editor. His L\'Ami du peuple advocated vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of the people Marat hated; it closed when he was assassinated. After 1800 Napoleon reimposed strict censorship.
Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Most were based in Paris and most emphasized literature, poetry and stories. They served religious, cultural and political communities. In times of political crisis they expressed and helped shape the views of their readership and thereby were major elements in the changing political culture. For example, there were eight Catholic periodicals in 1830 in Paris. None were officially owned or sponsored by the Church and they reflected a range of opinion among educated Catholics about current issues, such as the 1830 July Revolution that overthrew the Bourbon monarchy. Several were strong supporters of the Bourbon kings, but all eight ultimately urged support for the new government, putting their appeals in terms of preserving civil order. They often discussed the relationship between church and state. Generally they urged priests to focus on spiritual matters and not engage in politics. Historian M. Patricia Dougherty says this process created a distance between the Church and the new monarch and enabled Catholics to develop a new understanding of church-state relationships and the source of political authority.
Main article: History of journalism in the United Kingdom
Main articles: History of German journalism and History of newspaper publishing § Germany
Danish news media first appeared in the 1540s, when handwritten fly sheets reported on the news. In 1666, Anders Bording , the father of Danish journalism, began a state paper. The royal privilege to bring out a newspaper was issued to Joachim Wielandt in 1720. University officials handled the censorship, but in 1770 Denmark became one of the first nations of the world to provide for press freedom; it ended in 1799. The press in 1795–1814, led by intellectuals and civil servants, called out for a more just and modern society, and spoke out for the oppressed tenant farmers against the power of the old aristocracy.
In 1834, the first liberal newspaper appeared, one that gave much more emphasis to actual news content rather than opinions. The newspapers championed the Revolution of 1848 in Denmark. The new constitution of 1849 liberated the Danish press. Newspapers flourished in the second half of the 19th century, usually tied to one or another political party or labor union. Modernization, bringing in new features and mechanical techniques, appeared after 1900. The total circulation was 500,000 daily in 1901, more than doubling to 1.2 million in 1925. The German occupation brought informal censorship; some offending newspaper buildings were simply blown up by the Nazis. During the war, the underground produced 550 newspapers—small, surreptitiously printed sheets that encouraged sabotage and resistance.
The appearance of a dozen editorial cartoons ridiculing Mohammed set
off Muslim outrage and violent threats around the world. (see:
Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy
The historiography of the Danish press is rich with scholarly studies. Historians have made insights into Danish political, social and cultural history, finding that individual newspapers are valid analytical entities, which can be studied in terms of source, content, audience, media, and effect.
Main article: History of Russian journalism
Main articles: History of American Journalism and History of American newspapers
Main articles: History of newspaper publishing § China , and List of newspapers in China
Main articles: History of newspaper publishing § India , and List of newspapers in India
The first newspaper in India was circulated in 1780 under the
James Augustus Hicky , named Hicky\'s Bengal
British influence extended globally through its colonies and its informal business relationships with merchants in major cities. They needed up-to-date market and political information. El Mercurio was founded in Valparaiso, Chile, in 1827. The most influential newspaper in Peru, El Comercio, first appeared in 1839. The Jornal do Commercio was established in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1827. Much later Argentina founded its newspapers in Buenos Aires: La Prensa in 1869 and La Nacion in 1870.
RADIO AND TELEVISION
Main article: History of broadcasting
The history of radio broadcasting begins in the 1920s, and reached its apogee in the 1930s and 1940s. Experimental television was being studied before the 2nd world war, became operational in the late 1940s, and became widespread in the 1950s and 1960s, largely but not entirely displacing radio.
Further information: Online journalism and online newspapers
The rapidly growing impact of the Internet, especially after 2000, brought "free" news and classified advertising to audiences that no longer cared for paid subscriptions. The Internet undercut the business model of many daily newspapers. Bankruptcy loomed across the U.S. and did hit such major papers as the Rocky Mountain news (Denver), the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times, among many others. Chapman and Nuttall find that proposed solutions, such as multiplatforms, paywalls, PR-dominated news gathering, and shrinking staffs have not resolved the challenge. The result, they argue, is that journalism today is characterized by four themes: personalization, globalization, localization, and pauperization.
Journalism historian David Nord has argued that in the 1960s and 1970s: "In journalism history and media history, a new generation of scholars . . . criticised traditional histories of the media for being too insular, too decontextualised, too uncritical, too captive to the needs of professional training, and too enamoured of the biographies of men and media organizations."
In 1974, James W. Carey identified the 'Problem of Journalism History'. The field was dominated by a Whig interpretation of journalism history. "This views journalism history as the slow, steady expansion of freedom and knowledge from the political press to the commercial press, the setbacks into sensationalism and yellow journalism, the forward thrust into muck raking and social responsibility....the entire story is framed by those large impersonal forces buffeting the press: industrialisation, urbanisation and mass democracy.
O'Malley says the criticism went too far, because there was much of value in the deep scholarship of the earlier period.
* Journalism portal
History of newspaper publishing
History of broadcasting
* History of Journalism lecture notes by Dr. Wally Hastings, Northern State University, South Dakota
* ^ Shannon E. Martin and David A. Copeland, eds. "The Function of
Newspapers in Society: A Global Perspective (Praeger, 2003) p. 2
* ^ Wan-Press.org, A
* Bösch, Frank. Mass Media and Historical Change: Germany in
International Perspective, 1400 to the Present (Berghahn, 2015). 212
pp. online review
* Burrowes, Carl Patrick. "Property, Power and Press Freedom:
Emergence of the Fourth Estate, 1640-1789,"
International Radio Journalism: History, Theory and Practice
(Routledge, 1998) online
* Dooley, Brendan, and Sabrina Baron, eds. The Politics of
Information in Early Modern
* Huang, C. "Towards a broadloid press approach: The transformation of China's newspaper industry since the 2000s." Journalism 19 (2015): 1-16. online, With bibliography pages 27–33.
* Andrews, Alexander. The history of British journalism: from the
foundation of the newspaper press in England, to the repeal of the
Stamp act in 1855 (1859). online old classic
* Briggs Asa. The BBC—the First Fifty Years (Oxford University
* Briggs Asa. The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom
(Oxford University Press, 1961).
* Clarke, Bob. From Grub Street to Fleet Street: An Illustrated
History of English Newspapers to 1899 (Ashgate, 2004)
* Crisell, Andrew An Introductory History of British Broadcasting.
(2nd ed. 2002).
* Herd, Harold. The March of Journalism: The Story of the British
Press from 1622 to the Present Day (1952).
* Jones, A. Powers of the Press: Newspapers, Power and the Public in
* Cryle, Denis. Disreputable profession: journalists and journalism
in colonial Australia (Central Queensland University Press, 1997).
* Harvey, Ross. "Bringing the
* Censer, Jack. The French press in the age of Enlightenment (2002). * Collins, Ross F. and E. M. Palmegiano, eds. The Rise of Western Journalism 1815–1914: Essays on the Press in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain and the United States (2007). * Darnton, Robert and Daniel Roche, eds. Revolution in Print: the Press in France, 1775–1800 (1989) * Jubin, George. "France, Journalism in, 1933." Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 10 (1933): 273-82. online * Lehmann, Ulrich. "Le mot dans la mode: Fashion and literary journalism in Nineteenth-century France." (2009): 296-313. online * Verboord, Marc, and Susanne Janssen. "Arts Journalism And Its Packaging In France, Germany, The Netherlands And The United States, 1955–2005." Journalism Practice 9#6 (2015): 829-852.
* Barnouw Erik. The Golden Web (Oxford University Press, 1968); The Image Empire: A History of Broadcasting in the United States, Vol. 3: From 1953 (1970) excerpt and text search; The Sponsor (1978); A Tower in Babel (1966), to 1933, excerpt and text search; a history of American broadcasting * Blanchard, Margaret A., ed. History of the Mass Media in the United States, An Encyclopedia. (1998) * Craig, Douglas B. Fireside Politics: Radio and Political Culture in the United States, 1920–1940 (2005) * Emery, Michael, Edwin Emery, and Nancy L. Roberts. The Press and America: An Interpretive History of the Mass Media 9th ed. (1999.), standard textbook; best place to start. * Hampton, Mark, and Martin Conboy. " Journalism history—a debate" Journalism Studies (2014) 15#2 pp 154–171. Hampton argues that journalism history should be integrated with cultural, political, and economic changes. Conboy reaffirms the need for disentangling journalism history more carefully from media history. * McCourt; Tom. Conflicting Communication Interests in America: The Case of National Public Radio (Praeger Publishers, 1999) online * McKerns, Joseph P., ed. Biographical Dictionary of American Journalism. (1989) * Marzolf, Marion. Up From the Footnote: A History of Women Journalists. (1977) * Mott, Frank Luther. American Journalism: A History of Newspapers in the United States Through 250 Years, 1690-1940 (1941). major reference source and interpretive history. online edition * Nord, David Paul. Communities of Journalism: A History of American Newspapers and Their Readers. (2001) excerpt and text search * Schudson, Michael. Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers. (1978). excerpt and text search * Sloan, W. David, James G. Stovall, and James D. Startt. The Media in America: A History, 4th ed. (1999) * Starr, Paul. The Creation of the Media: Political origins of Modern Communications (2004), far ranging history of all forms of media in 19th and 20th century US and Europe; Pulitzer prize excerpt and text search * Streitmatter, Rodger. Mightier Than the Sword: How the News