The Info List - History Of Clothing

--- Advertisement ---

The study of the history of clothing and textiles traces the availability and use of textiles and other materials. At the same time, the study also helps in tracing the development of technology for the making of clothing over human history. The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic and is a feature of most human societies. It is not known when humans began wearing clothes but anthropologists believe that animal skins and vegetation were adapted into coverings as protection from cold, heat and rain, especially as humans migrated to new climates. Clothing and textiles have been important in human history. They reflect the materials available in different civilizations at different times. They also reflect upon the technologies that had been mastered in due course of time. The social significance of the finished product reflects their culture. Textiles can be felt or spun fibers made into yarn and subsequently netted, looped, knit or woven to make fabrics, which appeared in the Middle East during the late stone age.[1] From the ancient times to the present day, methods of textile production have continually evolved, and the choices of textiles available have influenced how people carried their possessions, clothed themselves, and decorated their surroundings.[2] Sources available for the study of clothing and textiles include material remains discovered via archaeology; representation of textiles and their manufacture in art; and documents concerning the manufacture, acquisition, use, and trade of fabrics, tools, and finished garments. Scholarship of textile history, especially its earlier stages, is part of material culture studies.


1 Prehistoric development

1.1 Early adoption of apparel

2 Ancient textiles and clothing

2.1 Ancient Near East 2.2 Ancient India 2.3 Ancient Egypt 2.4 Ancient China 2.5 Ancient Thailand 2.6 Ancient Japan 2.7 Classical Period of the Philippines 2.8 The textile trade in the ancient world 2.9 Classical antiquity 2.10 Iron age Europe

3 Medieval clothing and textiles

3.1 Byzantium 3.2 Early medieval Europe 3.3 High middle ages and the rise of fashion

4 Renaissance and early modern period

4.1 Renaissance Europe 4.2 Early Modern Europe

5 Mughal India 6 Enlightenment and the Colonial period 7 Industrial revolution 8 Contemporary technology 9 21st century 10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 Further reading 14 External links

Prehistoric development[edit]

Human timeline

view • discuss • edit

-10 — – -9 — – -8 — – -7 — – -6 — – -5 — – -4 — – -3 — – -2 — – -1 — – 0 —

Human-like apes







Homo habilis

Homo erectus


Homo sapiens

Earlier apes

LCA-Gorilla separation

Possibly bipedal

LCA-Chimpanzee separation

Earliest bipedal

Earliest stone tools

Earliest exit from Africa

Earliest fire use

Earliest in Europe

Earliest cooking

Earliest clothes

Modern speech

Modern humans

P l e i s t o c e n e

P l i o c e n e

M i o c e n e









Axis scale: million years Also see: Life timeline and Nature timeline

The development of textile and clothing manufacture in prehistory has been the subject of a number of scholarly studies since the late 20th century.[3][4] These sources have helped to provide a coherent history of these prehistoric developments. Evidence suggests that humans may have begun wearing clothing as far back as 100,000 to 500,000 years ago.[5] Early adoption of apparel[edit] Genetic analysis suggests that the human body louse, which lives in clothing, may only have diverged from the head louse some 170,000 years ago, which supports evidence that humans began wearing clothing at around this time.[6] These estimates predate the first known human exodus from Africa, although other hominid species who may have worn clothes – and shared these louse infestations – appear to have migrated earlier. Sewing needles have been dated to at least 50,000 years ago (Denisova Cave, Siberia) – and uniquely associated with a human species other than modern humans, ie H. Denisova/H. Altai. The oldest possible example is 60,000 years ago, a needle point (missing stem and eye) found in Sibudu Cave, South Africa. Other early examples of needles dating from 41,000-15,000 years ago are found in multiple locations, eg. Slovenia, Russia, China, Spain and France. The earliest dyed flax fibres have been found in a prehistoric cave in the Georgia and date back to 36,000[7]. The 25,000 year old Venus Figurine "Venus of Lespugue", found in southern France in the Pyrenees, depicts a cloth or twisted fibre skirt. Other figurines from western Europe were adorned with basket hats or caps, belts worn at the waist, and a strap of cloth that wrapped around the body right above the breast. Eastern European figurines wore belts, hung low on the hips and sometimes string skirts. Archaeologists have discovered artifacts from the same period that appear to have been used in the textile arts: (5000 BC) net gauges, spindle needles and weaving sticks. Ancient textiles and clothing[edit] The first actual textile, as opposed to skins sewn together, was probably felt. Surviving examples of Nålebinding, another early textile method, date from 6500 BC.[citation needed] Our knowledge of ancient textiles and clothing has expanded in the recent past thanks to modern technological developments.[8] Our knowledge of cultures varies greatly with the climatic conditions to which archeological deposits are exposed; the Middle East and the arid fringes of China have provided many very early samples in good condition, but the early development of textiles in the Indian subcontinent, sub-Saharan Africa and other moist parts of the world remains unclear. In northern Eurasia, peat bogs can also preserve textiles very well. From pre-history through the early middle ages, for most of Europe, the Near East and North Africa, two main types of loom dominate textile production. These are the warp-weighted loom and the two-beam loom. The length of the cloth beam determined the width of the cloth woven upon it, and could be as wide as 2–3 meters. The second loom type is the two-beam loom.[9] Early woven clothing was often made of full loom widths draped, tied, or pinned in place. Ancient Near East[edit] The earliest known woven textiles of the Near East may be fabrics used to wrap the dead, excavated at a Neolithic site at Çatalhöyük in Anatolia, carbonized in a fire and radiocarbon dated to c. 6000 BC.[10] Evidence exists of flax cultivation from c. 8000 BC in the Near East, but the breeding of sheep with a wooly fleece rather than hair occurs much later, c. 3000 BC.[10] Ancient India[edit] Main article: History of clothing in India

Statue of "Priest King", Mohenjo-daro, Indus Valley Civilization

We do not know what the people who constituted the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the earliest civilizations of the world, actually wore. The cloth disintegrated and we have not been able to decipher the Indus script as of now. But historians and archaeologists have managed to piece together some bits of information from clues found in sculptures and figurines. Terracotta figurines uncovered at Mehrgarh show the male figurine as wearing what is commonly interpreted to be a turban. Whereas female figurines are depicted with elaborate headgears and intricate hairstyles.[11] In certain cases, these elaborate headgears have led historians to attach a religious connotation to the figurines. Historians have attributed the elaborate headgears as a symbol of the mother Goddess. One of the most important structures that have been recovered is that of the “Priest King” from the city of Mohenjodaro in present-day Pakistan. It is not only important because scholars have called it a representation of the assumed authority or head of the state but also because of what it is wearing. The Priest-King as it is called is depicted sitting in a very calm position wearing a shawl with floral patterns etched all over it. This has been the only sculpture to show some form of clothing in such explicit detail. It, however, does not provide any concrete proof to legitimize the history of clothing in the Harappan times. Harappans may even have used natural colours to dye their fabric. Research shows that indigo plantation was also prevalent. The other important and probably one of its kind of sculpture is the dancing girl, also excavated from Mohenjodaro in present-day Pakistan. Even though she has no signs of clothing upon her, she wears bangles on the entirety of her arm. B. B. Lal [12] has managed draw parallels between the dancing girl and women today in parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat. He notices how contemporary women continue wearing those bangles even today. Harappans may not have left any evidence of what clothing or textiles they had at that time but they did leave remains of jewellery and beads in large amounts. For instance, the graves of Harappans have yielded various forms of jewellery such as neckpieces, bracelets, rings, head ornaments, etc. Multiple beads of varying shapes and sizes have also been recovered. Various materials and metals such as gold, bronze, terra-cotta, faience, shell, etc., were being used to craft the jewellery and the beads. Materials such as turquoise and lapis lazuli were even imported from outside regions. This also hints at the possibility of a long-distance trade that Harappans would have engaged in. Long, slender carnelian beads were highly prized by the Harappans. Harappans were also experts in the manufacture of microbeads which have been found in various locations from hearths and graves. These beads were extremely hard to work with and needed an extra amount of precision to be produced. A special drill has been found both at Lothal and Chanhudaro. Chanhudaro was a centre exclusively devoted to craft production. Ancient Egypt[edit] Main article: Clothing in ancient Egypt

Queen Nefertari in a sheer, pleated linen garment, Egypt, c. 1298–1235 BC

Woven silk textile from the Mawangdui in Changsha, Hunan province, China, 2nd century BC

Evidence exists for production of linen cloth in Ancient Egypt in the Neolithic period, c. 5500 BC. Cultivation of domesticated wild flax, probably an import from the Levant, is documented as early as c. 6000 BC. Other bast fibers including rush, reed, palm, and papyrus were used alone or with linen to make rope and other textiles. Evidence for wool production in Egypt is scanty at this period.[13] Spinning techniques included the drop spindle, hand-to-hand spinning, and rolling on the thigh; yarn was also spliced.[13] A horizontal ground loom was used prior to the New Kingdom, when a vertical two-beam loom was introduced, probably from Asia. Linen bandages were used in the burial custom of mummification, and art depicts Egyptian men wearing linen kilts and women in narrow dresses with various forms of shirts and jackets, often of sheer pleated fabric.[13] Ancient China[edit] Main articles: History of silk and Hanfu The earliest evidence of silk production in China was found at the sites of Yangshao culture in Xia, Shanxi, where a cocoon of bombyx mori, the domesticated silkworm, cut in half by a sharp knife is dated to between 5000 and 3000 BC. Fragments of primitive looms are also seen from the sites of Hemudu culture in Yuyao, Zhejiang, dated to about 4000 BC. Scraps of silk were found in a Liangzhu culture site at Qianshanyang in Huzhou, Zhejiang, dating back to 2700 BC.[14][15] Other fragments have been recovered from royal tombs in the [Shang Dynasty] (c. 1600 – c. 1046 BC).[16] Under the Shang Dynasty, Han Chinese clothing or Hanfu consisted of a yi, a narrow-cuffed, knee-length tunic tied with a sash, and a narrow, ankle-length skirt, called shang, worn with a bixi, a length of fabric that reached the knees. Clothing of the elite was made of silk in vivid primary colours. Ancient Thailand[edit] The earliest evidence of spinning in Thailand can be found at the archaeological site of Tha Kae located in Central Thailand. Tha Kae was inhabited during the end of the first millennium BC to the late first millennium AD. Here, archaeologists discovered 90 fragments of spindle whorl dated from 3rd century BC to 3rd century AD. And the shape of these finds indicate the connections with south China and India.[17] A spindle whorl is a disc or spherical object that fits onto the spindle to increase as well as maintain the speed of spinning. Ancient Japan[edit] The earliest evidence of weaving in Japan is associated with the Jōmon period. This culture is defined by pottery decorated with cord patterns. In a shell mound in the Miyagi Prefecture, dating back about 5,500, some cloth fragments were discovered made from bark fibers.[18] Hemp fibers were also discovered in the Torihama shell mound, Fukui Prefecture, dating back to the Jōmon period, suggesting that these plants could also have been used for clothing. Some pottery pattern imprints depict also fine mat designs, proving their weaving techniques. The patterns on the Jōmon pottery show people wearing short upper garments, close-fitting trousers, funnel-sleeves, and rope-like belts. The depictions also show clothing with patterns that are embroidered or painted arched designs, though it is not apparent whether this indicates what the clothes look like or whether that simply happens to be the style of representation used. It is interesting to note that the pottery also shows no distinction between male and female garments. This may have been true because during that time period clothing was more for decoration than social distinction, but it might also just be because of the representation on the pottery rather than how people actually dressed at the time. Since bone needles were also found, it is assumed that they wore dresses that were sewn together.[19] Next was the Yayoi period, during which rice cultivation was developed. This led to a shift from hunter-gatherer communities to agrarian societies which had a large impact on clothing. According to Chinese literature from that time period, clothing more appropriate to agriculture began to be worn. For example, unsewn fabric wrapper around the body and poncho-type garments with head-holes cut into them. This same literature also indicates that pink or scarlet makeup was worn but also that mannerisms between people of all ages and genders were not very different. However, this is debatable as there were probably cultural prejudices in the Chinese document. There is a common Japanese belief that the Yayoi time period was quite utopian before Chinese influence began to promote the use of clothing to indicate age and gender. From 300 to 550 AD was the Yamato period, and here much of the clothing style can be derived from the artifacts of the time. The tomb statues (haniwa) especially tell us that the clothing style changed from the ones according to the Chinese accounts from the previous age. The statues are usually wearing a two piece outfit that has an upper piece with a front opening and close-cut sleeves with loose trousers for men and a pleated skirt for women. Silk farming had been introduced by the Chinese by this time period but due to silk’s cost it would only be used by people of certain classes or ranks. The following periods were the Asuka (550 to 646 AD) and Nara (646 to 794 AD) when Japan developed a more unified government and began to use Chinese laws and social rankings. These new laws required people to wear different styles and colors to indicate social status. Clothing became longer and wider in general and sewing methods were more advanced.[20] Classical Period of the Philippines[edit]

The Boxer Codex, showing the attire of a Classical period Filipino, made of silk and cotton.

The classical Filipino clothing varied according to cost and current fashions and so indicated social standing. The basic garments were the Bahag and the tube skirt—what the Maranao call malong—or a light blanket wrapped around instead. But more prestigious clothes, lihin-lihin, were added for public appearances and especially on formal occasions—blouses and tunics, loose smocks with sleeves, capes, or ankle-length robes. The textiles of which they were made were similarly varied. In ascending order of value, they were abaca, abaca decorated with colored cotton thread, cotton, cotton decorated with silk thread, silk, imported printstuff, and an elegant abaca woven of selected fibers almost as thin as silk. In addition, Pigafetta mentioned both G-strings and skirts of bark cloth. Untailored clothes, however had no particular names. Pandong, a lady's cloak, simply meant any natural covering, like the growth on banana trunk’s or a natal caul. In Panay, the word kurong, meaning curly hair, was applied to any short skirt or blouse; and some better ones made of imported chintz or calico were simply called by the name of the cloth itself, tabas. So, too, the wraparound skirt the Tagalogs called tapis was hardly considered a skirt at all: Visayans just called it habul (woven stuff) or halong (abaca) or even hulun (sash). The usual male headdress was the pudong, a turban, though in Panay both men and women also wore a head cloth or bandana called saplung. Commoners wore pudong of rough abaca cloth wrapped around only a few turns so that it was more of a headband than a turban and was therefore called pudong-pudong—as the crowns and diadems on Christian images were later called. A red pudong was called magalong, and was the insignia of braves who had killed an enemy. The most prestigious kind of pudong, limited to the most valiant, was, like their G-strings, made of pinayusan, a gauze-thin abaca of fibers selected for their whiteness, tie-dyed a deep scarlet in patterns as fine as embroidery, and burnished to a silky sheen. Such pudong were lengthened with each additional feat of valor: real heroes therefore let one end hang loose with affected carelessness. Women generally wore a kerchief, called tubatub if it was pulled tight over the whole head; but they also had a broad-brimmed hat called sayap or tarindak, woven of sago-palm leaves. Some were evidently signs of rank: when Humabon’s queen went to hear mass during Magellan’s visit, she was preceded by three girls carrying one of her hats. A headdress from Cebu with a deep crown, used by both sexes for travel on foot or by boat, was called sarok, which actually meant to go for water.[21] The textile trade in the ancient world[edit] Main article: Silk Road The exchange of luxury textiles was predominant on the Silk Road, a series of ancient trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting East and West by linking traders, merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads and urban dwellers from China to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time. The trade route was initiated around 114 BC by the Han Dynasty,[22] although earlier trade across the continents had already existed. Geographically, the Silk Road or Silk Route is an interconnected series of ancient trade routes between Chang'an (today's Xi'an) in China, with Asia Minor and the Mediterranean extending over 8,000 km (5,000 mi) on land and sea. Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the great civilizations of China, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, the Indian subcontinent, and Rome, and helped to lay the foundations for the modern world. Classical antiquity[edit] Main articles: Clothing in the ancient world, Clothing in ancient Greece, and Clothing in ancient Rome

Greek chiton (left) and chiton worn under himation

Fabric in Ancient Greece was woven on a warp-weighted loom. The first extant image of weaving in western art is from a terracotta lekythos in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. The vase, c. 550-530 B.C.E., depicts two women weaving at an upright loom. The warp threads, which run vertically to a bar at the top, are tied together with weights at the bottom, which hold them taut. The woman on the right runs the shuttle containing the weaving thread across the middle of the warp. The woman on the left uses a beater to consolidate the already-woven threads.[23] Dress in classical antiquity favored wide, unsewn lengths of fabric, pinned and draped to the body in various ways. Ancient Greek clothing consisted of lengths of wool or linen, generally rectangular and secured at the shoulders with ornamented pins called fibulae and belted with a sash. Typical garments were the peplos, a loose robe worn by women; the chlamys, a cloak worn by men; and the chiton, a tunic worn by both men and women. Men’s chitons hung to the knees, whereas women’s chitons fell to their ankles. A long cloak called a himation was worn over the peplos or chlamys. The toga of ancient Rome was also an unsewn length of wool cloth, worn by male citizens draped around the body in various fashions, over a simple tunic. Early tunics were two simple rectangles joined at the shoulders and sides; later tunics had sewn sleeves. Women wore the draped stola or an ankle-length tunic, with a shawl-like palla as an outer garment. Wool was the preferred fabric, although linen, hemp, and small amounts of expensive imported silk and cotton were also worn. Iron age Europe[edit] The Iron Age is broadly identified as stretching from the end of the Bronze Age around 1200 BC to 500 AD and the beginning of the Medieval period. Bodies and clothing have been found from this period, preserved by the anaerobic and acidic conditions of peat bogs in northwestern Europe. A Danish recreation of clothing found with such bodies indicates woven wool dresses, tunics and skirts.[24] These were largely unshaped and held in place with leather belts and metal brooches or pins. Garments were not always plain, but incorporated decoration with contrasting colours, particularly at the ends and edges of the garment. Men wore breeches, possibly with lower legs wrapped for protection, although Boucher states that long trousers have also been found.[25] Warmth came from woollen shawls and capes of animal skin, probably worn with the fur facing inwards for added comfort. Caps were worn, also made from skins, and there was an emphasis on hair arrangements, from braids to elaborate Suebian knots.[26] Soft laced shoes made from leather protected the foot. Medieval clothing and textiles[edit] The history of Medieval European clothing and textiles has inspired a good deal of scholarly interest in the 21st century. Elisabeth Crowfoot, Frances Pritchard, and Kay Staniland authored Textiles and Clothing: Medieval Finds from Excavations in London, c.1150-c.1450 (Boydell Press, 2001). The topic is also the subject of an annual series, Medieval Clothing and Textiles (Boydell Press), edited by Robin Netherton and Gale R. Owen-Crocker, Emeritus Professor of Anglo-Saxon Culture at the University of Manchester. Byzantium[edit] Main articles: Byzantine dress and Byzantine silk The Byzantines made and exported very richly patterned cloth, woven and embroidered for the upper classes, and resist-dyed and printed for the lower.[27] By Justinian's time the Roman toga had been replaced by the tunica, or long chiton, for both sexes, over which the upper classes wore various other garments, like a dalmatica (dalmatic), a heavier and shorter type of tunica; short and long cloaks were fastened on the right shoulder. Leggings and hose were often worn, but are not prominent in depictions of the wealthy; they were associated with barbarians, whether European or Persian.[28] Early medieval Europe[edit]

Edgar I of England in short tunic, hose, and cloak, 966

Main articles: Early medieval European dress, Anglo-Saxon dress, and English Medieval fashion European dress changed gradually in the years 400 to 1100. People in many countries dressed differently depending on whether they identified with the old Romanised population, or the new invading populations such as Franks, Anglo-Saxons, and Visigoths. Men of the invading peoples generally wore short tunics, with belts, and visible trousers, hose or leggings. The Romanised populations, and the Church, remained faithful to the longer tunics of Roman formal costume.[29] The elite imported silk cloth from the Byzantine, and later Muslim, worlds, and also probably cotton. They also could afford bleached linen and dyed and simply patterned wool woven in Europe itself. But embroidered decoration was probably very widespread, though not usually detectable in art. Lower classes wore local or homespun wool, often undyed, trimmed with bands of decoration, variously embroidery, tablet-woven bands, or colorful borders woven into the fabric in the loom.[30][31] High middle ages and the rise of fashion[edit] Main articles: 1100–1200 in fashion, 1200–1300 in fashion, and 1300–1400 in fashion

14th-century Italian silk damasks

Clothing in 12th and 13th century Europe remained very simple for both men and women, and quite uniform across the subcontinent. The traditional combination of short tunic with hose for working-class men and long tunic with overgown for women and upper class men remained the norm. Most clothing, especially outside the wealthier classes, remained little changed from three or four centuries earlier.[32] The 13th century saw great progress in the dyeing and working of wool, which was by far the most important material for outerwear. Linen was increasingly used for clothing that was directly in contact with the skin. Unlike wool, linen could be laundered and bleached in the sun. Cotton, imported raw from Egypt and elsewhere, was used for padding and quilting, and cloths such as buckram and fustian. Crusaders returning from the Levant brought knowledge of its fine textiles, including light silks, to Western Europe. In Northern Europe, silk was an imported and very expensive luxury.[33] The well-off could afford woven brocades from Italy or even further afield. Fashionable Italian silks of this period featured repeating patterns of roundels and animals, deriving from Ottoman silk-weaving centres in Bursa, and ultimately from Yuan Dynasty China via the Silk Road.[34] Cultural and costume historians agree that the mid-14th century marks the emergence of recognizable "fashion" in Europe.[35][36] From this century onwards, Western fashion changed at a pace quite unknown to other civilizations, whether ancient or contemporary.[37] In most other cultures, only major political changes, such as the Muslim conquest of India, produced radical changes in clothing, and in China, Japan, and the Ottoman Empire fashion changed only slightly over periods of several centuries.[38] In this period, the draped garments and straight seams of previous centuries were replaced by curved seams and the beginnings of tailoring, which allowed clothing to more closely fit the human form, as did the use of lacing and buttons.[39] A fashion for mi-parti or parti-coloured garments made of two contrasting fabrics, one on each side, arose for men in mid-century,[40] and was especially popular at the English court. Sometimes just the hose would have different colours on each leg. Renaissance and early modern period[edit] See also: Jewish textile industry in 16th-century Safed Renaissance Europe[edit]

Bold floral patterned silks, 15th century.

Main article: 1400–1500 in fashion Wool remained the most popular fabric for all classes, followed by linen and hemp.[34] Wool fabrics were available in a wide range of qualities, from rough undyed cloth to fine, dense broadcloth with a velvety nap; high-value broadcloth was a backbone of the English economy and was exported throughout Europe.[41] Wool fabrics were dyed in rich colours, notably reds, greens, golds, and blues.[34] Silk-weaving was well established around the Mediterranean by the beginning of the 15th century, and figured silks, often silk velvets with silver-gilt wefts, are increasingly seen in Italian dress and in the dress of the wealthy throughout Europe. Stately floral designs featuring a pomegranate or artichoke motif had reached Europe from China in the previous century and became a dominant design in the Ottoman silk-producing cities of Istanbul and Bursa, and spread to silk weavers in Florence, Genoa, Venice, Valencia and Seville in this period.[34][42] As prosperity grew in the 15th century, the urban middle classes, including skilled workers, began to wear more complex clothes that followed, at a distance, the fashions set by the elites. National variations in clothing increased over the century.[43] Early Modern Europe[edit] Main articles: 1500–1550 in fashion, 1550–1600 in fashion, 1600–1650 in fashion, and 1650–1700 in fashion

Slashing at its height: Henry IV, Duke of Saxony, c. 1514.

A French reinterpretation of Spanish fashion, with elaborate reticella ruff, 1609

By the first half of the 16th century, the clothing of the Low Countries, German states, and Scandinavia had developed in a different direction than that of England, France, and Italy, although all absorbed the sobering and formal influence of Spanish dress after the mid-1520s.[44] Elaborate slashing was popular, especially in Germany. Black was increasingly worn for the most formal occasions. Bobbin lace arose from passementerie in the mid-16th century, probably in Flanders.[45] This century also saw the rise of the ruff, which grew from a mere ruffle at the neckline of the shirt or chemise to immense cartwheel shapes. At their most extravagant, ruffs required wire supports and were made of fine Italian reticella, a cutwork linen lace. By the turn of the 17th century, a sharp distinction could be seen between the sober fashions favored by Protestants in England and the Netherlands, which still showed heavy Spanish influence, and the light, revealing fashions of the French and Italian courts. The great flowering of needlelace occurred in this period. Geometric reticella deriving from cutwork was elaborated into true needlelace or punto in aria (called in England "point lace"), which reflected the scrolling floral designs popular for embroidery. Lacemaking centers were established in France to reduce the outflow of cash to Italy.[45][46][47] According to Dr. Wolf D. Fuhrig, "By the second half of the 17th century, Silesia had become an important economic pillar of the Habsburg monarchy, largely on the strength of its textile industry."[48] Mughal India[edit] Main articles: Mughal Empire and Muslin trade in Bengal Further information: Economic history of India Mughal India (16th to 18th centuries) was the most important center of manufacturing in international trade up until the 18th century.[49] Up until 1750, India produced about 25% of the world's industrial output.[50] The largest manufacturing industry in Mughal India was textile manufacturing, particularly cotton textile manufacturing, which included the production of piece goods, calicos, and muslins, available unbleached and in a variety of colours. The cotton textile industry was responsible for a large part of India's international trade.[51] India had a 25% share of the global textile trade in the early 18th century.[52] Indian cotton textiles were the most important manufactured goods in world trade in the 18th century, consumed across the world from the Americas to Japan.[49] The most important center of cotton production was the Bengal Subah province, particularly around its capital city of Dhaka.[53] Bengal accounted for more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks imported by the Dutch from Asia,[54] Bengali silk and cotton textiles were exported in large quantities to Europe, Indonesia, and Japan,[55] and Bengali muslin textiles from Dhaka were sold in Central Asia, where they were known as "daka" textiles.[53] Indian textiles dominated the Indian Ocean trade for centuries, were sold in the Atlantic Ocean trade, and had a 38% share of the West African trade in the early 18th century, while Indian calicos were major force in Europe, and Indian textiles accounted for 20% of total English trade with Southern Europe in the early 18th century.[50] In early modern Europe, there was significant demand for textiles from Mughal India, including cotton textiles and silk products.[51] European fashion, for example, became increasingly dependent on Mughal Indian textiles and silks. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Mughal India accounted for 95% of British imports from Asia.[54] Emphasis was placed on the adornment[56] of women. Even though the purdah was made compulsory for the Mughal women, we see that this did not stop themselves from experimenting in style and attire. Abul Fazal mentions that there were sixteen components that adorned a woman. These not only included clothing but also other aspects like that of oiling the body and iqtar. Mughal women wore long loose jamas with full sleeves and in winters it was accompanied by a Qaba or a Kashmir shawl used as a coat. Women were very fond of their perfumes and scents. Jewellery in the Mughal tradition signified not only religious values but also style statements. Enlightenment and the Colonial period[edit] Main articles: 1700–1750 in fashion and 1750–1795 in fashion During the 18th century, distinction was made between full dress worn at Court and for formal occasions, and undress or everyday, daytime clothes. As the decades progressed, fewer and fewer occasions called for full dress which had all but disappeared by the end of the century. Full dress followed the styles of the French court, where rich silks and elaborate embroidery reigned. Men continued to wear the coat, waistcoat and breeches for both full dress and undress; these were now sometimes made of the same fabric and trim, signalling the birth of the three-piece suit. Women's silhouettes featured small, domed hoops in the 1730s and early 1740s, which were displaced for formal court wear by side hoops or panniers which later widened to as much as three feet to either side at the court of Marie Antoinette. Fashion reached heights of fantasy and abundant ornamentation, before new enthusiasms for outdoor sports and country pursuits and a long-simmering movement toward simplicity and democratization of dress under the influence of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the American Revolution led to an entirely new mode and the triumph of British woollen tailoring following the French Revolution. For women's dresses, Indian cottons, especially printed chintzes, were imported to Europe in large numbers, and towards the end of the period simple white muslin gowns were in fashion. Industrial revolution[edit]

Textile machinery at the Cambrian Factory, Llanwrtyd, Wales in the 1940s.

Estonian national clothes are a fine example of change in clothing after the industrial revolution. They changed a lot during 18th and 19th of century with the addition of new types of colors (like aniline dyes), placement of colors (like lengthwise stripes) and with the addition of new elements (like waistcoats). By the end of the 19th century they went out of use in most of the country (except more remote places as in Kihnu island) and it was only in mid 20th century when they once again gained popularity and now as a formal clothing. Members of University of Tartu Folk Art Ensemble wearing clothes specific to Kihnu island, Tori Parish (women in red skirts) and Tõstamaa area (men in brown clothing).

Main article: Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution During the industrial revolution, fabric production was mechanised with machines powered by waterwheels and steam-engines. Production shifted from small cottage based production to mass production based on assembly line organisation. Clothing production, on the other hand, continued to be made by hand. Sewing machines emerged in the 19th century[57] streamlining clothing production. In the early 20th century, workers in the clothing and textile industries became unionised.[58] Later in the 20th century, the industry had expanded to such a degree that such educational institutions as UC Davis established a Division of Textiles and Clothing,[59] The University of Nebraska-Lincoln also created a Department of Textiles, Clothing and Design that offers a Masters of Arts in Textile History,[60] and Iowa State University established a Department of Textiles and Clothing that features a History of costume collection, 1865–1948.[61] Even high school libraries have collections on the history of clothing and textiles.[62] Alongside these developments were changes in the types and style of clothing produced. During the 1960s, had a major influence on subsequent developments in the industry.[63] Textiles were not only made in factories. Before this, they were made in local and national markets. Dramatic change in transportation throughout the nation is one source that encouraged the use of factories. New advances such as steamboats, canals, and railroads lowered shipping costs which caused people to buy cheap goods that were produced in other places instead of more expensive goods that were produced locally. Between 1810 and 1840, the development of a national market prompted manufacturing which tripled the output’s worth. This increase in production created a change in industrial methods, such as the use of factories instead of hand made woven materials that families usually made.[64] The vast majority of the people who worked in the factories were women. Women went to work in textile factories for a number of reasons. Some women left home to live on their own because of crowding at home; or to save for future marriage portions. The work enabled them to see more of the world, to earn something in anticipation of marriage, and to ease the crowding within the home. They also did it to make money for family back home. The money they sent home was to help out with the trouble some of the farmers were having. They also worked in the millhouses because they could gain a sense of independence and growth as a personal goal.[65] Contemporary technology[edit] Synthetic fibers such as nylon were invented during the 20th century and synthetic fibers have been added to many natural fibers. 21st century[edit] See also: Textile industry, Bangladesh textile industry, Textile industry of China, and Textile industry in India The worldwide market for textiles and apparel exports in 2013 according to United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database stood at $772 billion.[66] In 2016, the largest apparel exporting nations were China ($161 billion), Bangladesh ($28 billion), Vietnam ($25 billion), India ($18 billion), Hong Kong ($16 billion), Turkey ($15 billion) and Indonesia ($7 billion).[67] See also[edit]

History of fashion design History of hide materials History of silk History of Western fashion Otzi's clothing and shoes Timeline of clothing and textiles technology


^ Creativity In The Textile Industries: A Story From Pre-History To The 21st century. Textileinstitutebooks.com. Retrieved on 1 January 2012. ^ Jenkins, pp. 1–6. ^ Barber, Elizabeth Wayland (1992) Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with Special Reference to the Aegean, Princeton University Press ISBN 0-691-00224-X ^ Barber, Elizabeth Wayland (1995) Women's Work: The First 20,000 Years: Women, Cloth, and Society in Early Times, W. W. Norton & Company ISBN 0-393-31348-4 ^ Bellis, Mary (February 1, 2016). "The History of Clothing – How Did Specific Items of Clothing Develop?". The About Group. Retrieved August 12, 2016.  ^ Stoneking, Mark. "Erratum: Molecular Evolution of Pediculus humanus and the Origin of Clothing". Retrieved 24 March 2008. [permanent dead link] ^ "Archaeologists Discover Oldest-known Fiber Materials Used By Early Humans". Retrieved 31 December 2017.  ^ Forensic Photography Brings Color Back To Ancient Textiles. Researchnews.osu.edu. Retrieved on 1 January 2012. ^ Jenkins, D. T (2003-01-01). The Cambridge history of western textiles. Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 0521341078.  ^ a b Jenkins, pp. 39–47 ^ https://www.jstor.org/stable/24966394?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents ^ https://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/8301806 ^ a b c Jenkins, pp. 30–39 ^ Tang, Chi and Miao, Liangyun, "Zhongguo Sichoushi" ("History of Silks in China") Archived 23 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Encyclopedia of China, 1st ed. ^ "Textile Exhibition: Introduction". Asian art. Retrieved 2 August 2006.  ^ (in French) Charles Meyer, Des mûriers dans le jardine du mandarin, Historia, no. 648, December 2000. ^ Cameron, J. (2011). Iron and cloth across the Bay of Bengal: new data from Tha Kae, central Thailand. Antiquity, 85(328). ^ Liddell, Jill, The story of the Kimono, E. P. Dutton New Zork, 1989, ISBN 0-525-24574-X ^ Zamanaka, Norio, The Book of Kimono, Kodansha International, 1986, ISBN 0-87011-785-8 ^ Slade, T. (2009). Japanese fashion a cultural history (English ed.). Oxford: Berg. ^ "Pinoy-Culture ~ A Filipino Cultural & History Blog - Pre-Colonial Traditional Clothing (Note: Though..." Retrieved 6 January 2015.  ^ Elisseeff, Vadime, The Silk Roads: Highways of Culture and Commerce, UNESCO Publishing / Berghahn Books, 2001, ISBN 978-92-3-103652-1 ^ Jenkins, D. T (2003-01-01). The Cambridge history of western textiles. "Industries of Early Historic Europe and the Mediterranean: The Greeks". Cambridge, U.K.; New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 73. ISBN 0521341078.  ^ The Tollund Man – Clothes and Fashion. Tollundman.dk. Retrieved on 1 January 2012. ^ Boucher, p. 28 ^ Archaeology Magazine – Bodies of the Bogs – Clothing and Hair Styles. Archaeology.org. Retrieved on 1 January 2012. ^ Payne et al. (1992) ^ Payne et al. (1992) p. 128. ^ Piponnier & Mane, pp. 114–115 ^ Owen-Crocker, Gale R., Dress in Anglo-Saxon England, revised edition, Boydell Press, 2004, ISBN 1-84383-081-7 pp. 309–315 ^ Østergård, Else, Woven into the Earth: Textiles from Norse Greenland, Aarhus University Press, 2004, ISBN 87-7288-935-7 ^ Piponnier & Mane, p. 39 ^ Donald King in Jonathan Alexander & Paul Binski (eds), Age of Chivalry, Art in Plantagenet England, 1200–1400, p. 157, Royal Academy/Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London 1987 ISBN 0-297-79182-6 ^ a b c d Koslin, Désirée, "Value-Added Stuffs and Shifts in Meaning: An Overview and Case-Study of Medieval Textile Paradigms", in Koslin and Snyder, Encountering Medieval Textiles and Dress, pp. 237–240 ISBN 0-312-29377-1 ^ Laver, James: The Concise History of Costume and Fashion, Abrams, 1979, p. 62 ISBN 0-684-13522-1 ^ Braudel, p. 317 ^ "The birth of fashion", in Boucher, p. 192 ^ Braudel, pp. 312, 313, 323 ^ Singman, Jeffrey L. and Will McLean: Daily Life in Chaucer's England, p. 93. Greenwood Press, London, 2005 ISBN 0-313-29375-9 ^ Black, J. Anderson, and Madge Garland: A History of Fashion, Morrow, 1975, ISBN 0-688-02893-4, p. 122 ^ Crowfoot, Elizabeth, Frances Prichard and Kay Staniland, Textiles and Clothing c. 1150 -c. 1450, Museum of London, 1992, ISBN 0-11-290445-9 ^ "Length of Velvet, Late 15th century". Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) . the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York ^ Boucher ^ Boucher, pp. 219, 244 ^ a b Montupet, Janine, and Ghislaine Schoeller: Lace: The Elegant Web, ISBN 0-8109-3553-8 ^ Berry, Robin L.: "Reticella: a walk through the beginnings of Lace" (2004) (PDF) ^ Kliot, Jules and Kaethe: The Needle-Made Lace of Reticella, Lacis Publications, Berkeley, CA, 1994. ISBN 0-916896-57-9. ^ Dr. Wolf D. Fuhrig, "German Silesia: Doomed to Extinction," Heritage: For German-Americans who want to be informed (May 2007): 1. ^ a b Parthasarathi, Prasannan (2011), Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not: Global Economic Divergence, 1600–1850, Cambridge University Press, p. 2, ISBN 978-1-139-49889-0  ^ a b Jeffrey G. Williamson, David Clingingsmith (August 2005). "India's Deindustrialization in the 18th and 19th Centuries" (PDF). Harvard University. Retrieved 2017-05-18.  ^ a b Karl J. Schmidt (2015), An Atlas and Survey of South Asian History, page 100, Routledge ^ Angus Maddison (1995), Monitoring the World Economy, 1820-1992, OECD, p. 30 ^ a b Richard Maxwell Eaton (1996), The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760, page 202, University of California Press ^ a b Om Prakash, "Empire, Mughal", History of World Trade Since 1450, edited by John J. McCusker, vol. 1, Macmillan Reference USA, 2006, pp. 237-240, World History in Context, accessed 3 August 2017 ^ John F. Richards (1995), The Mughal Empire, page 202, Cambridge University Press ^ http://irjims.com/files/S-Dey.pdf ^ Spindel, Loom, and Needle – History of the Textile Industry ^ Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. Womenshistory.about.com (2010-06-19). Retrieved on 1 January 2012. ^ UC Davis Department of Textiles and Clothing Archived 27 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine. History ^ University of Nebraska-Lincoln Department of Textiles, Clothing and Design M.A. in Textile History Archived 19 October 2010 at WebCite. (PDF) . Retrieved on 1 January 2012. ^ Iowa State University Archived 15 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. College of Family and Consumer Sciences. Department of Textiles and Clothing History of costume collection, 1865–1948, n. d. ^ Union-Endicott High School Library Archived 5 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Clothing and Textiles – Fashion History ^ History of 1960s Fashion and Textiles. Vam.ac.uk. Retrieved on 1 January 2012. ^ W. J. Rorabaugh (17 September 1981). The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 129–131. ISBN 978-0-19-502990-1. Retrieved 1 January 2012.  ^ Thomas Dublin (August 1995). Transforming women's work: New England lives in the industrial revolution. Cornell University Press. pp. 82–. ISBN 978-0-8014-8090-4. Retrieved 1 January 2012.  ^ "India world's second largest textiles exporter: UN Comtrade". Economic Times. June 2, 2014.  ^ http://www.thedailystar.net/business/exporters-hardly-grab-orders-diverted-china-1446907


Boucher, François. 20,000 Years of Fashion: The history of costume and personal adornment. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1987 ISBN 0-8109-1693-2 Jenkins, David, ed.: The Cambridge History of Western Textiles, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-521-34107-8 Payne, Blanche; Winakor, Geitel; Farrell-Beck Jane (1992) The History of Costume, from the Ancient Mesopotamia to the Twentieth Century, 2nd Edn, HarperCollins ISBN 0-06-047141-7 Piponnier, Françoise, and Perrine Mane; Dress in the Middle Ages; Yale UP; 1997; ISBN 0-300-06906-5

Further reading[edit]

Ashelford, Jane: The Art of Dress: Clothing and Society 1500–1914, Abrams, 1996. ISBN 0-8109-6317-5 Arnold, Janet: Patterns of Fashion: the cut and construction of clothes for men and women 1560–1620, Macmillan 1985. Revised edition 1986. (ISBN 0-89676-083-9) Arnold, Janet: Queen Elizabeth's Wardrobe Unlock'd, W S Maney and Son Ltd, Leeds 1988. ISBN 0-901286-20-6 Braudel, Fernand, Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th centuries, Vol 1: The Structures of Everyday Life, William Collins & Sons, London 1981 Darwin, George H., "Development in Dress", Macmillan's magazine, vol. 26, May to Oct. 1872, pages 410–416 Favier, Jean, Gold and Spices: The Rise of Commerce in the Middle Ages, London, Holmes and Meier, 1998, ISBN 0-8419-1232-7 Gordenker, Emilie E.S.: Van Dyck and the Representation of Dress in Seventeenth-Century Portraiture, Brepols, 2001, ISBN 2-503-50880-4 Kõhler, Carl: A History of Costume, Dover Publications reprint, 1963, from 1928 Harrap translation from the German, ISBN 0-486-21030-8 Lefébure, Ernest: Embroidery and Lace: Their Manufacture and History from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Day, London, H. Grevel and Co., 1888, ed. by Alan S. Cole, at Online Books , retrieved 14 October 2007 Netherton, Robin, and Gale R. Owen-Crocker, editors, Medieval Clothing and Textiles, Volume 1, Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK, and Rochester, NY, the Boydell Press, 2005, ISBN 1-84383-123-6 Netherton, Robin, and Gale R. Owen-Crocker, editors, Medieval Clothing and Textiles, Volume 2, Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK, and Rochester, NY, the Boydell Press, 2006, ISBN 1-84383-203-8 Netherton, Robin, and Gale R. Owen-Crocker, editors, Medieval Clothing and Textiles, Volume 3, Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK, and Rochester, NY, the Boydell Press 2007, ISBN 978-1-84383-291-1 Payne, Blanche: History of Costume from the Ancient Egyptians to the Twentieth Century, Harper & Row, 1965. No ISBN for this edition; ASIN B0006BMNFS Sylvester, Louise M., Mark C. Chambers and Gale R. Owen-Crocker, editors, Medieval Dress and Textiles in Britain: A Multilingual Sourcebook, Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK, and Rochester, NY, Boydell Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-84383-932-3 Watt, James C.Y.; Wardwell, Anne E. (1997). When silk was gold: Central Asian and Chinese textiles. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0870998250. 

External links[edit]

Textile production in Europe, 1600–1800, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art Spindle, Loom, and Needle – History of the Textile Industry Australian Museum of Clothing And Textiles Inc. at the Wayback Machine (archived 27 October 2009) – Why have a Museum of Clothing and Textiles? Linking Anthropology and History in Textiles and Clothing Research: The Ethnohistorical Method by Rachel K. Pannabecker – from Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3, 14–18 (1990) The drafting history of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing American Women's History: A Research Guide Clothing and Fashion Historical Clothing/Fabric All Sewn Up: Millinery, Dressmaking, Clothing and Costume Gallery of English Medieval Clothing from 1906 by Dion Clayton Calthrop

v t e

Historical clothing



Egyptian Biblical Greek Roman Han Chinese Indian

Middle Ages

Anglo-Saxon Byzantine English Europe

400s–1000s 1100s 1200s 1300s 1400s


1500s–1820s Western fashion

1500–1550 1550–1600 1600–1650 1650–1700 1700–1750 1750–1775 1775–1795 1795–1820 1820s

1830s–1910s Western fashion


1830s 1840s 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s

1900s 1910s

1920s–1990s Western fashion

1920s 1930–1945 1945–1959 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s


2000s 2010s


Banyan Brunswick Chiton Frock Hanfu Peplos Stola Toga Tunic


Basque Bedgown Bodice Court dress (Empire of Japan) Doublet Peascod belly Poet shirt


Braccae Breeches Culottes Harem pants Knickerbockers Pedal pushers


Ballerina skirt Harem skirt Hobble skirt Poodle skirt Train


Bliaut Close-bodied gown Débutante dress Gown Kirtle Mantua Polonaise Sack-back gown Sailor dress Tea gown


Caraco Chlamys Cloak Dolman Doublet Duster Exomis Frock coat Greatcoat Himation Houppelande Inverness cape Jerkin Justacorps Kandys Palla Pallium Pelisse Redingote Smock-frock Surcoat Ulster coat Visite Witzchoura


Basque Bustle Chausses Chemise Codpiece Corselet Corset

Waist cincher

Dickey Garter Hoop skirt

Crinoline Farthingale Pannier

Hose Liberty bodice Loincloth Open drawers Pantalettes Petticoat Peignoir Pettipants Union suit Yếm


Albanian Apex Arakhchin Attifet Aviator Bergère Blessed hat Bonnet Capotain Cavalier Coif Coonskin Cornette Crown Dunce Fillet French hood Fontange Gable hood Hennin Jeongjagwan Jewish Kausia Kokoshnik Llawt'u Matron's badge Miner's Ming Mob Modius Monmouth Mooskappe Motoring hood Mounteere Nemes Nightcap Nón quai thao Ochipok Pahlavi Petasos Phrygian Pileus Printer's Pudding Qing Snood Smoking Tainia Taranga Wimple


Buskins Caligae Chopines Crakow Episcopal sandals Hessians Pampooties Sabatons


Ascot tie Belt hook Cointoise Cravat Hairpin Hatpin Muff Partlet Ruff Shoe buckle

See also

Timeline of clothing Clothing terminology Costume Dress code Fashion Formal wear Sumptuary law

v t e


Historical clothing • Traditional and national clothing


Blouse Cache-cœur Cardigan Crop top Dress shirt Guayabera Guernsey Halterneck Henley shirt Hoodie Jersey Polo shirt Shirt Sleeveless shirt Sweater Sweater vest T-shirt Tube top Turtleneck Twinset


Bell-bottoms Bermuda shorts Bondage pants Capri pants Cargo pants Chaps Cycling shorts Dress pants High water pants Hotpants Lowrise pants Jeans Jodhpurs Leggings Overall Palazzo pants Parachute pants Pedal pushers Phat pants Shorts Slim-fit pants Sweatpants Windpants Yoga pants


A-line skirt Ballerina skirt Denim skirt Men's skirts Miniskirt Pencil skirt Prairie skirt Rah-rah skirt Sarong Skort Tutu Wrap


Ball gown Bouffant gown Coatdress Cocktail dress Débutante dress Formal wear Frock Evening gown Gown House dress Jumper Little black dress Princess line Sheath dress Shirtdress Slip dress Strapless dress Sundress Wedding dress Wrap dress

Suits and uniforms

Academic dress Ball dress Black tie Boilersuit Cleanroom suit Clerical clothing Court dress Gymslip Hazmat suit Jumpsuit Kasaya Lab coat Military uniform Morning dress Onesie Pantsuit Red Sea rig Romper suit School uniform Scrubs Stroller Tuxedo Vestment White tie


Apron Blazer British Warm Cagoule Cape Chesterfield Coat Covert coat Cut-off Duffel coat Flight jacket Gilet Goggle jacket Guards coat Harrington jacket Hoodie Jacket Jerkin Leather jacket Mess jacket Opera coat Overcoat Parka Paletot Pea coat Poncho Raincoat Robe Safari jacket Shawl Shrug Ski suit Sleeved blanket Smoking jacket Sport coat Trench coat Ulster coat Waistcoat Windbreaker

Underwear (lingerie)


Bra Camisole Undershirt


Diaper Panties Plastic pants Slip Thong Underpants

Boxer briefs Boxer shorts Midway briefs Briefs


Adult bodysuit Infant bodysuit Long underwear Playsuit Teddy


Boot Court shoe Dress shoe Flip-flops Hosiery Sandal Shoe Spats Slipper Sneakers Sock Stocking Tights


Baseball cap Beret Cap Fedora Hat Helmet Hood Kerchief Knit cap Toque Turban Veil


Ascot tie Bow tie Cravat Neckerchief Necktie Scarf


Babydoll Blanket sleeper Negligee Nightgown Nightshirt Pajamas


Bikini Burkini Boardshorts Dry suit Monokini One-piece Rash guard Square leg suit Swim briefs Swim diaper Trunks Wetsuit


Belt Coin purse Cufflink Cummerbund Gaiters Glasses Gloves Headband Handbag Jewellery Muff Pocket protector Pocket watch Sash Sunglasses Suspenders Umbrella Wallet Wristwatch

See also

Activewear Clothing fetish Clothing technology Clothing terminology Costume Cross-dressing Dress code


Fashion Haute couture History of clothing See-through clothing

v t e

Textile arts


Applique Beadwork Crochet Dyeing Embroidery Fabric Felting Fiber Knitting Lace Macramé Nålebinding Needlework Patchwork Passementerie Plying Quilting Rope Rug making Sewing Stitch Textile printing Weaving Yarn

History of ...

Byzantine silk Clothing and textiles Silk Quilting Silk in the Indian subcontinent Textile manufacturing by pre-industrial methods Textiles in the Industrial Revolution Modern Industrial Textile Production Timeline of textile technology

Regional and ethnic

African Andean Australian Aboriginal Hmong Indigenous peoples of the Americas Korean Māori Mapuche Maya Mexican Navajo Oaxacan


Blocking Fiber art Mathematics and fiber arts Manufacturing Preservation Recycling Textile industry Textile museums Units of measurement Wearable fiber art


Dyeing terms Sewing terms Textile terms

v t e

Prehistoric technology


timeline outline Stone Age subdivisions New Stone Age





Neolithic Revolution

founder crops New World crops

Ard / plough Celt Digging stick Domestication Goad Irrigation Secondary products Sickle Terracing

Food processing

Fire Basket Cooking

Earth oven

Granaries Grinding slab Ground stone Hearth

Aşıklı Höyük Qesem Cave

Manos Metate Mortar and pestle Pottery Quern-stone Storage pit


Arrow Boomerang

throwing stick

Bow and arrow


Nets Spear

Spear-thrower baton harpoon woomera Schöningen Spears

Projectile points

Arrowhead Bare Island Cascade Clovis Cresswell Cumberland Eden Folsom Lamoka Manis Site Plano Transverse arrowhead


Game drive system

Buffalo jump


Earliest toolmaking

Oldowan Acheulean Mousterian

Clovis culture Cupstone Fire hardening Gravettian culture Hafting Hand axe


Langdale axe industry Levallois technique Lithic core Lithic reduction

analysis debitage flake

Lithic technology Magdalenian culture Metallurgy Microblade technology Mining Prepared-core technique Solutrean industry Striking platform Tool stone Uniface Yubetsu technique

Other tools

Adze Awl


Axe Bannerstone Blade


Bone tool Bow drill Burin Canoe

Oar Pesse canoe



Cleaver Denticulate tool Fire plough Fire-saw Hammerstone Knife Microlith Quern-stone Racloir Rope Scraper


Stone tool Tally stick Weapons Wheel




Göbekli Tepe Kiva Standing stones

megalith row Stonehenge



Neolithic architecture British megalith architecture Nordic megalith architecture Burdei Cave Cliff dwelling Dugout Hut

Quiggly hole

Jacal Longhouse Mud brick


Neolithic long house Pit-house Pueblitos Pueblo Rock shelter

Blombos Cave Abri de la Madeleine Sibudu Cave

Stone roof Roundhouse Stilt house

Alp pile dwellings

Wattle and daub

Water management

Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Water well

Other architecture

Archaeological features Broch Burnt mound

fulacht fiadh

Causewayed enclosure

Tor enclosure

Circular enclosure


Cursus Henge


Oldest buildings Megalithic architectural elements Midden Timber circle Timber trackway

Sweet Track

Arts and culture

Material goods

Baskets Beadwork Beds Chalcolithic Clothing/textiles


Cosmetics Glue Hides

shoes Ötzi


amber use

Mirrors Pottery

Cardium Grooved ware Linear Jōmon Unstan ware

Sewing needle Weaving Wine

Winery wine press


Art of the Upper Paleolithic Art of the Middle Paleolithic

Blombos Cave

List of Stone Age art Bird stone Bradshaw rock paintings Cairn Carved Stone Balls Cave paintings

painting pigment

Cup and ring mark Geoglyph Golden hats Guardian stones Megalithic art Petroform Petroglyph Petrosomatoglyph Pictogram Rock art

Stone carving

Sculpture Statue menhir Stone circle

list British Isles and Brittany

Venus figurines


Burial mounds

Bowl barrow Round barrow

Mound Builders culture

U.S. sites

Chamber tomb



Dartmoor kistvaens

Clava cairn Court tomb Cremation Dolmen

Great dolmen

Funeral pyre Gallery grave

transepted wedge-shaped

Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow

unchambered Grønsalen

Megalithic tomb Mummy Passage grave Rectangular dolmen Ring cairn Simple dolmen Stone box grave Tor cairn Tumulus Unchambered long cairn

Other cultural


sites lunar calendar

Behavioral modernity Origin of language


Prehistoric medicine Evolutionary musicology

music archaeology

Prehistoric music

Alligator drum flutes Divje Babe flute gudi

Prehistoric numerals Origin of religion

Paleolithic religion Prehistoric religion Spiritual drug use

Prehistoric warfare Symbo