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Latin
Latin
is a member of the broad family of Italic languages . Its alphabet, the Latin
Latin
alphabet , emerged from the Old Italic alphabets , which in turn were derived from the Greek and Phoenician scripts. Historical Latin
Latin
came from the prehistoric language of the Latium region, specifically around the River Tiber , where Roman civilization first developed. How and when Latin
Latin
came to be spoken by the Romans are questions that have long been debated. Various influences on Latin of Celtic dialects in northern Italy
Italy
, the non-Indo-European Etruscan language in Central Italy
Italy
, and the Greek of southern Italy
Italy
have been detected, but when these influences entered the native Latin
Latin
is not known for certain.

Surviving Latin
Latin
literature consists almost entirely of Classical Latin
Latin
in its broadest definition. It includes a polished and sometimes highly stylized literary language sometimes termed Golden Latin, which spans the 1st century BC and the early years of the 1st century AD. However, throughout the history of ancient Rome
Rome
the spoken language differed in both grammar and vocabulary from that of literature, and is referred to as Vulgar Latin
Latin
. In addition to Latin, Greek was often spoken by the well-educated elite, who studied it in school and acquired Greek tutors from among the influx of enslaved educated Greek prisoners of war. In the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which became the Byzantine Empire , the Greek Koine of Hellenism remained current and was never replaced by Latin.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins * 2 Old Latin
Latin

* 3 Classical Latin
Latin

* 3.1 Golden Age * 3.2 Silver Age

* 4 Late Latin
Latin
* 5 Vulgar Latin
Latin
* 6 Romance languages * 7 Ecclesiastical Latin
Latin
* 8 Medieval Latin
Latin
* 9 Renaissance Latin
Latin
* 10 New Latin
Latin

* 11 Phonology

* 11.1 Vowels

* 11.1.1 Pure vowels

* 11.1.1.1 Initial syllables * 11.1.1.2 Medial syllables * 11.1.1.3 Syncope * 11.1.1.4 Final syllables

* 11.1.2 Diphthongs

* 11.1.2.1 Initial syllables * 11.1.2.2 Medial syllables * 11.1.2.3 Final syllables

* 11.1.3 Syllabic resonants and laryngeals

* 11.2 Consonants

* 11.2.1 Aspirates * 11.2.2 Labiovelars * 11.2.3 Other sequences * 11.2.4 S-rhotacism

* 12 See also * 13 Notes * 14 Sources * 15 External links

ORIGINS

Main article: Italic languages

The name Latin
Latin
derives from the Italic tribal group named Latini that settled around the 10th century BC in Latium, and the dialect spoken by these people.

The ITALIC languages form a _centum _ subfamily of the Indo-European language family. These include the Romance , Germanic , Celtic , and Hellenic languages, and a number of extinct ones.

Broadly speaking, in initial syllables the Indo-European simple vowels — _(*a), *e, *i, *o, *u_; short and long — are usually retained in Latin. The schwa indogermanicum (_*ə_) appears in Latin as _a_ (cf. IE _*pəter_ > L _pater_). Diphthongs are also preserved in Old Latin, but in Classical Latin
Latin
some tend to become monophthongs (for example _oi_ > _ū_ or _oe_, and _ei_ > _ē_ > _ī_). In non-initial syllables, there was more vowel reduction. The most extreme case occurs with short vowels in medial open syllables (i.e. short vowels followed by at most a single consonant, occurring neither in the first nor last syllable): All are reduced to a single vowel, which appears as _i_ in most cases, but _e_ (sometimes _o_) before _r_, and _u_ before an _l_ which is followed by _o_ or _u_. In final syllables, short _e_ and _o_ are usually raised to _i_ and _u_, respectively.

Consonants are generally more stable. However, the Indo-European voiced aspirates _bh, dh, gh, gwh_ are not maintained, becoming _f, f, h, f_ respectively at the beginning of a word, but usually _b, d, g, v_ elsewhere. Note that non-initial _dh_ becomes _b_ next to _r_ or _u_, e.g. _*h₁rudh-_ "red" > _rub-_, e.g. _rubeō_ "to be red"; _*werdh-_ "word" > _verbum_. _s_ between vowels famously becomes _r_, e.g. _flōs_ "flower", gen. _flōris_; _erō_ "I will be" vs. root _es-_; _aurōra_ "dawn" < *_ausōsā_ (cf. Germanic _*aust-_ > English "east", Vedic Sanskrit _uṣā́s_ "dawn"); _soror_ "sister" < _*sosor_ < _*swesōr_ (cf. Old English _sweostor_ "sister").

Of the original eight cases of Proto-Indo-European , Latin
Latin
inherited six: nominative , vocative , accusative , genitive , dative , and ablative . The Indo-European locative survived in the declensions of some place names and a few common nouns, such as _Roma_ "Rome" (locative _Romae_) and _domus_ "home" (locative _domī_ "at home"). Vestiges of the instrumental case may remain in adverbial forms ending in _-ē_.

It is believed that the earliest surviving inscription is a seventh-century B.C. pin known as the _ Praenestine fibula _, which reads _Manios med fhefhaked Numasioi_ "Manius made me for Numerius".

OLD LATIN

The Duenos inscription
Duenos inscription
, from the 6th century BC, is the second-earliest known Latin
Latin
text. Main article: Old Latin
Latin

OLD LATIN (also called EARLY LATIN or ARCHAIC LATIN) refers to the period of Latin
Latin
texts before the age of Classical Latin
Latin
, extending from textual fragments that probably originated in the Roman monarchy to the written language of the late Roman republic about 75 BC. Almost all the writing of its earlier phases is inscriptional.

Some phonological characteristics of older Latin
Latin
are the case endings _-os_ and _-om_ (later Latin
Latin
_-us_ and _-um_). In many locations, classical Latin
Latin
turned intervocalic /s/ into /r/. This had implications for declension : early classical Latin, _honos_, _honoris_; Classical _honor_, _honoris_ ("honor"). Some Latin
Latin
texts preserve /s/ in this position, such as the Carmen Arvale 's _lases_ for _lares _.

CLASSICAL LATIN

Main article: Classical Latin
Latin
Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
's Commentarii de Bello Gallico is one of the most famous classical Latin
Latin
texts of the Golden Age of Latin. The unvarnished, journalistic style of this upper-class general has long been taught as a model of the urbane Latin
Latin
officially spoken and written in the floruit of the Roman republic .

CLASSICAL LATIN is the form of the Latin
Latin
language used by the ancient Romans in Classical Latin
Latin
literature. In the latest and narrowest philological model its use spanned the Golden Age of Latin
Latin
literature – broadly the 1st century BC and the early 1st century AD – possibly extending to the Silver Age – broadly the 1st and 2nd centuries. It was a polished written literary language based on the refined spoken language of the upper classes. Classical Latin
Latin
differs from Old Latin: the earliest inscriptional language and the earliest authors, such as Ennius , Plautus and others, in a number of ways; for example, the early _-om_ and _-os_ endings shifted into _-um_ and _-us_ ones, and some lexical differences also developed, such as the broadening of the meaning of words. In the broadest and most ancient sense, the classical period includes the authors of Early Latin, the Golden Age and the Silver Age.

GOLDEN AGE

The GOLDEN AGE OF LATIN LITERATURE is a period consisting roughly of the time from 75 BC to AD 14, covering the end of the Roman Republic and the reign of Augustus Caesar . In the currently used philological model this period represents the peak of Latin
Latin
literature. Since the earliest post-classical times the Latin
Latin
of those authors has been an ideal norm of the best Latin, which other writers should follow.

SILVER AGE

In reference to Roman literature, the SILVER AGE covers the first two centuries AD directly after the Golden age . Literature from the Silver Age is more embellished with mannerisms.

LATE LATIN

Main article: Late Latin
Latin

LATE LATIN is the administrative and literary language of Late Antiquity in the late Roman empire and states that succeeded the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
over the same range. By its broadest definition it is dated from about 200 AD to about 900 AD when it was replaced by written Romance languages . Opinion concerning whether it should be considered classical is divided. The authors of the period looked back to a classical period they believed should be imitated and yet their styles were often classical. According to the narrowest definitions, Late Latin
Latin
did not exist and the authors of the times are to be considered medieval.

VULGAR LATIN

Main article: Vulgar Latin
Latin
Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii
Pompeii
, was the language of the ordinary people of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, distinct from the Classical Latin
Latin
of literature.

VULGAR LATIN (in Latin, _sermo vulgaris_) is a blanket term covering vernacular dialects of the Latin
Latin
language spoken from earliest times in Italy
Italy
until the latest dialects of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, diverging still further, evolved into the early Romance languages – whose writings began to appear about the 9th century.

This spoken Latin
Latin
differed from the literary language of Classical Latin
Latin
in its grammar and vocabulary. It is likely to have evolved over time, with some features not appearing until the late Empire. Other features are likely to have been in place much earlier. Because there are few phonetic transcriptions of the daily speech of these Latin speakers (to match, for example, the post-classical Appendix Probi ) Vulgar Latin
Latin
must be studied mainly by indirect methods. A replica of the Old Roman Cursive inspired by the Vindolanda tablets

Knowledge of Vulgar Latin
Latin
comes from a variety of sources. First, the comparative method reconstructs items of the mother language from the attested Romance languages. Also, prescriptive grammar texts from the Late Latin
Latin
period condemn some usages as errors, providing insight into how Latin
Latin
was actually spoken. The solecisms and non-Classical usages occasionally found in late Latin
Latin
texts also shed light on the spoken language. A windfall source lies in the chance finds of wax tablets such as those found at Vindolanda on Hadrian\'s Wall . The Roman cursive script was used on these tablets.

ROMANCE LANGUAGES

Main article: Romance languages

The ROMANCE LANGUAGES, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. The Romance languages have more than 700 million native speakers worldwide, mainly in the Americas , Europe
Europe
, and Africa
Africa
, as well as in many smaller regions scattered through the world.

All Romance languages descend from Vulgar Latin, the language of soldiers, settlers, and slaves of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, which was substantially different from that of the Roman _literati_. Between 200 BC and AD 100, the expansion of the Empire and the administrative and educational policies of Rome
Rome
made Vulgar Latin
Latin
the dominant vernacular language over a wide area which stretched from the Iberian Peninsula to the west coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
. During the Empire's decline and after its collapse and fragmentation in the 5th century, Vulgar Latin began to evolve independently within each local area, and eventually diverged into dozens of distinct languages. The overseas empires established by Spain , Portugal and France after the 15th century then spread these languages to other continents – about two thirds of all Romance speakers are now outside Europe.

In spite of the multiple influences of pre-Roman languages and later invasions, the phonology , morphology , lexicon , and syntax of all Romance languages are predominantly derived from Vulgar Latin. As a result, the group shares a number of linguistic features that set it apart from other Indo-European branches.

ECCLESIASTICAL LATIN

Main article: Ecclesiastical Latin
Latin

ECCLESIASTICAL LATIN (sometimes called CHURCH LATIN) is a broad and analogous term referring to the Latin
Latin
language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
, its liturgies (mainly in past times) and during some periods the preaching of its ministers. Ecclesiastical Latin
Latin
is not a single style: the term merely means the language promulgated at any time by the church. In terms of stylistic periods, it belongs to Late Latin
Latin
in the Late Latin
Latin
period, Medieval Latin
Latin
in the Medieval Period, and so on through to the present. One may say that, starting from the church's decision in the early Late Latin period to use a simple and unornamented language that would be comprehensible to ordinary Latin
Latin
speakers and yet still be elegant and correct, church Latin
Latin
is usually a discernible substyle within the major style of the period. Its authors in the New Latin
Latin
period are typically paradigmatic of the best Latin
Latin
and that is true in contemporary times. The decline in its use within the last 100 years has been a matter of regret to some, who have formed organizations inside and outside the church to support its use and to use it.

MEDIEVAL LATIN

Main article: Medieval Latin
Latin
Page with medieval Latin
Latin
text from the Carmina Cantabrigiensia (Cambridge University Library, Gg. 5. 35), 11. cent.

MEDIEVAL LATIN refers to the literary and administrative Latin
Latin
used in the Middle Ages . It exhibits much variation between individual authors, mainly due to poor communications in those times between different regions. The individuality is characterised by a different range of solecisms and by the borrowing of different words from Vulgar Latin
Latin
or from the local vernacular. Some styles show features intermediate between Latin
Latin
and Romance languages; others are closer to classical Latin. The stylistic variations came to an end with the rise of nations and new empires in the Renaissance period, and the authority of the first universities imposing a new style, Renaissance Latin
Latin
.

RENAISSANCE LATIN

Main article: Renaissance Latin
Latin

RENAISSANCE LATIN is a name given to the Latin
Latin
written during the European Renaissance in the 14th-16th centuries, particularly distinguished by the distinctive Latin
Latin
style developed by the humanist movement .

_ Ad fontes _ was the general cry of the humanists, and as such their Latin
Latin
style sought to purge Latin
Latin
of the medieval Latin
Latin
vocabulary and stylistic accretions that it had acquired in the centuries after the fall of the Roman Empire. They looked to Golden Age Latin
Latin
literature, and especially to Cicero
Cicero
in prose and Virgil in poetry , as the arbiters of Latin
Latin
style. They abandoned the use of the sequence and other accentual forms of meter , and sought instead to revive the Greek formats that were used in Latin
Latin
poetry during the Roman period. The humanists condemned the large body of medieval Latin
Latin
literature as "gothic " – for them, a term of abuse – and believed instead that only ancient Latin
Latin
from the Roman period was "real Latin".

The humanists also sought to purge written Latin
Latin
of medieval developments in its orthography . They insisted, for example, that _ae_ be written out in full wherever it occurred in classical Latin; medieval scribes often wrote _e_ instead of _ae_. They were much more zealous than medieval Latin
Latin
writers in distinguishing _t_ from _c_: because the effects of palatalization made them homophones , medieval scribes often wrote, for example, _eciam_ for _etiam_. Their reforms even affected handwriting : humanists usually wrote Latin
Latin
in a script derived from Carolingian minuscule , the ultimate ancestor of most contemporary lower-case typefaces , avoiding the black-letter scripts used in the Middle Ages. Erasmus even proposed that the then-traditional pronunciations of Latin
Latin
be abolished in favour of his reconstructed version of classical Latin
Latin
pronunciation.

The humanist plan to remake Latin
Latin
was largely successful, at least in education . Schools now taught the humanistic spellings, and encouraged the study of the texts selected by the humanists, largely to the exclusion of later Latin
Latin
literature. On the other hand, while humanist Latin
Latin
was an elegant literary language , it became much harder to write books about law , medicine , science or contemporary politics in Latin
Latin
while observing all of the humanists' norms of vocabulary purging and classical usage. Because humanist Latin
Latin
lacked precise vocabulary to deal with modern issues, their reforms accelerated the transformation of Latin
Latin
from a working language to an object of antiquarian study. Their attempts at literary work, especially poetry, often have a strong element of pastiche .

NEW LATIN

A Recent Latin
Latin
inscription at Salamanca University commemorating the visit of the then-Prince "Akihitus " and Princess "Michika " of Japan on 28 February 1985 Main article: New Latin
Latin

NEW LATIN (or NEO-LATIN) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in international scientific vocabulary and systematics . The term came into widespread use towards the end of the 1890s among linguists and scientists .

Classicists use the term "Neo-Latin" to describe the use of the Latin language for any purpose, scientific or literary, after the Renaissance (for which purpose they often use the date 1500), although, for example, the editors of the I Tatti Renaissance Library call their Renaissance Latin
Latin
language texts Neo- Latin
Latin
as well. Such Contemporary Latin
Latin
includes ecclesiastical use, as well as translations from modern languages into Latin
Latin
and the occasional poetry. Under the name "Living Latin", some have advocated reviving the language as a means of spoken communication.

PHONOLOGY

VOWELS

Proto-Italic inherited all ten of the early post-Proto-Indo-European simple vowels (i.e. at a time when laryngeals had colored and often lengthened adjacent vowels and then disappeared in many circumstances): _*a, *e, *i, *o, *u, *ā, *ē, *ī, *ō, *ū_. It also inherited all of the post-PIE diphthongs except for _*eu_, which became _*ou_. Proto-Italic and Old Latin
Latin
had a stress accent on the first syllable of a word, and this caused steady reduction and eventual deletion of many short vowels in non-initial syllables while affecting initial syllables much less. Long vowels were largely unaffected in general except in final syllables, where they had a tendency to shorten.

Development of Proto-Italic vowels in Latin
Latin

INITIAL MEDIAL FINAL

PROTO-ITALIC +R +L _PINGUIS_ +OTHER +ONE CONSONANT +CLUSTER ABSOLUTELY FINAL

ONE CONSONANT CLUSTER S M, N OTHER

A a e u i e i e i e e

E e

I i i

O o u u

U u e

ā ā a a, ā

ē ē e ē?

ī ī i ī?

ō ō o ō

ū ū u ū?

AI ae ī

AU au ū

EI ī

OI ū, oe ū ī

OU ū

Note: For the following examples, it helps to keep in mind the normal correspondences between PIE and certain other languages:

Development of some Proto-Indo-European sounds in other languages (POST-)PIE ANCIENT GREEK OLD ENGLISH GOTHIC SANSKRIT NOTES

*I i i i, aí /ɛ/ i

*E e e i, aí /ɛ/ a

*A a a a a

*O o a a a

*U u u, o u, aú /ɔ/ u

*ī ī ī ei /ī/ ī

*ē ē ā ē ā

*ā ē (Attic ); ā (Doric , etc.) ō ō ā

*ō ō ō ō ā

*ū ū ū ū ū

*AI ai ā ái ē

*AU au ēa áu ō

*EI ei ī ei /ī/ ē

*EU eu ēo iu ō

*OI oi ā ái ē

*OU ou ēa áu ō

*P p f f; b p _b_ in Gothic by Verner\'s law

*T t þ/ð; d þ; d t _þ_ and _ð_ are different graphs for the same sound; _d_ in the Germanic languages by Verner\'s law

*ḱ k h; g h; g ś _g_ in the Germanic languages by Verner\'s law

*K k; c (+ PIE e/i)

*Kʷ p; t (+ e/i) hw, h; g, w ƕ /hʷ/; g, w, gw _g, w, gw_ in the Germanic languages by Verner\'s law

*B b p p b

*D d t t d

*ǵ g k k j

*G g; j (+ PIE e/i)

*Gʷ b; d (+ i) q, c q

*Bʰ ph; p b b bh; b Greek _p_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_b_ before any aspirated consonant (Grassmann\'s law )

*Dʰ th; t d d dh; d Greek _t_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_d_ before any aspirated consonant

*ǵʰ kh; k g g h; j Greek _k_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_j_ before any aspirated consonant

*Gʰ gh; g h; j (+ PIE e/i) Greek _k_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_g, j_ before any aspirated consonant

*Gʷʰ ph; p th; t (+ e/i) b (word-initially); g, w b (word-initially); g, w, gw Greek _p, t_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_g, j_ before any aspirated consonant

*S h (word-initially); s, - s; r s; z s, ṣ _r, z_ in Germanic by Verner\'s law

*Y h, z (word-initially); - g(e) /j/ j /j/ y

*W - w w v

Pure Vowels

Initial Syllables

In initial syllables, Latin
Latin
generally preserves all of the simple vowels of Proto-Italic (see above):

* PIE _*h₂eǵros_ "field" > _*agro-_ > _ager_, gen. _agrī_ (cf. Greek _agrós_, English _acre_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_ájra-_) * PIE _*kápr̥-_ "penis" > _*kapros_ > _caper_ "he-goat", gen. _caprī_ (cf. Greek _kápros_ "boar", Old English _hæfer_ "he-goat", Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_kápr̥th-_ "penis") * PIE _*seḱs_ "six", _septḿ̥_ "seven" > _sex, septem_ (cf. Greek _heks, heptá_, Lithuanian _šešì_, _septynì_, Sanskrit _ṣáṣ, saptá_) * PIE *_kʷis_ > _quis_ "who?" (Greek _tís_, Avestan _čiš_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_kíḥ_) * PIE *_kʷod_ > _quod_ "what, that" (relative) ( Old English _hwæt_ "what", Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_kád_) * PIE _*oḱtōu_ "eight" > _octō_ (Greek _oktṓ_, Irish _ocht_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_aṣṭā́(u)_) * PIE _*nokʷts_ "night" > _nox_, gen. _noctis_ (Greek _nuks_ < _*nokʷs_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_nák_ < _*nakts_, Lithuanian _naktìs_) * PIE _*(H)i̯ug-óm_ "yoke" > _iugum_ (Greek _zugón_, Gothic _juk_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_yugá-_) * PIE _*méh₂tēr_ "mother" > _*mā́tēr_ > _māter_ (Doric Greek _mā́tēr_, Old Irish _máthir_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_mātár-_) * PIE _*sweh₂dús_ "pleasing, tasty" > _*swādu-_ > _*swādwi-_ (remade into _i_-stem) > _suāvis_ ( Doric Greek _hādús_, English _sweet_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_svādú-_) * PIE _*sēmi-_ (or _*seh₁mi-_) "half" > _sēmi-_ (Greek _hēmi-_, Old English _sām-_) * PIE _*gneh₃-tó-_ "known" > _*gnō-tó-_ > _nōtus_ (cf. _i-gnōtus_ "unknown"; Welsh _gnawd_ "customary", Sanskrit _jñātá-_; Greek _gnōtós_ ) * PIE _*muHs_ "mouse" > _mūs_ (cf. Old English _mūs_, Greek _mûs_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_mū́ṣ-_)

Short vowel changes in initial syllables:

1. _*swe-_ > _so-_:

* _*swesōr_ > _soror_, gen. _sorōris_ "sister" * _*swépnos_ (or *_swópnos_) > _somnus_ "sleep"

2. _*we-_ > _wo-_ before labial consonants or velarized _l_ (_l pinguis_; i.e. an _l_ not followed by _i_, _ī_ or _l_):

* _*welō_ "I want" > _volō_ (vs. _velle_ "to want" before _l exīlis_) * _*wemō_ "I vomit" > _vomō_ (cf. Greek _eméō_, Sanskrit _vámiti_)

3. _e_ > _i_ before (spelled _n_ before a velar, or _g_ before _n_):

* PIE *_dn̥ǵʰwéh₂s_ > _*dn̥ɣwā_ > _*denɣʷā_ > Old Latin _dingua_ > _lingua_ "tongue" (_l-_ from _lingō_ "to lick") * PIE _*pénkwe_ "five" > *_kʷenkʷe_ > _quīnque_ (long _ī_ from _quīntus_ "fifth" < _*quīnctos_, where lengthening is normal before _nct_) * PIE _*deḱ-no-_ > *_deŋno-_ > _dignus_ "worthy"

Medial Syllables

In non-initial syllables, there was more vowel reduction of short vowels. The most extreme case occurs with short vowels in medial syllables (i.e. short vowels in a syllable that is neither the first nor the last), where all five vowels usually merge into a single vowel:

1. They merge into _e_ before _r_ (sometimes original _o_ is unaffected)

* _*in-armis_ > _inermis_ "unarmed" (vs. _arma_ "arms") * Latin-Faliscan _*pe-par-ai_ "I gave birth" > _peperī_ (vs. _pariō_ "I give birth") * _*kom-gesō_ > _congerō_ "to collect" (vs. _gerō_ "to do, carry out") * _*kinis-es_ "ash" (gen.sg.) > _cineris_ (vs. nom.sg. _cinis_) * _*Falisioi_ > _Faleriī_ "Falerii (major town of the Faliscans)" (vs. _Faliscus_ "Faliscan") * _*-foro-_ "carrying" (cf. Greek _-phóros_) > _-fero-_, e.g. _furcifer_ "gallows bird" * PIE _*swéḱuros_ "father-in-law" > _*swekuros_ > Old Latin _*soceros_ > _socer_, gen. _socerī_

2. They become Old Latin
Latin
_o_ > _u_ before _l pinguis_, i.e., an _l_ not followed by _i, ī,_ or _l_:

* _*en-saltō_ "to leap upon" > _īnsoltō_ (with lengthening before _ns_) > _īnsultō_ (vs. _saltō_ "I leap") * _*ad-alēskō_ "to grow up" > _adolēscō_ > _adulēscō_ (vs. _alō_ "I nourish") * _*ob-kelō_ "to conceal" > _occulō_ (vs. _celō_ "I hide") * Greek _Sikelós_ "a Sicilian" > _*Sikolos_ > _Siculus_ (vs. _Sicilia_ "Sicily") * _te-tol-ai_ > _tetulī_ "I carried" (formerly _l pinguis_ here because of the original final _-ai_) * _kom-solō_ "deliberate" > _cōnsulō_ * PIE _*-kl̥d-to-_ "beaten" > _*-kolsso-_ > _perculsus_ "beaten down"

3. But they remain _o_ before _l pinguis_ when immediately following a vowel:

* Latin-Faliscan _*fili-olos_ > _filiolus_ "little son" * Similarly, _alveolus_ "trough"

4. Before /w/ the result is always _u_, in which case the /w/ is not written:

* _*eks-lawō_ "I wash away" > _ēluō_ * _*mon-i-wai_ "I warned" > _monuī_ * _*tris-diw-om_ "period of three days" > _trīduom_ > _trīduum_ * _*dē nowōd_ "anew" > _dēnuō_

5. They become _i_ before one consonant other than _r_ or _l pinguis_:

* _*re-fakjō_ "to remake" > _*refakiō_ > _reficiō_ (vs. _faciō_ "I do, make") * Latin-Faliscan _*ke-kad-ai_ "I fell" > _cecidī_ (vs. _cadō_ "I fall") * _*ad-tenējō_ > _attineō_ "to concern" (vs. _teneō_ "I hold") * _*kom-regō_ > _corrigō_ "to set right, correct" (vs. _regō_ "I rule; straighten") * Greek _Sikelía_ "Sicily" > _Sicilia_ (vs. _Siculus_ "a Sicilian") * PIE _*me-món-h₂e_ (perfect) "thought, pondered" > Latin-Faliscan _*me-mon-ai_ > _meminī_ "I remember" * _*kom-itājō_ "accompany" > _comitō_ * _*nowotāts_ "newness" > _novitās_ * _*kornu-kan-_ "trumpeter" > _cornicen_ * _*kaput-es_ "head" (gen. sg.) > _capitis_ (vs. nom.sg. _caput_)

6. But they sometimes become _e_ before one consonant other than _r_ or _l pinguis_, when immediately following a vowel:

* _*sokiotāts_ "fellowship" > _societās_ * _*wariogājesi_ "to make diverse" > _variegāre_ * But: _*tībia-kan-_ "flute-player" > _*tībiikan-_ > _tībīcen_ * But: _*medio-diēs_ "midday" > _*meriodiēs_ (dissimilative rhotacism) > _*meriidiēs_ > _merīdiēs_ "noon; south"

7. Variation between _i_ and (often earlier) _u_ is common before a single labial consonant (_p, b, f, m_), underlyingly the sonus medius vowel:

* From the root _*-kap-_ "grab, catch":

* _occupō_ "seize" vs. _occipiō_ "begin" * From the related noun _*-kaps_ "catcher": _prīnceps_ "chief" (lit. "seizer of the first (position)"), gen. _prīncipis_, vs. _auceps_ "bird catcher", gen. _aucupis_ * _*man-kapiom_ > _mancupium_ "purchase", later _mancipium_

* _*sub-rapuit_ > _surrupuit_ "filches", later _surripuit_ * _*mag-is-emos_ > _maxumus_ "biggest", later _maximus_; similarly _proxumus_ "nearest", _optumus_ "best" vs. later _proximus_, _optimus_ * _*pot-s-omos_ > _possumus_ "we can"; _*vel-omos_ > _volumus_ "we want"; but _*leg-omos_ > _legimus_ "we gather", and all other such verbs (_-umus_ is isolated in _sumus_, _possumus_ and _volumus_)

Medially before two consonants, when the first is not _r_ or _l pinguis_, the vowels do not merge to the same degree:

1. Original _a_, _e_ and _u_ merge into _e_:

* Greek _tálanton_ > _*talantom_ > _talentum_ * _*sub-raptos_ "filched" > _surreptus_ (vs. _raptus_ "seized") * _*re-faktos_ "remade" > _refectus_ (cf. _factus_ "made") * _*ad-tentos_ > _attentus_ "concerned" (cf. _tentus_ "held", _attineō_ "to concern")

2. But original _i_ is unaffected:

* _*re-likʷtos_ "left (behind)" > _relictus_

3. And original _o_ raises to _u_:

* _*legontor_ "they gather" > _leguntur_ * _*ejontes_ "going" (gen. sg.) > _euntis_ * _rōbos-to-_ > _rōbustus_ "oaken" (cf. _rōbur_ "oak" < _*rōbos_)

Syncope

EXON\'S LAW dictates that if there are two light medial syllables in a row (schematically, _σσ̆σ̆σ_, where _σ_ = syllable and _σ̆_ = light syllable, where "light" means a short vowel followed by only a single consonant), the first syllable syncopates (i.e. the vowel is deleted):

* _*deksiteros_ "right (hand)" > _dexterus_ (cf. Greek _deksiterós_) * _*re-peparai_ > _repperī_ "I found" (cf. _peperī_ "I gave birth" < _*peparai_) * _*prīsmo-kapes_ > _prīncipis_ "prince" gen. sg. (nom. sg. _prīnceps_ < _*prīsmo-kaps_ by analogy) * _*mag-is-emos_ > _maximus_ "biggest" (cf. _magis_ "more")

Syncopation tends to occur after _r_ and _l_ in all non-initial syllables, sometimes even in initial syllables.

* _*feret_ "he carries" > _fert_ * _*agros_ "field" > _*agr̩s_ > _*agers_ > _*agerr_ > _ager_ * _*imbris_ "rainstorm" > _*imbers_ > _imber_ * _*tris_ "three times" > _*tr̩s_ > _*ters_ > Old Latin
Latin
_terr_ > _ter_ * _*faklitāts_ > _facultās_

Sometimes early syncope causes apparent violations of Exon's Law:

* _kosolinos_ "of hazel" > _*kozolnos_ (not _**koslinos_) > _*korolnos_ > _*korulnos_ (_o > u_ before _l pinguis_, see above) > _colurnus_ (metathesis)

Syncope of _-i-_ also occurred in _-ndis_, _-ntis_ and _-rtis_. _-nts_ then became _-ns_ with lengthening of the preceding vowel, while _-rts_ was simplified to _-rs_ without lengthening.

* _*montis_ "hill" > _*monts_ > _mōns_ * _*gentis_ "tribe" > _*gents_ > _gēns_ * _*frondis_ "leaf" > _*fronts_ > _frōns_ * _*partis_ "part" > _*parts_ > _pars_

Final Syllables

In final syllables of polysyllabic words before a final consonant or cluster, short _a, e, i_ merge into either _e_ or _i_ depending on the following consonant, and short _o, u_ merge into _u_.

1. Short _a, e, i_ merge into _i_ before a single non-nasal consonant:

* Proto-Italic _*rededas, *rededat_ > _reddis, reddit_ "you return, he returns" * PIE thematic 2nd/3rd sg. _*-esi, *-eti_ > _*-es, *-et_ > _-is, -it_ (e.g. _legis, legit_ "you gather, he gathers") * i-stem nom. sg. _*-is_ > _-is_

2. Short _a, e, i_ merge into _e_ before a cluster or a single nasal consonant:

* _*prīsmo-kaps_ > _prīnceps_ "first, chief" (cf. _capiō_ "to take") * _*kornu-kan-(?s)_ > _cornicen_ "trumpeter" (cf. _canō_ "to sing") * _*mīlets_ > _mīles_ "soldier" * _*septḿ̥_ > _septem_ "seven" * i-stem acc. sg. _*-im_ > _em_

3. Short _o, u_ merge into _u_:

* o-stem nominative _*-os_ > Old Latin
Latin
_-os_ > _-us_ * o-stem accusative _*-om_ > Old Latin
Latin
_-om_ > _-um_ * PIE thematic 3rd pl. _*-onti_ > _*-ont_ > _-unt_ * PIE _*i̯ekʷr̥_ > _*jekʷor_ > _iecur_ "liver" * PIE thematic 3rd sg. mediopassive _*-etor_ > _-itur_ * _*kaput_ > _caput_ "head"

4. All short vowels apparently merge into _-e_ in absolute final position.

Long vowels in final syllables shorten before most consonants (but not final _s_), yielding apparent exceptions to the above rules:

* Proto-Italic _*amāt_ > _amat_ "he/she loves" (cf. passive _amātur_) * Proto-Italic _*amānt_ > _amant_ "they love" * a-stem acc. sg. _*-ām_ > _-am_ * PIE thematic 1st sg. mediopassive _*-ōr_ > _-or_ * _*swesōr_ > _soror_ "sister" (cf. gen. _sorōris_)

Diphthongs

Initial Syllables

Proto-Italic maintained all PIE diphthongs except for the change _*eu_ > _*ou_. The Proto-Italic diphthongs tend to remain into Old Latin
Latin
but generally reduce to pure long vowels by Classical Latin.

1. PIE _*ei_ > Old Latin
Latin
_ei_ > _ẹ̄_, a vowel higher than _ē_ < PIE _*ē_. This then developed to _ī_ normally, but to _ē_ before _v_:

* PIE _*deiḱ-_ "point (out)" > Old Latin
Latin
_deicō_ > _dīcō_ "to say" * PIE _*bʰeydʰ-_ "be persuaded, be confident" > *_feiðe-_ > _fīdō_ "to trust" * PIE _*deywós_ "god, deity" > Very Old Latin
Latin
_deiuos_ (Duenos inscription ) > _dẹ̄vos_ > _deus_ * But nominative plural _*deivoi_ > _*deivei_ > _*dẹ̄vẹ̄_ > _dīvī_ > _diī_; vocative singular _*deive_ > _*dẹ̄ve_ > _dīve_

2. PIE _*eu, *ou_ > Proto-Italic _*ou_ > Old Latin
Latin
_ou_ > _ọ̄_ (higher than _ō_ < PIE _*ō_) > _ū_:

* PIE _*(H)jeug-_ "join" > *_joug-s-mn-to-_ > Old Latin
Latin
_iouxmentom_ "pack horse" > _iūmentum_ * PIE _*louk-s-neh₂_ > _*louksnā_ > Old Latin
Latin
_losna_ (i.e. _lọ̄sna_) > _lūna_ "moon" (cf. Old Prussian _lauxnos_ "stars", Avestan _raoχšnā_ "lantern") * PIE *_deuk-_ > *_douk-e-_ > Old Latin
Latin
_doucō_ > _dūcō_ "lead"

3. PIE _*ai_, *_Hei_ > _ae_:

* PIE *_kh₂ei-ko-_ > _*kaiko-_ > _caecus_ "blind" (cf. Old Irish _cáech_ /kaiχ/ "blind", Gothic _háihs_ "one-eyed", Sanskrit _kekara-_ "squinting")

4. PIE _*au_ > _au_:

* PIE _*h₂eug-_ > *_augeje/o_ > _augeō_ "to increase" (cf. Greek _aúksō_, Gothic _áukan_, Lithuanian _áugti_)

5. PIE _*oi_ > Old Latin
Latin
_oi, oe_ > _ū_ (occasionally preserved as _oe_):

* PIE *_h₁oi-nos_ > Old Latin
Latin
_oinos_ > _oenus_ > _ūnus_ "one" * Greek _Phoiniks_ > _Pūnicus_ "Phoenician " * But: PIE _*bʰoidʰ-_ > *_foiðo-_ > _foedus_ "treaty" (cf. _fīdō_ above)

Medial Syllables

All diphthongs in medial syllables become _ī_ or _ū_.

1. (Post-)PIE _*ei_ > _ī_, just as in initial syllables:

* _*en-deik-ō_ > _indīcō_ "to point out" (cf. _dīcō_ "to say")

2. (Post-)PIE _*oi_ > _ū_, just as in initial syllables:

* PIE _*n̥-poini_ "with impunity" > _impūne_ (cf. _poena_ "punishment").

3. (Post-)PIE _*eu, *ou_ > Proto-Italic _*ou_ > _ū_, just as in initial syllables:

* _*en-deuk-ō_ > _*indoucō_ > _indūcō_ "to draw over, cover" (cf. _dūcō_ "to lead")

4. Post-PIE _*ai_ > Old Latin
Latin
_ei_ > _ī_:

* _*ke-kaid-ai_ "I cut", perf. > _cecīdī_ (cf. _caedō_ "I cut", pres.) * _*en-kaid-ō_ "cut into" > _incīdō_ (cf. _caedō_ "cut") * Early Greek (or from an earlier source) _*elaíwā_ "olive" > _olīva_

5. Post-PIE _*au_ > _ū_ (rarely _oe_):

* _*en-klaud-ō_ "enclose" > _inclūdō_ (cf. _claudō_ "close") * _*ad-kauss-ō_ "accuse" > _accūsō_ (cf. _causa_ "cause") * _*ob-aud-iō_ "obey" > _oboediō_ (cf. _audiō_ "hear")

Final Syllables

Mostly like medial syllables:

* _*-ei_ > _ī_: PIE _*meh₂tr-ei_ "to mother" > _mātrī_ * _*-ai_ > _ī_ in multisyllabic words: Latin-Faliscan _peparai_ "I brought forth" > _peperī_ * _*-eu/ou-_ > _ū_: post-PIE _manous_ "hand", gen. sg. > _manūs_

Different from medial syllables:

* _-oi_ > Old Latin
Latin
_-ei_ > _ī_ (not _ū_): PIE o-stem plural _*-oi_ > _-ī_ (cf. Greek _-oi_); * _-oi_ > _ī_ also in monosyllables: PIE _kʷoi_ "who" > _quī_ * _-ai_ > _ae_ in monosyllables: PIE _*prh₂ei_ "before" > _prae_ (cf. Greek _paraí_)

Syllabic Resonants And Laryngeals

The PIE syllabic resonants _*m̥, *n̥, *r̥, *l̥_ generally become _em, en, or, ol_ (cf. Greek _am/a, an/a, ar/ra, al/la_; Germanic _um, un, ur, ul_; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_am/a, an/a, r̥, r̥_; Lithuanian _im̃, iñ, ir̃, il̃_):

* PIE _*déḱm̥(t)_ "ten" > _decem_ (cf. Irish _deich_, Greek _deka_, Gothic _taíhun_ /tɛhun/) * PIE _*(d)ḱm̥tóm_ "hundred" > _centum_ (cf. Welsh _cant_, Gothic _hund_, Lithuanian _šim̃tas_) * PIE _*n̥-_ "not" > OL _en-_ > _in-_ (cf. Greek _a-/an-_, English _un-_) * PIE _*tn̥tós_ "stretched" > _tentus_ (cf. Greek _tatós_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_tatá-_) * PIE _*ḱr̥d-_ "heart" > _*cord_ > _cor_ (cf. Greek _kēr_, English _heart_, Lithuanian _širdìs_) * PIE _*ml̥dú-_ "soft" > _*moldu-_ > _*mollwi-_ (remade as _i_-stem) > _*molwi-_ > _mollis_ (cf. Irish _meldach_ "pleasing", English _mild_, Czech _mladý_)

The laryngeals _*h₁, *h₂, *h₃_ appear in Latin
Latin
as _a_ when between consonants, as in most languages (but Greek _e/a/o_ respectively, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_i_):

* PIE _*dʰh₁-tós_ "put" > L _factus_, with /k/ of disputed etymology (cf. Greek _thetós_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_hitá-_ < _*dhitá-_) * PIE _*ph₂tḗr_ "father" > L _pater_ (cf. Greek _patḗr_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_pitā́_, English _father_) * PIE _*dh₃-tós_ "given" > L _datus_ (cf. Greek _dotós_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_ditá-_)

A sequence of syllabic resonant + laryngeal, when before a consonant, produced _mā, nā, rā, lā_ (cf. Greek _nē/nā/nō, rē/rā/rō_, etc. depending on the laryngeal; Germanic _um, un, ur, ul_; Sanskrit _ā, ā, īr/ūr, īr/ūr_; Lithuanian _ím, ín, ír, íl_):

* PIE _*ǵr̥h₂-no-_ "grain" > _grānum_ (cf. Old Irish _grán_, English _corn_, Lithuanian _žìrnis_ "pea") * PIE _*h₂wl̥h₁-neh₂_ "wool" > _*wlānā_ > _lāna_ (cf. Welsh _gwlân_, Greek _lēnos_, Lithuanian _vìlna_) * PIE _*ǵn̥h₁-to-_ "born" > _gnātus_ "son" (cf. Middle Welsh _gnawt_ "relative", Greek _dió-gnētos_ "Zeus' offspring", English _kind_)

CONSONANTS

Aspirates

The Indo-European voiced aspirates _bʰ, dʰ, gʰ, gʷʰ_, which were probably breathy voiced stops, first devoiced in initial position (fortition ), then fricatized in all positions, producing pairs of voiceless/voiced fricatives in Proto-Italic : _f_ ~ _β_, _θ_ ~ _ð_, _χ_ ~ _ɣ_, _χʷ_ ~ _ɣʷ_ respectively. The fricatives were voiceless in initial position. However, between vowels and other voiced sounds, there are indications — in particular, their evolution in Latin
Latin
— that the sounds were actually voiced . Likewise, Proto-Italic /s/ apparently had a voiced allophone in the same position.

In all Italic languages, the word-initial voiceless fricatives _f_, _θ_, and _χʷ_ all merged to _f_; thus, in Latin, the normal outcome of initial PIE _bʰ, dʰ, gʰ, gʷʰ_ is _f, f, h, f_, respectively. Examples:

* PIE _*bʰréh₂tēr_ "brother" > _*bʰrā́tēr_ > _frāter_ (cf. Old Irish _bráthair_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_bhrā́tar-_, Greek _phrā́tēr_ "member of a phratry") * PIE _*bʰére_ "carry" > _ferō_ (cf. Old Irish _beirim_ "I bear", English _bear_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_bhárati_) * PIE _*dʰwṓr_ "door" > _θwor-_ > *_forā_ > _forēs_ (pl.) "door(s)" (cf. Welsh _dôr_, Greek _thurā_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_dhvā́raḥ_ (pl.)) * PIE _*dʰeh₁-_ "put, place" > *_dʰh₁-k-_ > *_θaki-_ > _faciō_ "do, make" (cf. Welsh _dodi_, English _do_, Greek _títhēmi_ "I put", Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_dádhāti_ he puts") * PIE _*gʰabʰ-_ "seize, take" > *_χaβ-ē_- > _habeō_ "have" (cf. Old Irish _gaibid_ "takes", Old English _gifan_ "to give", Polish _gabać_ "to seize") * PIE _*ǵʰh₂ens_ "goose" > *_χans-_ > _(h)ānser_ (cf. Old Irish _géiss_ "swan", German _Gans_, Greek _khḗn_) * PIE _*ǵʰaidos_ "goat" > *_χaidos_ > _hædus_ "kid" (cf. Old English _gāt_ "goat", Polish _zając_ "hare", Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_háyas_ "horse") * PIE _*gʷʰerm-_ "warm" > *_χʷormo-_ > _formus_ (cf. Old Prussian _gorme_ "heat", Greek _thermós_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_gharmáḥ_ "heat") * PIE _*gʷʰen-dʰ-_ "to strike, kill" > *_χʷ(e)nð-_ > _fendō_ (cf. Welsh _gwanu_ "to stab", Old High German _gundo_ "battle", Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_hánti_ "(he) strikes, kills")

Word-internal _*-bʰ-, *-dʰ-, *-gʰ-, *-gʷʰ-_ evolved into Proto-Italic _β_, _ð_, _ɣ_, _ɣʷ_. In Osco-Umbrian, the same type of merger occurred as that affecting voiceless fricatives, with _β_, _ð_, and _ɣʷ_ merging to _β_. In Latin, this did not happen, and instead the fricatives defricatized, giving _b, d ~ b, g ~ h, g ~ v ~ gu_.

_*-bʰ-_ is the simplest case, consistently becoming _b_.

* PIE _*bʰébʰrus_ "beaver" > *_feβro_ > Old Latin
Latin
_feber_ > _fiber_

_*-dʰ-_ usually becomes _d_, but becomes _b_ next to _r_ or _u_, or before _l_.

* PIE _*bʰeidʰ-_ "be persuaded" > *_feiðe_ > _fīdō_ "I trust" (cf. Old English _bīdan_ "to wait", Greek _peíthō_ "I trust") * PIE _*medʰi-o-_ "middle" > *_meðio-_ > _medius_ (cf. Old Irish _mide_, Gothic _midjis_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_mádhya-_) * PIE *_h₁rudʰ-ró-_ "red" > _*ruðro-_ > _ruber_ (cf. Old Russian _rodrŭ_, Greek _eruthrós_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_rudhirá-_) * PIE _*werh₁-dʰh₁-o-_ "word" > *_werðo-_ > _verbum_ (cf. English _word_, Lithuanian _var̃das_) * PIE _*sth̥₂-dʰlom_ > _*staðlom_ > _stabulum_ "abode" (cf. German _Stadel_) * PIE _*krei(H)-dʰrom_ "sieve, sifter" > *_kreiðrom_ > _crībrum_ "sieve" (cf. Old Irish _críathar_ /krīǝ̯θǝρ/ "sieve", Old English _hrīder_ "sieve")

The development of _*-gʰ-_ is twofold: _*-gʰ-_ becomes _h_ between vowels but _g_ elsewhere:

* PIE _*weǵʰ-_ "carry" > *_weɣ-e/o_ > _vehō_ (cf. Greek _okhéomai_ "I ride", Old English _wegan_ "to carry", Sanskrit _váhati_ "(he) drives") * PIE _*dʰi-n-ǵʰ-_ "shapes, forms" > *_θinɣ-e/o_ > _fingō_ (cf. Old Irish _-ding_ "erects, builds", Gothic _digan_ "to mold, shape")

_*-gʷʰ-_ has three outcomes, becoming _gu_ after _n_, _v_ between vowels, and _g_ next to other consonants. All three variants are visible in the same root _*snigʷʰ-_ "snow" (cf. Irish _snigid_ "snows", Greek _nípha_):

* PIE _*snigʷʰ-s_ > *_sniɣʷs_ > *_nigs_ > nom. sg. _nix_ "snow" * PIE _*snigʷʰ-ós_ > *_sniɣʷos_ > *_niβis_ > gen. sg. _nivis_ "of snow" * PIE _*snei-gʷʰ-e/o_ > *_sninɣʷ-e/o_ (with _n_-infix) > _ninguit_ "it snows"

Other examples:

* PIE _*h₁le(n)gʷʰu-_ > _*h₁legʷʰu-_ > *_leɣʷus_ > *_leβwi-_ (remade as _i_-stem) > _levis_ "lightweight" (cf. Welsh _llaw_ "small, low", Greek _elakhús_ "small", Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_laghú-_, _raghú-_ "quick, light, small")

Labiovelars

_*gʷ_ has results much like non-initial _*-gʷʰ_, becoming _v_ /w/ in most circumstances, but _gu_ after a nasal and _g_ next to other consonants:

* PIE *_gʷih₃wos_ > _*ɣʷīwos_ > _vīvus_ "alive" (cf. Old Irish _biu_, _beo_, Lithuanian _gývas_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_jīvá- "alive")_ * PIE _*gʷm̥i̯e/o-_ "come" > *_ɣʷen-je/o_ > _veniō_ (cf. English _come_, Greek _baínō_ "I go", Avestan _ǰamaiti_ "he goes") * PIE _*gʷr̥h₂us_ "heavy" > _*ɣʷraus_ > _grāvis_ (cf. Greek _barús_, Gothic _kaúrus_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_gurú-_) * PIE _*h₃engʷ-_ > _*onɣʷ-en_ > _unguen_ "salve" (cf. Old Irish _imb_ "butter", Old High German _ancho_ "butter", Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_añjanam_ "anointing, ointment") * PIE _*n̥gʷén-_ "(swollen) gland" > _*enɣʷen_ > _inguen_ "bubo; groin" (cf. Greek _adḗn_ gen. _adénos_ "gland", Old High German _ankweiz_ "pustules")

_*kʷ_ remains as _qu_ before a vowel, but reduces to _c_ /k/ before a consonant or next to a _u_:

* PIE _*kʷetwóres_, neut. _*kʷetwṓr_ "four" > _quattuor_ (cf. Old Irish _cethair_, Lithuanian _keturì_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_catvā́raḥ_) * PIE _*sekʷ-_ "to follow" > _sequor_ (cf. Old Irish _sechem_, Greek _hépomai_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_sácate_) * PIE _*leikʷ-_ (pres. *_li-né-kʷ-_) "leave behind" > _*linkʷ-e/o-_ : _*likʷ-ē-_ > _linquō_ "leaves" : _liceō_ "is allowed; is for sale" (cf. Greek _leípō, limpánō_, Sanskrit _riṇákti_, Gothic _leiƕan_ "to lend") * PIE _*nokʷts_ "night" > _nox_, gen. sg. _noctis_

The sequence _*p ... *kʷ_ assimilates to _*kʷ ... *kʷ_:

* PIE _*pénkʷe_ "five" > _quīnque_ (cf. Old Irish _cóic_, Greek _pénte_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_páñca_) * PIE _*pérkʷus_ "oak" > _quercus_ (cf. Trentino _porca_ "fir", Punjabi _pargāī_ "holm oak", Gothic _faírƕus_ "world", _faírgun-_ "mountain" ) * PIE _*pekʷō_ "I cook" > _*kʷekʷō_ > _coquō_ (cf. _coquīna, cocīnā_ "kitchen" vs. _popīna_ "tavern" < Oscan, where _*kʷ_ > _p_)

The sequences _*ḱw, *ǵw, *ǵʰw_ develop identically to _*kʷ, *gʷ, *gʷʰ_:

* PIE _*éḱwos_ "horse" > _*ekʷos_ > Old Latin
Latin
_equos_ > _ecus_ > _equus_ (assimilated from other forms, e.g. gen. sg. _equī_; cf. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_aśva-_, which indicates _-ḱw-_ not _-kʷ-_) * PIE _*ǵʰweh₁ro-_ "wild animal" > *_χʷero-_ > _ferus_ (cf. Greek _thḗr_, Lesbian _phḗr_, Lithuanian _žvėrìs_) * PIE _*mreǵʰus_ "short" > _*mreɣu-_ > _*mreɣwi-_ (remade as _i_-stem) > _brevis_ (cf. Old English _myrge_ "briefly", Greek _brakhús_, Avestan _mǝrǝzu-_) * PIE _*dn̥ǵʰwéh₂_ "tongue" > _*dn̥ɣwā_ > _*denɣʷā_ > Old Latin
Latin
_dingua_ > _lingua_

Other Sequences

Initial _*dw-_ (attested in Old Latin
Latin
as _du-_) becomes _b-_, thus compensating for the dearth of words beginning with _*b_ in PIE:

* PIE _*dwis_ "twice" > _duis_ > _bis_ (cf. Greek _dís_, Sanskrit _dvis_) * PIE _*deu-l̥-_ "injure" > _duellom_ "war" > _bellum_ (a variant _duellum_ survived in poetry as a trisyllabic word, whence English "duel")

S-rhotacism

Indo-European _s_ between vowels was first voiced to in late Proto-Italic and became _r_ in Latin
Latin
and Umbrian , a change known as rhotacism . Early Old Latin
Latin
documents still have _s_ , and Cicero
Cicero
once remarked that a certain Papirius Crassus officially changed his name from Papisius in 339 b.c., indicating the approximate time of this change. This produces many alternations in Latin
Latin
declension:

* _flōs_ "flower", gen. _flōris_ * _mūs_ "mouse", pl. _mūrēs_ * _est_ "he is", fut. _erit_ "he will be"

Other examples:

* Proto-Italic *_ausōs_, _ausōsem_ > *_auzōs_, _auzōzem_ > _aurōra_ "dawn" (change of suffix; cf. English _east_, Aeolic Greek _aúōs_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_uṣā́s_) * Proto-Italic _*swesōr_ > _*swozōr_ > _soror_ "sister" (cf. Old English _sweostor_, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_svásar_)

However, before another _r_, dissimilation occurred with _sr_ becoming _br_ (likely via an intermediate _*ðr_):

* Proto-Italic _*swesr-īnos_ > _*swezrīnos_ ~ _*sweðrīnos_ > _sobrīnus_ "maternal cousin" (with _so-_ by analogy to _soror_) * Proto-Italic _*keras-rom_ > _*kerazrom_ ~ _*keraðrom_ > _cerebrum_ "skull, brain" (cf. Greek _kéras_ "horn")

SEE ALSO

* _ De vulgari eloquentia _ * Legacy of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire

NOTES

* ^ Leonard Robert Palmer - The Latin
Latin
language - 372 pages University of Oklahoma Press, 1987 Retrieved 2012-02-01 ISBN 0-8061-2136-X * ^ Ramat, Anna G.; Paolo Ramat (1998). _The Indo-European Languages_. Routledge . pp. 272–75. ISBN 0-415-06449-X . * ^ Ramat, Anna G.; Paolo Ramat (1998). _The Indo-European Languages_. Routledge . p. 313. ISBN 0-415-06449-X . * ^ Timothy J. Pulju Rice University .edu/~ Retrieved 2012-02-01 * ^ Allen, W. Sidney (1989). _Vox Latina_. Cambridge University Press . pp. 83–84. ISBN 0-521-22049-1 . * ^ _kʷi-_ > _ti-_ is normal in Attic Greek ; Thessalian Greek had _kís_ while Cypro-Arcadian had _sís_. * ^ Greek is ambiguously either < _*gneh₃-tó-_ or _*gn̥h₃-tó-_ * ^ _l̥_ > _ol_ is normal in Proto-Italic. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sihler, New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, 1995 * ^ James Clackson _-ǵʰw-_ not _-gʷʰ-_ indicated by Old Church Slavonic _języ-kŭ_ "tongue" < _*n̥ǵhu-H-k-_ with loss of initial _*d-_; _-gʷh-_ would yield /g/, not /z/. * ^ Fortson, Benjamin W., _Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction_, p. 283

SOURCES

Allen, J. H.; James B. Greenough (1931). _New Latin
Latin
Grammar_. Boston: Ginn and Company. ISBN 1-58510-027-7 .

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