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The History of German foreign policy covers diplomatic developments and international history since 1871. Before 1870, Prussia was the dominant factor in German affairs, but there were numerous smaller states. The question of excluding or including Austria's influence was settled by the Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. Unification of Germany was made possible by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, in which the smaller states joined behind Prussia in and a smashing victory over France. The German Empire was put together in 1871 by Otto von Bismarck, who dominated German and indeed all of European diplomatic history until he was forced to resign in 1890. The new German Empire Immediately became the dominant diplomatic, political, military and economic force in Europe, although it never had as large a population as Russia. Great Britain continued to dominate the world in naval affairs, international trade, and finance. The Germans tried to catch up in empire building but felt an inferiority complex. Bismarck felt a strong need to keep France isolated, list its desire for revenge frustrate his goals, which after 1871 were European peace and stability. When Kaiser Wilhelm removed Bismarck in 1890, German foreign policy became erratic and increasingly isolated, with only the Austro-Hungarian empire as a serious ally. Germany played a major role in bringing the world to war in 1914. The defeat in 1918 was an airline, but the peace treaty of 1919, was punishing for Germany. Recovered its diplomatic status. By the mid-1920s, thanks to astute diplomacy on its own part, the willingness of the British and Americans compromise, financial aid from New York. Internal German politics became frenzied after 1929 and the impact of the Great Depression, leading to a takeover by Hitler and the Nazis in 1933. They introduced a highly aggressive foreign policy, in alliance with Italy and Japan, design disease control of central Europe. Appeasement has tried by Britain's in France in 1938, only whetted Hitler's appetite for more territory, especially in the East, Were you plan to displaced Jews, Poles and Russians. Nazi Germany played by far the decisive role in leading to the second war in 1939. Since 1945, Germany has recovered from massive wartime destruction to become again the richest and most powerful country in Europe, this time one fully integrated into European affairs. Its major conflict was West Germany versus East Germany, with East Germany as a client state of the Soviet Union until the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989.

Contents

1 1871–1919

1.1 Bismarck 1.2 Kaiser Wilhelm

1.2.1 Two crises in Morocco

1.3 First World War

2 1919–1933

2.1 Weimar Republic

2.1.1 Nazi era, 1933-39

2.2 World War II 2.3 Postwar 2.4 1945–1990 2.5 1990–present

3 See also 4 Notes 5 Further reading

5.1 German diplomacy 5.2 World/European diplomatic context

1871–1919[edit] Main article: International relations (1814–1919) Bismarck[edit]

The Triple Alliance (1913-configuration, shown in red) was constructed to isolate France.

Bismarck's post-1871 foreign policy was conservative and basically aimed at security and preventing the dreaded scenario of a Franco-Russian alliance, which would trap Germany between the two in a war.

German colonies and protectorates at the start of World War I.

The League of Three Emperors (Dreikaisersbund) was signed in 1872 by Russia, Austria, and Germany. It stated that republicanism and socialism were common enemies and that the three powers would discuss any matters concerning foreign policy. Bismarck needed good relations with Russia in order to keep France isolated. In 1877–1878, Russia fought a victorious war with the Ottoman Empire and attempted to impose the Treaty of San Stefano on it. This upset the British in particular, as they were long concerned with preserving the Ottoman Empire and preventing a Russian takeover of the Bosphorus Strait. Germany hosted the Congress of Berlin (1878), whereby a more moderate peace settlement was agreed to. Germany had no direct interest in the Balkans, however, which was largely an Austrian and Russian sphere of influence, although King Carol of Romania was a German prince. In 1879, Bismarck formed a Dual Alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary, with the aim of mutual military assistance in the case of an attack from Russia, which was not satisfied with the agreement reached at the Congress of Berlin. The establishment of the Dual Alliance led Russia to take a more conciliatory stance, and in 1887, the so-called Reinsurance Treaty was signed between Germany and Russia: in it, the two powers agreed on mutual military support in the case that France attacked Germany, or in case of an Austrian attack on Russia. Russia turned its attention eastward to Asia and remained largely inactive in European politics for the next 25 years. In 1882, Italy joined the Dual Alliance to form a Triple Alliance. Italy wanted to defend its interests in North Africa against France's colonial policy. In return for German and Austrian support, Italy committed itself to assisting Germany in the case of a French military attack.[1] For a long time, Bismarck had refused to give in widespread public demands to give Germany "a place in the sun" through the acquisition of overseas colonies. In 1880 Bismarck gave way, and a number of colonies were established overseas. In Africa, these were Togo, the Cameroons, German South-West Africa, and German East Africa; in Oceania, they were German New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, and the Marshall Islands. In fact, it was Bismarck himself who helped initiate the Berlin Conference of 1885. He did it to "establish international guidelines for the acquisition of African territory" (see Colonisation of Africa). This conference was an impetus for the "Scramble for Africa" and "New Imperialism".[2] Kaiser Wilhelm[edit] Main article: Triple Alliance (1882) After removing Bismarck in 1890 the young Kaiser Wilhelm sought aggressively to increase Germany's influence in the world (Weltpolitik).[3] Foreign policy was in the hands of an erratic Kaiser, who played an increasingly reckless hand,[4] and the powerful foreign office under the leadership of Friedrich von Holstein.[5] The foreign office argued that: first, a long-term coalition between France and Russia had to fall apart; secondly, Russia and Britain would never get together; and, finally, Britain would eventually seek an alliance with Germany. Germany refused to renew its treaties with Russia. But Russia did form a closer relationship with France in the Dual Alliance of 1894, since both were worried about the possibilities of German aggression. Furthermore, Anglo–German relations cooled as Germany aggressively tried to build a new empire and engaged in a naval race with Britain; London refused to agree to the formal alliance that Germany sought. Berlin's analysis proved mistaken on every point, leading to Germany's increasing isolation and its dependence on the Triple Alliance, which brought together Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. The Triple Alliance was undermined by differences between Austria and Italy, and in 1915 Italy switched sides.[6] Meanwhile, the German Navy under Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz had ambitions to rival the great British Navy, and dramatically expanded its fleet in the early 20th century to protect the colonies and exert power worldwide.[7] Tirpitz started a programme of warship construction in 1898. In 1890, Germany had gained the island of Heligoland in the North Sea from Britain in exchange for the eastern African island of Zanzibar, and proceeded to construct a great naval base there. This posed a direct threat to British hegemony on the seas, with the result that negotiations for an alliance between Germany and Britain broke down. The British, however, kept well ahead in the naval race by the introduction of the highly advanced new Dreadnought battleship in 1907.[8] Two crises in Morocco[edit] In the First Moroccan Crisis of 1905, Germany nearly came to blows with Britain and France when the latter attempted to establish a protectorate over Morocco. The Germans were upset at having not been informed about French intentions, and declared their support for Moroccan independence. William II made a highly provocative speech regarding this. The following year, a conference was held in which all of the European powers except Austria-Hungary (by now little more than a German satellite) sided with France. A compromise was brokered by the United States where the French relinquished some, but not all, control over Morocco.[9] The Second Moroccan Crisis of 1911 saw another dispute over Morocco erupt when France tried to suppress a revolt there. Germany, still smarting from the previous quarrel, agreed to a settlement whereby the French ceded some territory in central Africa in exchange for Germany's renouncing any right to intervene in Moroccan affairs. It was a diplomatic triumph for France.[10] Historian Heather Jones argues that Germany's use of warlike rhetoric was a deliberate diplomatic ploy:

Another German strategy was to stage dramatic gestures, and dangerously play up the threat of war, in the belief that this would impress upon other European powers the importance of consultation with Germany on imperial issues: the fact that France had not considered it necessary to make a bilateral agreement with Germany over Morocco rankled, especially given Germany was deeply insecure about its newly acquired Great Power status. Hence Germany opted for an increase in belligerent rhetoric and, theatrically, Kaiser Wilhelm II dramatically interrupted a Mediterranean cruise to visit Tangier, where he declared Germany's support for the Sultan's independence and integrity of his kingdom, turning Morocco overnight into an international 'crisis.' [11]

The German adventure resulted in failure and frustration, as military cooperation and friendship between France and Britain was strengthened, and Germany was left more isolated. An even more momentous consequence was the heightened sense of frustration and readiness for war in Germany. It spread beyond the political elite to much of the press and most of the political parties except for the Liberals and Social Democrats on the left. The Pan-German element grew in strength and denounced their government's retreat as treason, stepping up chauvinistic support for war. [12] First World War[edit] Main articles: causes of World War I and Diplomatic history of World War I Ethnic demands for nation states upset the balance between the empires that dominated Europe, leading to World War I, which started in August 1914. Germany stood behind its ally Austria in a confrontation with Serbia, but Serbia was under the protection of Russia, which was allied to France. Germany was the leader of the Central Powers, which included Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and later Bulgaria; arrayed against them were the Allies, consisting chiefly of Russia, France, Britain, and in 1915 Italy. In explaining why neutral Britain went to war with Germany, Kennedy (1980) recognized it was critical for war that Germany become economically more powerful than Britain, but he downplays the disputes over economic trade imperialism, the Baghdad Railway, confrontations in Central and Eastern Europe, high-charged political rhetoric and domestic pressure-groups. Germany's reliance time and again on sheer power, while Britain increasingly appealed to moral sensibilities, played a role, especially in seeing the invasion of Belgium as a profound moral and diplomatic crime. Kennedy argues that by far the main reason was London's fear that a repeat of 1870 — when Prussia and the German states smashed France — would mean that Germany, with a powerful army and navy, would control the English Channel and northwest France. British policy makers insisted that would be a catastrophe for British security.[13] 1919–1933[edit] Main article: Interwar period Weimar Republic[edit] The humiliating peace terms in the Treaty of Versailles provoked bitter indignation throughout Germany, and seriously weakened the new democratic regime. When Germany defaulted on its reparation payments, French and Belgian troops occupied the heavily industrialised Ruhr district (January 1923). The German government encouraged the population of the Ruhr to passive resistance: shops would not sell goods to the foreign soldiers, coal-mines would not dig for the foreign troops, trams in which members of the occupation army had taken seat would be left abandoned in the middle of the street. The passive resistance proved effective, insofar as the occupation became a loss-making deal for the French government. But the Ruhr fight also led to hyperinflation, and many who lost all their fortune would become bitter enemies of the Weimar Republic, and voters of the anti-democratic right. See 1920s German inflation. Germany was the first state to establish diplomatic relations with the new Soviet Union. Under the Treaty of Rapallo, Germany accorded the Soviet Union de jure recognition, and the two signatories mutually cancelled all pre-war debts and renounced war claims. In October 1925 the Treaty of Locarno was signed by Germany, France, Belgium, Britain and Italy; it recognised Germany's borders with France and Belgium. Moreover, Britain, Italy and Belgium undertook to assist France in the case that German troops marched into the demilitarised Rheinland. Locarno paved the way for Germany's admission to the League of Nations in 1926.[14] Nazi era, 1933-39[edit] Main article: Causes of World War II Hitler came to power in January 1933, and inaugurated an aggressive power designed to give Germany economic and political domination across central Europe. He did not attempt to recover the lost colonies. Until August 1939, the Nazis announced Communists and the Soviet Union is the greatest enemy, along with the Jews.

Japanese poster promoting the Axis cooperation in 1938

Hitler's diplomatic strategy in the 1930s was to make seemingly reasonable demands, threatening war if they were not met. When opponents tried to appease him, he accepted the gains that were offered, then went to the next target. That aggressive strategy worked as Germany pulled out of the League of Nations (1933), rejected the Versailles Treaty and began to re-arm (1935), won back the Saar (1935), remilitarized the Rhineland (1936), formed an alliance ("axis") with Mussolini's Italy (1936), sent massive military aid to Franco in the Spanish Civil War (1936–39), seized Austria (1938), took over Czechoslovakia after the British and French appeasement of the Munich Agreement of 1938, formed a peace pact with Joseph Stalin's Soviet Union in August 1939, and finally invaded Poland in September 1939. Britain and France declared war and World War II began – somewhat sooner than the Nazis expected or were ready for.[15] After establishing the "Rome-Berlin axis" with Benito Mussolini, and signing the Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan – which was joined by Italy a year later in 1937 – Hitler felt able to take the offensive in foreign policy. On 12 March 1938, German troops marched into Austria, where an attempted Nazi coup had been unsuccessful in 1934. When Austrian-born Hitler entered Vienna, he was greeted by loud cheers. Four weeks later, 99% of Austrians voted in favour of the annexation (Anschluss) of their country Austria to the German Reich. After Austria, Hitler turned to Czechoslovakia, where the 3.5 million-strong Sudeten German minority was demanding equal rights and self-government. At the Munich Conference of September 1938, Hitler, the Italian leader Benito Mussolini, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier agreed upon the cession of Sudeten territory to the German Reich by Czechoslovakia. Hitler thereupon declared that all of German Reich's territorial claims had been fulfilled. However, hardly six months after the Munich Agreement, in March 1939, Hitler used the smoldering quarrel between Slovaks and Czechs as a pretext for taking over the rest of Czechoslovakia as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. In the same month, he secured the return of Memel from Lithuania to Germany. Chamberlain was forced to acknowledge that his policy of appeasement towards Hitler had failed. World War II[edit] Main article: Diplomatic history of World War II § Germany Germany's foreign policy during the war involved the creation of allied governments under direct or indirect control from Berlin.[16] A main goal was obtaining soldiers from the senior allies, such as Italy and Hungary, and millions of workers and ample food supplies from subservient allies such as Vichy France.[17] By the fall of 1942, there were 24 divisions from Romania on the Eastern Front, 10 from Italy and 10 from Hungary.[18] When a country was no longer dependable, Germany would assume full control, as it did with France in 1942, Italy in 1943, and Hungary in 1944. Full control allowed the Nazis to achieve their high priority of mass murdering all Jewish population. Although Japan was officially a powerful ally, the relationship was distant and there was little coordination or cooperation, such as Germany's refusal to share the secret formula for making synthetic oil from coal until late in the war.[19] Hitler devoted most of his attention during the war to military and diplomatic affairs. DiNardo argues that in Europe Germany's foreign-policy was dysfunctional during the war, as Hitler treated each ally separately, and refused to create any sort of combined staff that would synchronize policies, armaments, and strategies. Italy, Finland, Romania, and Hungary each dealt with Berlin separately, and never coordinated their activities. Germany was reluctant to share its powerful weapons systems, or to train Axis officers. There were some exceptions, such as the close collaboration between the German and Italian forces in North Africa.[20][21] Postwar[edit] Main article: History of Germany (1945–1990) Since 1951, Germany has been at the heart of European integration. The reunification in 1990, which saw East Germany merged into West Germany, promoted peaceful integration with its neighbors. Strong ties with the United States remain central to German foreign policy. Within the framework of NATO and an integrated European Union Military Staff, the Federal Republic has resumed the deployment of military units to mediate in conflict regions worldwide. Germany is one of the world's strongest supporters for ecological awareness in response to climate change and global warming. 1945–1990[edit]

Westbindung

"Bindung" is the German word for fixation or bond; "Westbindung" is Germany's implant into Europe and the Western World. In particular during the Cold War – but continuous into the 21st century – (West-) German foreign policy pursues the country's integration into NATO and a strong co-operation and collective security with its Western partners. As a free democracy and market economy, the world's largest exporting nation and the world's third-richest economy (nominal GDP) (behind the U.S. and Japan), Germany shares the interest and institutions of a free and secure world trade.

Ostpolitik

Main article: Ostpolitik Under the Hallstein Doctrine, the FRG did not have any diplomatic relations with countries in Eastern Bloc until the early 1970s, when Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik led to increased dialogue and treaties like the Treaty of Warsaw, where West Germany accepted the Oder-Neisse line as German-Polish border, and the Basic Treaty, where West and East Germany accepted each other as sovereign entities. Both Germany states were admitted to the United Nations on 18 September 1973. 1990–present[edit] Main article: German reunification

Leaders of the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Germany

After the Fall of the Berlin Wall and the Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany, German reunification took effect on 3 October 1990. On 14 November 1990, Germany and Poland signed a treaty confirming the Oder-Neisse line. They also concluded a cooperation treaty on 17 June 1991. Germany concluded four treaties with the Soviet Union covering the overall bilateral relationship, economic relations, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the territory of the former German Democratic Republic, and German support for those troops. Russia accepted obligations under these treaties as successor to the Soviet Union. See also[edit]

Foreign relations of Germany History of Germany

Notes[edit]

^ Weitsman, Patricia A. (2004), Dangerous alliances: proponents of peace, weapons of war, p. 79  ^ Belgum, Kirsten (1998). Popularizing the Nation: Audience, Representation, and the Production of Identity in "Die Gartenlaube," 1853–1900. p. 149.  ^ Brandenburg, From Bismarck to the World War: A History of German Foreign Policy 1870-1914 (1927) pp 20-52. ^ On the Kaiser's "histrionic personality disorder", see Frank B. Tipton (2003). A History of Modern Germany Since 1815. U of California Press. pp. 243–44.  ^ J.C.G. Röhl (Sep 1966). "Friedrich von Holstein". Historical Journal. 9 (3): 379–388. doi:10.1017/s0018246x00026716.  ^ Raff, Diethher (1988), History of Germany from the Medieval Empire to the Present, pp. 34–55, 202–206  ^ David Woodward (July 1963). "Admiral Tirpitz, Secretary of State for the Navy, 1897–1916". History Today. 13 (8): 548–555.  ^ Holger Herwig (1980). Luxury Fleet: The Imperial German Navy 1888–1918.  ^ Raymond A. Esthus (1970). Theodore Roosevelt and the International Rivalries. pp. 66–111.  ^ Brandenburg, From Bismarck to the World War: A History of German Foreign Policy 1870-1914 (1927) pp 370-93. ^ Heather Jones, "Algeciras Revisited: European Crisis and Conference Diplomacy, 16 January-7 April 1906." (EUI WorkingPaper MWP 2009/1, 2009), p 5 online ^ Immanuel Geiss, German Foreign Policy 1871 – 1914 (1976) 133-36. ^ Kennedy, Paul M. (1980). The Rise of the Anglo-German Antagonism, 1860–1914. pp. 464–470.  ^ Wolfgang Elz, "Foreign policy" in Anthony McElligott, ed., Weimar Germany (2009) pp 50-77 ^ Gerhard L. Weinberg, Hitler's foreign policy 1933-1939: The road to World War II. (2013), Originally published in two volumes. ^ Gerhard L. Weinberg, A world at arms: a global history of World War II (1995), provides a thorough diplomatic history. ^ Mark Mazower, Hitler's Empire: How the Nazis Ruled Europe (2009) ch 9 ^ Gerhard L. Weinberg, A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II (2005) p 414 ^ Bernd Martin (2005). Japan and Germany in the Modern World. Berghahn Books. pp. 279–80.  ^ Richard L. DiNardo, "The dysfunctional coalition: The axis powers and the eastern front in World War II," Journal of Military History (1996) 60#4 pp 711–730 ^ Richard L. DiNardo, Germany and the Axis Powers: From Coalition to Collapse (2005)

Further reading[edit] German diplomacy[edit]

Bark, Dennis L., and David R. Gress. A History of West Germany. Vol. 1: From Shadow to Substance, 1945–1963. Vol. 2: Democracy and Its Discontents, 1963–1991 (1993), the standard scholarly history Brandenburg, Erich. From Bismarck to the World War: A History of German Foreign Policy 1870-1914 (1927) online. Brose, Eric Dorn. German History, 1789–1871: From the Holy Roman Empire to the Bismarckian Reich. (1997) online edition Buse, Dieter K., and Juergen C. Doerr, eds. Modern Germany: an encyclopedia of history, people and culture, 1871-1990 (2 vol. Garland, 1998. Carroll, E. Malcolm. Germany and the great powers, 1866-1914: A study in public opinion and foreign policy (1938) online; online at Questia also online review; 862pp; written for advanced students. Clark, Christopher. Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600–1947 (2006) Cole, Alistair. Franco-German Relations (2000) Detwiler, Donald S. Germany: A Short History (3rd ed. 1999) 341pp; online edition Dugdale, E.T.S. ed. German Diplomatic Documents 1871-1914 (4 vol 1928-31), in English translation. online Eyck, Erich. Bismarck and the German Empire (1964) excerpt and text search Feldman, Lily Gardner. Germany's Foreign Policy of Reconciliation: From Enmity to Amity (Rowman & Littlefield; 2012) 393 pages; on German relations with France, Israel, Poland, and Czechoslovakia/the Czech Republic. excerpt and text search Geiss, Imanuel. German Foreign Policy, 1871-1914 (1979) excerpt Haftendorn, Helga. German Foreign Policy Since 1945 (2006), 441pp Hanrieder, Wolfram F. Germany, America, Europe: Forty Years of German Foreign Policy (1991) Heuser, Beatrice. NATO, Britain, France & the FRG: Nuclear Strategies & Forces for Europe, 1949-2000 (1997) 256pp Hewitson, Mark. "Germany and France before the First World War: a reassessment of Wilhelmine foreign policy." English Historical Review 115.462 (2000): 570-606; argues Germany had a growing sense of military superiority Hewitson, Mark. Germany and the Causes of the First World War (2004) online at Questia Holborn, Hajo. A History of Modern Germany (1959–64); vol 1: The Reformation; vol 2: 1648–1840; vol 3: 1840–1945; standard scholarly survey Junker, Detlef, ed. The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War (2 vol 2004), 150 short essays by scholars covering 1945–1990 excerpt and text search vol 1; excerpt and text search vol 2 Kennedy, Paul. The Rise of the Anglo-German Antagonism 1860–1914 (1980) excerpt and text search Kimmich, Christoph. German Foreign Policy 1918-1945: A Guide to Research and Research Materials (2nd ed. Scholarly Resources, 1991) 264 pp. Leitz, Christian. Nazi Foreign Policy, 1933-1941: The Road to Global War (2004) Maehl, William Harvey. Germany in Western Civilization (1979), 833pp; focus on politics and diplomacy Maulucci Jr., Thomas W. Adenauer's Foreign Office: West German Diplomacy in the Shadow of the Third Reich (2012) excerpt and text search Medlicott, William Norton, and Dorothy Kathleen Coveney, eds. Bismarck and Europe (Hodder Arnold, 1971), 110 short excerpts from, primary sources covering his diplomatic career. Padfield, Peter. The Great Naval Race: Anglo-German Naval Rivalry 1900-1914 (2005) Papayoanou, Paul A. "Interdependence, institutions, and the balance of power: Britain, Germany, and World War I." International Security 20.4 (1996): 42-76. Scheck, Raffael. "Lecture Notes, Germany and Europe, 1871–1945" (2008) full text online, a brief textbook by a leading scholar Schmitt, Bernadotte E. "Triple Alliance and Triple Entente, 1902-1914." American Historical Review 29.3 (1924): 449-473. in JSTOR Schmitt, Bernadotte Everly. England and Germany, 1740-1914 (1916). online Schwarz, Hans-Peter. Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution and Reconstruction (2 vol 1995) excerpt and text search vol 2; also full text vol 1; and full text vol 2 Sheehan, James J. German History, 1770–1866 (1993), the major survey in English Sontag, Raymond James. Germany and England: Background of Conflict, 1848-1898 (1938) Spang, Christian W. and Rolf-Harald Wippich, eds. Japanese-German Relations, 1895-1945: War, Diplomacy and Public Opinion (2006) Steinberg, Jonathan. Bismarck: A Life (2011), most recent scholarly biography Stürmer, Michael. 'Bismarck in Perspective," Central European History (1971) 4#4 pp. 291–331 in JSTOR Taylor, A.J.P. Bismarck: The Man and the Statesman (1967) online edition Taylor, A.J.P. The Course of German History: A Survey of the Development of German History since 1815. (2001). 280pp; online edition Weinberg, Gerhard L. The Foreign Policy of Hitler’s Germany (2 vol, 1970–80). Wheeler-Bennett, John W. "Twenty Years of Russo-German Relations: 1919-1939" Foreign Affairs 25#1 (1946), pp. 23-43 online Wright, Jonathan. Germany and the Origins of the Second World War (Palgrave Macmillan, 2007) 223pp. online review Young, William. German Diplomatic Relations 1871-1945: The Wilhelmstrasse and the Formulation of Foreign Policy (2006); how the foreign ministry shaped policy

World/European diplomatic context[edit]

Albrecht-Carrié, René. A Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna (1958), 736pp; a basic introduction that gives context to Germany's roles. Anderson, Frank Maloy and Amos Shartle Hershey, eds. Handbook For The Diplomatic History Of Europe, Asia, and Africa, 1870-1914 (1918) online Clark, Christopher. The sleepwalkers: How Europe went to war in 1914 (2012). Kaiser, David E. Economic Diplomacy and the Origins of the Second World War: Germany, Britain, France, and Eastern Europe, 1930-1939 (Princeton UP, 2015). Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (1989) excerpt and text search; very wide ranging, with much on economic power Langer, William. An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed. 1973), very detailed outline Langer, William. European Alliances and Alignments 1870-1890 (2nd ed. 1950); advanced coverage of Bismarckian system Langer, William L. The Diplomacy of Imperialism 1890-1902 (2 vol, 1935) Macmillan, Margaret. The War That Ended Peace: The Road to 1914 (2013) covers 1890s to 1914; esp. ch 3-5, 8 Mowat, R. B. A History of European Diplomacy 1815-1914 (1922), basic introduction Overy, R.J. The Origins of the Second World War (2014). Rich, Norman. Great Power Diplomacy 1814-1914 (1992) Rich, Norman. Great Power Diplomacy since 1914 (2003) Schroeder, Paul W. The Transformation of European Politics 1763-1848 (1996) Steiner, Zara. The Lights that Failed: European International History 1919-1933 (2007) excerpt and text search Steiner, Zara. The Triumph of the Dark: European International History 1933-1939 (2011) excerpt and text search Strachan, Hew. The First World War: Volume I: To Arms (2003). Taylor, A.J.P. The Struggle for Mastery in Europe, 1848–1918 (1954) online free; advanced coverage of all major powers

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