The HISTORY OF EGYPT has been long and rich, due to the flow of the
Nile river, with its fertile banks and delta . Its rich history also
comes from its native inhabitants and outside influence. Much of Egypt
's ancient history was a mystery until the secrets of ancient Egyptian
hieroglyphs were deciphered with the discovery and help of the Rosetta
Stone . The
Great Pyramid of Giza is the only one of the Seven Wonders
of the Ancient World still standing. The
Lighthouse of Alexandria ,
one of the other Seven Wonders, is gone. The
Library of Alexandria was
the only one of its kind for centuries.
Human settlement in
Egypt dates back to at least 40,000 BC with
Aterian tool manufacturing. Ancient Egyptian civilization coalesced
around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
under the first pharaoh of the First
Narmer . Predominately
native Egyptian rule lasted until the conquest by the Achaemenid
Empire in the sixth century BC.
In 332 BC, Macedonian ruler
Alexander the Great conquered
Egypt as he
toppled the Achaemenids and established the Hellenistic Ptolemaic
Kingdom , whose first ruler was one of Alexander's former generals,
Ptolemy I Soter . The Ptolemies had to fight native rebellions and
were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the
kingdom and its final annexation by Rome . The death of Cleopatra
ended the nominal independence of
Egypt resulting in
one of the provinces of the Roman Empire.
Roman rule in
Egypt (including Byzantine ) lasted from 30 BC to 641
AD, with a brief interlude of control by the
Sasanian Empire between
619-629, known as
Sasanian Egypt . After the Muslim conquest of Egypt
, parts of
Egypt became provinces of successive Caliphates and other
Muslim dynasties: Rashidun
Caliphate (632-661), Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate (750-909), Fatimid Caliphate
(909-1171), Ayyubid Sultanate (1171–1260), and the
(1250-1517). In 1517, Ottoman sultan
Selim I captured Cairo, absorbing
Egypt into the Ottoman Empire.
Egypt remained entirely Ottoman until 1867, except during French
occupation from 1798 to 1801. Starting in 1867,
Egypt became a
nominally autonomous tributary state called the
Khedivate of Egypt .
Egypt fell under British control in 1882 following
Anglo-Egyptian War . After the end of
World War I
World War I and following
Egyptian revolution of 1919
Egyptian revolution of 1919 , the
Kingdom of Egypt was
established. While a de jure independent state, the United Kingdom
retained control over foreign affairs, defense, and other matters.
British occupation lasted until 1954, with the Anglo-Egyptian
agreement of 1954 .
The modern Republic of
Egypt was founded in 1953, and with the
complete withdrawal of British forces from the
Suez Canal in 1956, it
marked the first time in 2300 years that
Egypt was both fully
independent and ruled by native Egyptians. President Gamal Abdel
Nasser (president from 1956 to 1970) introduced many reforms and
created the short-lived
United Arab Republic (with
Syria ). His terms
also saw the
Six-Day War and the creation of the international
Non-Aligned Movement . His successor,
Anwar Sadat (president from 1970
to 1981) changed Egypt's trajectory, departing from many of the
political, and economic tenets of Nasserism, re-instituting a
multi-party system, and launching the
Infitah economic policy. He led
Egypt in the
Yom Kippur War of 1973 to regain Egypt's Sinai Peninsula,
which Israel had occupied since the
Six-Day War of 1967. This later
led to the
Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty .
Recent Egyptian history has been dominated by events following nearly
thirty years of rule by former president
Hosni Mubarak . The Egyptian
revolution of 2011 deposed Mubarak and resulted in the first
democratically elected president in Egyptian history,
Mohamed Morsi .
Unrest after the 2011 revolution and related disputes led to the 2013
Egyptian coup d\'état .
* 1 Prehistory (pre–3100 BC)
* 2 Ancient
Egypt (3100–332 BC)
* 2.1 Achaemenid rule
* 2.2 Second Achaemenid conquest
* 3 Ptolemaic and Roman
Egypt (332 BC–641 AD)
* 3.1 Sassanid
* 4 Arab and Ottoman
* 5 British Protectorate (1882–1953)
* 6 Republican
Egypt (since 1953)
* 6.1 Reign of Nasser
* 6.2 Reign of Sadat
* 6.3 Reign of Mubarak
* 6.4 Terrorist insurgency
* 6.5 Civil unrest since 2011
* 6.5.1 Revolution
* 6.5.2 Morsi\'s presidency
* 6.5.3 After Morsi
* 6.5.4 El-Sisi Presidency
* 7 See also
* 8 References
PREHISTORY (PRE–3100 BC)
Prehistoric Egypt and Population history of
There is evidence of petroglyphs along the
Nile terraces and in
desert oases. In the 10th millennium BC, a culture of hunter-gatherers
and fishermen was replaced by a grain -grinding culture. Climate
changes and/or overgrazing around 6000 BC began to desiccate the
pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the
Sahara . Early tribal peoples
migrated to the
Nile River, where they developed a settled
agricultural economy and more centralized society.
By about 6000 BC, a
Neolithic culture rooted in the
Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed
independently in Upper and Lower
Egypt . The
Badari culture and the
successor Naqada series are generally regarded as precursors to
Egypt . The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, Merimda,
predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous
Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts
for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but
maintaining frequent contact through trade. The earliest known
evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the
predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200
ANCIENT EGYPT (3100–332 BC)
Main articles: Ancient
History of ancient Egypt The
Great Sphinx and the Pyramids of Giza , built during the
Old Kingdom .
A unified kingdom was founded 3150 BC by King
Menes , leading to a
series of dynasties that ruled
Egypt for the next three millennia.
Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained
distinctively Egyptian in its religion , arts , language and customs.
The first two ruling dynasties of a unified
Egypt set the stage for
Old Kingdom period, c. 2700–2200 BC., which constructed many
pyramids , most notably the Third
Dynasty pyramid of Djoser and the
Dynasty Giza Pyramids .
The First Intermediate Period ushered in a time of political upheaval
for about 150 years. Stronger
Nile floods and stabilization of
government, however, brought back renewed prosperity for the country
in the Middle Kingdom c. 2040 BC, reaching a peak during the reign of
Amenemhat III . A second period of disunity heralded the
arrival of the first foreign ruling dynasty in Egypt, that of the
Hyksos . The
Hyksos invaders took over much of Lower
Egypt around 1650 BC and founded a new capital at
Avaris . They were
driven out by an Upper Egyptian force led by
Ahmose I , who founded
Dynasty and relocated the capital from Memphis to
New Kingdom , c. 1550–1070 BC, began with the Eighteenth
Dynasty, marking the rise of
Egypt as an international power that
expanded during its greatest extension to an empire as far south as
Nubia , and included parts of the
Levant in the east. This
period is noted for some of the most well known Pharaohs , including
Thutmose III ,
Akhenaten and his wife
Ramesses II . The first historically attested
expression of monotheism came during this period as
Atenism . Frequent
contacts with other nations brought new ideas to the New Kingdom. The
country was later invaded and conquered by Libyans , Nubians and
Assyrians , but native
Egyptians eventually drove them out and
regained control of their country.
A team lead by
Johannes Krause managed the first reliable sequencing
of the genomes of 90 mummified individuals in 2017. Whilst not
conclusive, because of the non-exhaustive time frame and restricted
location that the mummies represent, their study nevertheless showed
that these Ancient
Egyptians "closely resembled ancient and modern
Near Eastern populations, especially those in the Levant, and had
almost no DNA from sub-Saharan Africa. What's more, the genetics of
the mummies remained remarkably consistent even as different
powers—including Nubians, Greeks, and Romans—conquered the
In the sixth century BC, the
Achaemenid Empire conquered Egypt. The
Egypt , from 525 BC to 402 BC, save
Petubastis III , was an entirely Persian -ruled period, with the
Achaemenid kings being granted the title of pharaoh .
Dynasty was the last native ruling dynasty during the
Pharaonic epoch. It fell to the Persians again in 343 BC after the
last native Pharaoh, King
Nectanebo II , was defeated in battle.
SECOND ACHAEMENID CONQUEST
Egypt , also known as the Second Egyptian
Satrapy , was effectively a short-living province of the Achaemenid
Empire between 343 BC to 332 BC.
After an interval of independence, during which three indigenous
dynasties reigned (the 28th , 29th and 30th dynasty ), Artaxerxes III
(358–338 BC) reconquered the
Nile valley for a brief second period
(343–332 BC), which is called the Thirty-first
Dynasty of Egypt,
thus starting another period of pharaos of Persian origin.
PTOLEMAIC AND ROMAN EGYPT (332 BC–641 AD)
Ptolemaic Kingdom and
Egypt (Roman province)
Egypt (Roman province) The
Greek Ptolemaic queen
Cleopatra and her son by
Julius Caesar ,
Caesarion , at the
Dendera Temple complex .
Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state extending from
Syria in the east, to Cyrene to the west, and south to the
frontier with Nubia.
Alexandria became the capital city and a center
of Greek culture and trade. To gain recognition by the native Egyptian
populace, they named themselves as the successors to the Pharaohs. The
later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions, had themselves portrayed
on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in
Egyptian religious life.
The last ruler from the
Ptolemaic dynasty was
Cleopatra , who
committed suicide following the burial of her lover
Mark Antony , who
had died in her arms (from a self-inflicted stab wound) after Augustus
Alexandria and her mercenary forces had fled.
The Ptolemies faced rebellions of native Egyptians, often caused by
an unwanted regime, and were involved in foreign and civil wars that
led to the decline of the kingdom and its annexation by Rome.
Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in
after the Muslim conquest . The native Egyptian/Coptic culture
continued to exist as well (the Coptic language itself was Egypt's
most widely spoken language until at least the 10th century).
Egypt quickly became the Empire's breadbasket supplying the greater
portion of the Empire's grain in addition to flax, papyrus, glass, and
many other finished goods. The city of
Alexandria became a key trading
outpost for the
Roman Empire (by some accounts, the most important for
a time). Shipping from
Egypt regularly reached India and Ethiopia
among other international destinations. It was also a leading
(perhaps the leading) scientific and technological center of the
Empire. Scholars such as
Hypatia , and Heron broke new
ground in astronomy, mathematics, and other disciplines. Culturally,
the city of
Alexandria at times rivaled Rome in its importance.
Egypt relatively early in the evangelist period
of the first century (traditionally credited to
Mark the Evangelist ).
Egypt and Antioch,
Syria quickly became the leading
centers of Christianity.
Diocletian 's reign marked the transition
from the Roman to the Byzantine era in Egypt, when a great number of
Egyptian Christians were persecuted. The
New Testament had by then
been translated into Egyptian. After the
Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon in AD
451, a distinct Egyptian Coptic Church was firmly established.
Sasanian Egypt (known in
Middle Persian sources as Agiptus) refers to
the brief rule of
Egypt and parts of
Libya by the
Sasanian Empire ,
which lasted from 619 to 629, until the Sasanian rebel
an alliance with the Byzantine emperor
Heraclius and had control over
Egypt returned to him.
ARAB AND OTTOMAN EGYPT (641–1882)
Main articles: History of Muslim
Egypt and History of Ottoman
Selim I (1470–1520), conquered
Egypt The Hanging Church
of Cairo, first built in the 3rd or 4th century, is one of the most
famous Coptic Orthodox churches in Egypt.
The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after a
brief Persian invasion early in the 7th century, until 639–42, when
Egypt was invaded and conquered by the Arab Islamic Empire . The final
Egypt was of incalculable significance to the Byzantine
Empire, which had relied on
Egypt for many agricultural and
When they defeated the Byzantine Armies in Egypt, the Arabs brought
Sunni Islam to the country. Early in this period,
Egyptians began to
blend their new faith with their Christian traditions as well as other
indigenous beliefs and practices, leading to various Sufi orders that
have flourished to this day. These earlier rites had survived the
period of Coptic Christianity.
Muslim rulers nominated by the Islamic
Caliphate remained in control
Egypt for the next six centuries, with
Cairo as the seat of the
Caliphate under the Fatimids . With the end of the Kurdish Ayyubid
dynasty , the Mamluks , a Turco -Circassian military caste, took
control about AD 1250. By the late 13th century,
Egypt linked the Red
Sea, India, Malaya, and East Indies. The Greek and Coptic languages
and cultures went into a steep decline in favor of Arabic culture
(though Coptic managed to last as a spoken language until the 17th
century and remains a liturgical language today). The Mamluks
continued to govern the country until the conquest of
Egypt by the
Ottoman Turks in 1517, after which it became a province of the Ottoman
Empire . The mid-14th-century
Black Death killed about 40% of the
After the 15th century, the Ottoman invasion pushed the Egyptian
system into decline. The defensive militarization damaged its civil
society and economic institutions. The weakening of the economic
system combined with the effects of plague left
Egypt vulnerable to
foreign invasion. Portuguese traders took over their trade. Egypt
suffered six famines between 1687 and 1731. The 1784 famine cost it
roughly one-sixth of its population.
The brief French invasion of
Egypt led by Napoleon Bonaparte began in
1798. The expulsion of the French in 1801 by Ottoman ,
Mamluk , and
British forces was followed by four years of anarchy in which
Ottomans, Mamluks, and
Albanians — who were nominally in the service
of the Ottomans – wrestled for power. Out of this chaos, the
commander of the Albanian regiment, Muhammad Ali (Kavalali Mehmed Ali
Pasha ) emerged as a dominant figure and in 1805 was acknowledged by
Istanbul as his viceroy in Egypt; the title implied
subordination to the
Sultan but this was in fact a polite fiction:
Ottoman power in
Egypt was finished and Muhammad Ali, an ambitious and
able leader, established a dynasty that was to rule
Egypt until the
revolution of 1952. In later years, the dynasty became a British
His primary focus was military: he annexed Northern Sudan
Syria (1833), and parts of Arabia and
Anatolia ; but in
1841 the European powers, fearful lest he topple the Ottoman Empire
itself, forced him to return most of his conquests to the Ottomans,
but he kept the Sudan and his title to
Egypt was made hereditary. A
more lasting result of his military ambition is that it required him
to modernize the country. Eager to adopt the military (and therefore
industrial) techniques of the great powers, he sent students to the
West and invited training missions to Egypt. He built industries, a
system of canals for irrigation and transport, and reformed the civil
The introduction in 1820 of long-staple cotton, the Egyptian variety
of which became notable, transformed its agriculture into a cash-crop
monoculture before the end of the century. The social effects of this
were enormous: land ownership became concentrated and many foreigners
arrived, shifting production towards international markets.
BRITISH PROTECTORATE (1882–1953)
History of Egypt under the British and History of
Egypt Nationalists demonstrating in
Cairo , 1919
British indirect rule lasted from 1882, when the British succeeded in
defeating the Egyptian Army at Tel el-Kebir in September and took
control of the country, to the
1952 Egyptian revolution which made
Egypt a republic and when British advisers were expelled.
Muhammad Ali was succeeded briefly by his son Ibrahim (in September
1848), then by a grandson Abbas I (in November 1848), then by Said (in
1854), and Isma\'il (in 1863). Abbas I was cautious. Said and Ismail
were ambitious developers, but they spent beyond their means. The Suez
Canal , built in partnership with the French, was completed in 1869.
The cost of this and other projects had two effects: it led to
enormous debt to European banks, and caused popular discontent because
of the onerous taxation it required. In 1875 Ismail was forced to sell
Egypt's share in the canal to the British Government. Within three
years this led to the imposition of British and French controllers who
sat in the Egyptian cabinet, and, "with the financial power of the
bondholders behind them, were the real power in the Government."
Local dissatisfaction with Ismail and with European intrusion led to
the formation of the first nationalist groupings in 1879, with Ahmad
Urabi a prominent figure. In 1882 he became head of a
nationalist-dominated ministry committed to democratic reforms
including parliamentary control of the budget. Fearing a reduction of
their control, Britain and France intervened militarily, bombarding
Alexandria and crushing the Egyptian army at the battle of Tel
el-Kebir . They reinstalled Ismail's son Tewfik as figurehead of a de
facto British protectorate.
In 1914, the Protectorate was made official, and the title of the
head of state , which in 1867 had changed from pasha to khedive , was
changed again to sultan , to repudiate the vestigial suzerainty of the
Ottoman sultan, who was backing the
Central powers in the First World
War . Abbas II was deposed as khedive and replaced by his uncle,
Hussein Kamel , as sultan.
In 1906, the
Dinshaway Incident prompted many neutral
join the nationalist movement. After the First World War, Saad Zaghlul
Wafd Party led the Egyptian nationalist movement to a majority
at the local Legislative Assembly. When the British exiled Zaghlul and
his associates to
Malta on 8 March 1919, the country arose in its
first modern revolution . The revolt led the UK government to issue a
unilateral declaration of Egypt\'s independence on 22 February 1922.
The new government drafted and implemented a constitution in 1923
based on a parliamentary system .
Saad Zaghlul was popularly elected
as Prime Minister of
Egypt in 1924. In 1936, the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty
was concluded. Continued instability due to remaining British
influence and increasing political involvement by the king led to the
dissolution of the parliament in a military coup d'état known as the
1952 Revolution . The Free Officers Movement forced King Farouk to
abdicate in support of his son Fuad .
British military presence in
Egypt lasted until 1954.
REPUBLICAN EGYPT (SINCE 1953)
History of the Republic of Egypt and History of modern
Egypt Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords:
Menachem Begin ,
Jimmy Carter , Anwar Al Sadat .
On 18 June 1953, the Egyptian Republic was declared, with General
Muhammad Naguib as the first President of the Republic. Naguib was
forced to resign in 1954 by
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser – the real architect
of the 1952 movement – and was later put under house arrest .
REIGN OF NASSER
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Nasser assumed power as President in June 1956. British forces
completed their withdrawal from the occupied
Suez Canal Zone on 13
June 1956. He nationalized the
Suez Canal on 26 July 1956, prompting
Suez Crisis .
Syria formed a sovereign union known as the United
Arab Republic . The union was short-lived, ending in 1961 when Syria
seceded, thus ending the union. During most of its existence, the
United Arab Republic was also in a loose confederation with North
Yemen (formerly the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen) known as the
United Arab States .
In the 1967
Six Day War , Israel invaded and occupied Egypt's Sinai
Peninsula and the
Gaza Strip , which
Egypt had occupied since the 1948
Arab–Israeli War . Three years later (1970), President Nasser died
and was succeeded by
Anwar Sadat .
REIGN OF SADAT
Sadat switched Egypt's
Cold War allegiance from the Soviet Union to
the United States, expelling Soviet advisors in 1972. He launched the
Infitah economic reform policy, while clamping down on religious and
In 1973, Egypt, along with Syria, launched the October War , a
surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Sinai
Peninsula and the
Golan Heights . It was an attempt to regain part of
the Sinai territory that Israel had captured six years earlier. Sadat
hoped to seize some territory through military force, and then regain
the rest of the peninsula by diplomacy. The conflict sparked an
international crisis between the US and the USSR, both of whom
intervened. The second UN-mandated ceasefire halted military action.
While the war ended with a military stalemate, it presented Sadat with
a political victory that later allowed him to regain the Sinai in
return for peace with Israel.
Sadat made a historic visit to Israel in 1977, which led to the 1979
peace treaty in exchange for Israeli withdrawal from Sinai. Sadat's
initiative sparked enormous controversy in the
Arab world and led to
Egypt's expulsion from the
Arab League , but it was supported by most
Egyptians. On 6 October 1981, Sadat and six diplomats were
assassinated while observing a military parade commemorating the
eighth anniversary of the October 1973 War. He was succeeded by Hosni
REIGN OF MUBARAK
THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it .
Mubarak started many projects such as
Cairo International Airport and
Cairo metro .
Mubarak made many new cities including:
Main article: Terrorism in
In 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, terrorist attacks in
numerous and severe, and began to target
Copts and foreign tourists as
well as government officials. Some scholars and authors have credited
Sayyid Qutb , who was executed in 1967, as the
inspiration for the new wave of attacks.
The 1990s saw an Islamist group , al-Gama\'a al-Islamiyya , engage in
an extended campaign of violence, from the murders and attempted
murders of prominent writers and intellectuals, to the repeated
targeting of tourists and foreigners. Serious damage was done to the
largest sector of Egypt's economy—tourism —and in turn to the
government, but it also devastated the livelihoods of many of the
people on whom the group depended for support.
Victims of the campaign against the Egyptian state from 1992-1997
exceeded 1,200 and included the head of the counter-terrorism police
(Major General Raouf Khayrat), a speaker of parliament (Rifaat
el-Mahgoub ), dozens of European tourists and Egyptian bystanders, and
over 100 Egyptian police.
At times, travel by foreigners in parts of Upper
Egypt was severely
restricted and dangerous.
On 17 November 1997, 62 people, mostly tourists, were killed near
Luxor . The assailants trapped the people in the Mortuary Temple of
During this period,
Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya was given support by the
governments of Iran and Sudan, as well as al-Qaeda . The Egyptian
government received support during that time from the United States.
CIVIL UNREST SINCE 2011
Egyptian crisis (2011–14)
Egyptian revolution of 2011
Egyptian revolution of 2011
In 2003, the
Kefaya ("Egyptian Movement for Change"), was launched to
oppose the Mubarak regime and to establish democratic reforms and
greater civil liberties . Celebrations in
Tahrir Square after
Omar Suleiman 's statement announcing
Hosni Mubarak 's resignation
On 25 January 2011, widespread protests began against Mubarak's
government. The objective of the protest was the removal of Mubarak
from power. These took the form of an intensive campaign of civil
resistance supported by a very large number of people and mainly
consisting of continuous mass demonstrations. By 29 January, it was
becoming clear that Mubarak's government had lost control when a
curfew order was ignored, and the army took a semi-neutral stance on
enforcing the curfew decree. Some protesters, a very small minority in
Cairo, expressed views against what they deemed was foreign
interference, highlighted by the then-held view that the U.S.
administration had failed to take sides, as well as linking the
administration with Israel.
On 11 February 2011, Mubarak resigned and fled Cairo. Vice President
Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak had stepped down and that the
Egyptian military would assume control of the nation's affairs in the
short term. Jubilant celebrations broke out in
Tahrir Square at the
news. Mubarak may have left
Sharm el-Sheikh the previous
night, before or shortly after the airing of a taped speech in which
Mubarak vowed he would not step down or leave.
On 13 February 2011, the high level military command of Egypt
announced that both the constitution and the parliament of
been dissolved. The parliamentary election was to be held in
A constitutional referendum was held on 19 March 2011. On 28 November
Egypt held its first parliamentary election since the previous
regime had been in power. Turnout was high and there were no reports
of violence, although members of some parties broke the ban on
campaigning at polling places by handing out pamphlets and banners.
There were however complaints of irregularities.
Main article: Timeline of the Egyptian Crisis under
The first round of a presidential election was held in
Egypt on 23
and 24 May 2012 .
Mohamed Morsi won 25% of the vote and
Ahmed Shafik ,
the last prime minister under deposed leader Hosni Mubarak, 24%. A
second round was held on 16 and 17 June. On 24 June 2012, the election
commission announced that
Mohamed Morsi had won the election, making
him the first democratically elected president of Egypt. According to
official results, Morsi took 51.7 percent of the vote while Shafik
received 48.3 percent.
On 8 July 2012, Egypt's new president
Mohamed Morsi announced he was
overriding the military edict that dissolved the country's elected
parliament and he called lawmakers back into session.
On 10 July 2012, the Supreme Constitutional Court of
the decision by Morsi to call the nation's parliament back into
session. On 2 August 2012, Egypt's Prime Minister Hisham Qandil
announced his 35-member cabinet comprising 28 newcomers including four
from the influential
Muslim Brotherhood , six others and the former
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi as the Defence Minister from
the previous Government.
On 22 November 2012, Morsi issued a declaration immunizing his
decrees from challenge and seeking to protect the work of the
constituent assembly drafting the new constitution. The declaration
also requires a retrial of those accused in the Mubarak-era killings
of protesters, who had been acquitted, and extends the mandate of the
constituent assembly by two months. Additionally, the declaration
authorizes Morsi to take any measures necessary to protect the
revolution. Liberal and secular groups previously walked out of the
constitutional constituent assembly because they believed that it
would impose strict Islamic practices, while Muslim Brotherhood
backers threw their support behind Morsi.
The move was criticized by
Mohamed ElBaradei , the leader of Egypt's
Constitution Party, who stated "Morsi today usurped all state powers
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* Muhammad Ali dynasty
* British occupation
* Nasser era
* Sadat era
* Mubarak era
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