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The Info List - History Of Chile During The Parliamentary Era (1891–1925)


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The Parliamentary Era in Chile
Chile
began in 1891, at the end of the Civil War, and spanned until 1925 and the establishment of the 1925 Constitution. Also called "pseudo-parliamentary" period or "Parliamentary Republic", this period was thus named because it established a quasi-parliamentary system based on the interpretation of the 1833 Constitution following the defeat of President José Manuel Balmaceda during the Civil War. As opposed to a "true parliamentary" system, the executive was not subject to the legislative power but checks and balances of executive over the legislature were weakened. The President remained the head of state but its powers and control of the government were reduced. The Parliamentary Republic lasted until the 1925 Constitution drafted by President Arturo Alessandri
Arturo Alessandri
and his minister José Maza. The new Constitution created a presidential system, which lasted, with several modifications, until the 1973 coup d'état. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Chile
Chile
temporarily resolved its border disputes with Argentina with the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile
Chile
and Argentina, the Puna de Atacama Lawsuit
Puna de Atacama Lawsuit
of 1899 and the Cordillera of the Andes Boundary Case, 1902.

Contents

1 Parliamentarism 2 Political structure and electoral practices 3 Social groups 4 The economy of saltpeter 5 Presidents of the Parliamentary Republic 6 See also 7 Bibliography 8 Sources

Parliamentarism[edit]

History of Chile

Early history

Monte Verde Early Mapuches Incas in Chile

Colonial times

Conquest Colonial Chile Captaincy General Arauco War

Nation-building

Patria Vieja War of Independence Reconquest Patria Nueva Civil war (1829–30) War of the Confederation

Republican period

Conservative Republic Liberal Republic War of the Pacific

Parliamentary period

1891 Chilean Civil War Parliamentary Republic 1924 coup d'état

Presidential period

1925 coup d'état Presidential Republic Radical governments Allende and UP era

Pinochet regime

1973 coup d'état Military dictatorship

Contemporary

Transition to democracy Chilean protests Politics of Chile

Related topics

Economic history Maritime history Mining history Chilean coups d'état Political scandals

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The pseudo-parliamentary system was established in Chile
Chile
following José Manuel Balmaceda's defeat in the 1891 Chilean Civil War. Whereas in a complete parliamentary system the chief of government is designed by the parliamentary majority, and usually belongs to it, the function of chief of government was hereby unofficially assumed by the Minister of Interior. The National Congress indirectly controlled his nomination and the rest of the cabinet through the vote of the periodical laws (leyes periódicas), that is the budget, the military credits, etc. Others means of control included the refusal, by any one of the two Chambers (Senate or Chamber of Deputies) to vote a motion of confidence or the refusal to vote laws of lesser importance proposed by the executive. While the Parliament may withdraw his confidence to the Prime minister in a standard parliamentary system, the head of government is normally granted the power of dissolution of parliament, leading to the calling of new elections in order to have the sovereign people arbitrate between the legislative and the executive. However, in the Chilean system, the President of the Republic did not dispose of this power of dissolution, thus restricting his margins of decision. The system of parties was very fluid, functioning on the basis of groups depending on individual personalities or caudillos who held the control of the parties and could form or dissolve cabinets. Furthermore, there was no established voting discipline in the parties. The custom was soon established for the President to nominate "universal cabinets" which included ministers from all parties. The stability of these cabinets was therefore dependent on the political intrigues in the National Congress. Parliamentary instability was quite strong during this period, with a large rotation of cabinets. This pseudo-parliamentary system was terminated with the 1925 Constitution which declared incompatible the charges of ministers with parliamentary offices and made the approval of the Ley de Presupuestos automatic, which included the organization of the state income, if the Congress did not approve it after a while. It also enacted the election of the President at universal direct suffrage. Political structure and electoral practices[edit] The main parties between 1891 and 1925 included, from right to left, the Conservative Party, close to the Roman Catholic Church; various liberal groups in the center belonging to the National Party (aka Monttvarista
Monttvarista
after Manuel Montt
Manuel Montt
and Antonio Varas), the Liberal Party, the Liberal Democratic Party (or Balmacedista); and on the left the Radical Party and the Democrat Party. At the end of the 1910s, the Socialist Workers Party, associated with the labour movement, began to gain some importance. These parties allied themselves either in the Coalition, grouping the Conservative Party and the liberals, or in the Liberal Alliance, composed by the liberals and the Radical Party. As opposed to the Conservative Republic
Conservative Republic
(1831–1861) or the Liberal Republic (1861–1891), the executive power did not interfere in the elections as it did through intendants, governors and inspectors. Elections were organized by the municipalities of Chile, held by various local caudillos. Bribes, electoral fraud, stealing of ballot boxes were frequent in rural zones. Social groups[edit] Three main social classes composed the Parliamentary Republic: the oligarchy, the middle classes and the working classes. The aristocracy was formed by the landlords, politics, saltpeter entrepreneurs (many of whom were foreigners), bankers, physicians, intellectuals, etc. They were used to live in neoclassic palaces or mansions, following European fashion, etc. The oligarchy, however, was internally divided on some points, explaining the many parties and the two main shifting alliances, with the liberals joining either the Conservative Party or the Radical Party. The working classes were formed by saltpeter workers, industrial workers and workers in public works, as well as landless peasants. The first lived in the North, in huts made of Calamina, where differences in temperature between day and night spanned 30 degrees Celsius. Others workers lived in conventillos (dormitories) or in round quarters (rooms without windows or lighting). Peasants lived in ranches. All worked without contract between 12 and 16 hours daily without Sunday sabbath. Some were paid by company scrips. The economy of saltpeter[edit] Saltpeter was the main resource of Chile
Chile
and all of the economy revolved around it. A third of the profits of saltpeter were taken by foreigners, another third by the state, which obtained it by taxing exports, and the last third was used to re-invest in the saltpeter mines. The state used the revenue received by saltpeter to build infrastructures (roads, railroads, ports, etc.). Presidents of the Parliamentary Republic[edit] The charge of Vice-President was exercised as an interim by the Minister of Interior if the President died.

Alm. Jorge Montt
Jorge Montt
Álvarez (1891–1896) Federico Errázuriz Echaurren (1896–1901) Germán Riesco Errázuriz
Germán Riesco Errázuriz
(1901–1906) Pedro Montt Montt
Pedro Montt Montt
(1906–1910) Elías Fernández Albano
Elías Fernández Albano
(1910 as Vice-President) Emiliano Figueroa Larraín
Emiliano Figueroa Larraín
(1910 as Vice-President) Ramón Barros Luco
Ramón Barros Luco
(1910–1915) Juan Luis Sanfuentes
Juan Luis Sanfuentes
(1915–1920) Arturo Alessandri Palma
Arturo Alessandri Palma
(1920–1924) September Junta
September Junta
and January Junta (1924–25) Arturo Alessandri Palma
Arturo Alessandri Palma
(1925 - 1925)

See also[edit]

Chilenization of Tacna, Arica and Tarapacá Patriotic Leagues (Southern Cone) South American dreadnought race Saber noise incident of 1924

Bibliography[edit]

Castedo, Leopoldo (1999) Chile: Vida y muerte de la República Parlamentaria (De Balmaceda a Alessandri) Donoso, Ricardo Alessandri, agitador y demoledor. Cincuenta años de historia política de Chile. Edwards, Alberto (1976) La fornda aristocrática. Historia de Chile. Eyzaguirre, Jaime Chile
Chile
durante el gobienro de Errázuriz Echaurren 1896-1901. Heise, Julio (1974) Historia de Chile. El periodo parlamentario 1861-1925 Vial, Gonzalo (1981) Historia de Chile
Chile
(1891).

Sources[edit] The original version of this article draws heavily on the corresponding article in the Spanish-language, which was accessed in the version of 4 May 2007.

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