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Shi‘a Islam, also known as Shi‘ite Islam
Islam
or Shi‘ism, is the second largest branch of Islam
Islam
after Sunni
Sunni
Islam. Shias adhere to the teachings of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the religious guidance of his family (who are referred to as the Ahl al-Bayt) or his descendants known as Shia Imams. Muhammad's bloodline continues only through his daughter Fatima Zahra and cousin Ali
Ali
who alongside Muhammad's grandsons comprise the Ahl al-Bayt. Thus, Shias consider Muhammad's descendants as the true source of guidance. Shia
Shia
Islam, like Sunni
Sunni
Islam, has at times been divided into many branches; however, only three of these currently have a significant number of followers, and each of them has a separate trajectory. From a political viewpoint the history of the Shia
Shia
was in several stages. The first part was the emergence of the Shia, which starts after Muhammad's death in 632 and lasts until Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
in 680. This part coincides with the Imamah of Ali, Hasan ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali
and Hussain. The second part is the differentiation and distinction of the Shia
Shia
as a separate sect within the Muslim community, and the opposition of the Sunni
Sunni
caliphs. This part starts after the Battle of Karbala and lasts until the formation of the Shia
Shia
states about 900. During this section Shi'ism divided into several branches. The third section is the period of Shia
Shia
states. The first Shia
Shia
state was the Idrisid dynasty
Idrisid dynasty
(780–974) in Maghreb. Next was the Alavid
Alavid
dynasty (864–928) established in Mazandaran
Mazandaran
(Tabaristan), north of Iran. These dynasties were local, but they were followed by two great and powerful dynasties. The Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
formed in Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
in 909, and ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt
Egypt
and the Levant until 1171. The Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
emerged in Daylaman, north of Iran, about 930 and then ruled over central and western parts of Iran
Iran
and Iraq
Iraq
until 1048. In Yemen, Imams of various dynasties usually of the Zaidi sect established a theocratic political structure that survived from 897 until 1962.

Contents

1 From Saqifa to Karbala 2 Differentiation and distinction 3 Division into branches

3.1 Ancestors and the family tree 3.2 Divisions and madh'habs

4 Twelvers
Twelvers
history

4.1 Imams era 4.2 Occultation era

5 Ismaili history

5.1 Old Da'vat 5.2 New Da'vat

6 Zaidiyya history 7 Other sects

7.1 Qarmatians 7.2 Alevis 7.3 Alawism

8 Shia
Shia
empires 9 Notes 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

From Saqifa to Karbala[edit] Main article: Succession to Muhammad See also: Saqifah, Rashidun, First Fitna, Second Fitna, and Battle of Karbala Muhammad
Muhammad
began preaching Islam
Islam
at Mecca
Mecca
before migrating to Medina, from where he united the tribes of Arabia into a singular Arab Muslim religious polity. With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. While Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, and the rest of Muhammad's close family were washing his body for burial, the tribal leaders of Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina
held a secret gathering at Saqifah
Saqifah
to decide who would succeed Muhammad
Muhammad
as head of the Muslim state, disregarding what the earliest Muslims, the [Muhajirun], regarded as Muhammad's appointment of Ali
Ali
as his successor at Ghadir Khumm. Umar ibn al-Khattab, a companion of Muhammad
Muhammad
and was first person to congratulate Ali
Ali
on event of Ghadeer , nominated Abu Bakr. Others, after initial refusal and bickering, settled on Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
who was made the first caliph. This choice was disputed by Muhammad's earliest companions, who held that Ali
Ali
had been designated his successor. According to Sunni
Sunni
accounts, Muhammad
Muhammad
died without having appointed a successor, and with a need for leadership, they gathered and voted for the position of caliph. Shi'a accounts differ by asserting that Muhammad
Muhammad
had designated Ali
Ali
as his successor on a number of occasions, including on his death bed. Ali
Ali
was supported by Muhammad's family and the majority of the Muhajirun, the initial Muslims, and was opposed by the tribal leaders of Arabia who included Muhammad's initial enemies, including, naturally, the Banu Umayya.[1] Abu Bakr's election was followed by a raid on Ali's house led by Umar
Umar
and Khalid ibn al-Walid (see Umar
Umar
at Fatimah's house). [2] The succession to Muhammad
Muhammad
is an extremely contentious issue. Muslims ultimately divided into two branches based on their political attitude towards this issue, which forms the primary theological barrier between the two major divisions of Muslims: Sunni
Sunni
and Shi'a, with the latter following Ali
Ali
as the successor to Muhammad. The two groups also disagree on Ali's attitude towards Abu Bakr, and the two caliphs who succeeded him: Umar
Umar
(or ` Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattāb) and Uthman
Uthman
or (‘Uthmān ibn ‘Affān). Sunnis tend to stress Ali's acceptance and support of their rule, while the Shi'a claims that he distanced himself from them, and that he was being kept from fulfilling the religious duty that Muhammad
Muhammad
had appointed to him. The Sunni
Sunni
Muslims say that if Ali
Ali
was the rightful successor as ordained by God Himself, then it would have been his duty as the leader of the Muslim nation to make war with these people (Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman) until Ali established the decree. Shia
Shia
claim, however, that Ali
Ali
did not fight Abu Bakr, Umar
Umar
or Uthman, because firstly he did not have the military strength and if he decided to, it would have caused a civil war amongst the Muslims, which was still a nascent community throughout the Arab world.[3] Differentiation and distinction[edit] Shia Islam
Shia Islam
and Sunnism split in the aftermath of the death of Muhammad based on the politics of the early caliphs. Due to the Shi'a belief that Ali
Ali
should have been the first caliph, the three caliphs that preceded him, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Usman, were considered illegitimate usurpers. Because of this, any hadith that were narrated by these three caliphs (or any of their supporters) were not accepted by Shi'a hadith collectors. Due to this, the number of hadith accepted by Shi'a is far less than the hadith accepted by Sunnis, with many of the non-accepted hadith being ones that had to deal with integral aspects of Islam, such as prayer and marriage. In the absence of a clear hadith for a situation, the Shi'a prefer the sayings and actions of the Imams (Prophet's family members) on the similar level as the hadith of the Prophet himself over other ways, which in turn led to the theological elevation of the Imams as being infallible.[4][5] Division into branches[edit] Ancestors and the family tree[edit]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quraysh tribe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abd Manaf ibn Qusai

 

 

 

 

 

Ātikah bint Murrah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

‘Abd Shams

 

 

Barra

 

Hala

 

Muṭṭalib

 

Hashim

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Umayya ibn Abd Shams

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

‘Abd al-Muttalib

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harb

 

 

 

Abu al-'As

 

 

 

ʿĀminah

 

ʿAbd Allāh

 

Abî Ṭâlib

 

Hamza

 

Al-‘Abbas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ʾAbī Sufyān ibn Harb

 

Al-Hakam

 

 

Affan ibn Abi al-'As

 

MUHAMMAD (Family tree )

 

Khadija bint Khuwaylid

 

`Alî al-Mûrtdhā

 

Khawlah bint Ja'far

 

ʿAbd Allâh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muʿāwiyah

 

Marwan I

 

 

Uthman
Uthman
ibn Affan

 

Ruqayyah

 

Fatima Zahra

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah

 

ʿ Ali
Ali
bin ʿAbd Allâh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate

 

 

 

Uthman
Uthman
ibn Abu-al-Aas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hasan al-Mûjtabâ

 

Husayn bin Ali (Family tree)

 

al-Mukhtār ibn Abī ‘Ubayd Allah al-Thaqafī (Abû‘Amra`Kaysan’îyyah)

 

Muhammad
Muhammad
"al-Imâm" (Abbasids)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Divisions and madh'habs[edit]

 

 

 

 

Quraysh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

'Abd Manaf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

'Abd Shams

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hashim

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Umayya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

'Abdu'l-Muttalib

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Harb

 

Ab'l-As

 

 

 

 

 

'Abdu'llah

 

Abu Talib

 

al-'Abbas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abu sufyan

 

al-Hakam

 

Affan

 

Fatima

 

'Ali

 

 

 

'Abbasid Caiphs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mu'awiya

 

Marwan

 

'Uthman

 

Hasan

 

Husain

 

 

Muhammad ibn Hanafiyya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Ummayad Caliphs

 

Later Ummayad Caliphs

 

 

 

 

 

Idrisids
Idrisids
in N. Africa, some Zaydi Imams

 

'Ali Zaynu'l-Abidin

 

 

Kaysaniyya Sect

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad, al-Baqir

 

 

Zayd

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jafar, as-Sadiq

 

 

Zaydi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Isma'il

 

Musa, al-Kazim

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Isma'ili Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt

 

'Ali, ar-Rida

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Isma'ili Shi'ism

 

Muhammad, al-Taqi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

'Ali, al-Hadi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hasan al-Askari

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Imam Mahdi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ithnā‘ashari (twelvers)

 

 

 

Twelvers
Twelvers
history[edit] Main article: Twelvers Imams era[edit] Occultation era[edit] Ismaili history[edit] Main articles: Ismā'īlī, Qarmatian, Seveners, Nizārī Ismā'īlī, Hashashins, Nizārī Ismā'īlī
Ismā'īlī
state, History of the Shī‘a Imāmī Ismā'īlī
Ismā'īlī
Ṭarīqah, and Druzes

( Note: Kaysani's Imam Hanafiyyah is descendant of Ali
Ali
from his another wife not Fatimah) Branches of Ismā'īlī
Ismā'īlī
Shia Islam
Shia Islam
and its subdivisions: Nearly %1 of the overall population within the Dīn of Islam
Islam
today is Ismā'īlī
Ismā'īlī
Shia Islam
Shia Islam
(14-18 millions).[6] Approximately 10% of the entire population of Shia Islam
Shia Islam
is made out of the Ismā'īlī
Ismā'īlī
madh'hab. Ismā'īlī- Mustaali
Mustaali
branches are less than 0.1% of the whole Dīn
Dīn
of Islam
Islam
and constitutes approximately 5% of the entire Ismā'īlī
Ismā'īlī
population. (Mustaali- Taiyabi
Taiyabi
branches are Dawoodi Bohra, Ja'farī Bohra, Makrami, Alavi Bohra, Hebtiahs Bohra, Atba-i-Malak
Atba-i-Malak
Bohra ( Atba-e-Malak Badar
Atba-e-Malak Badar
- Atba-i-Malak
Atba-i-Malak
Vakil), Progressive Dawoodi). Nizārī Ismā'īlī
Ismā'īlī
madh'hab's population, on the other hand, overwhelmingly constitutes more than 90% of the entire Ismā'īlī
Ismā'īlī
population. Percent of the Druzes
Druzes
is just 0.1% within the entire Dīn
Dīn
of Islam. Fathites, Hafizi, Qarmatian
Qarmatian
and Seveners
Seveners
are already counted as the extinct Ismā'īlī
Ismā'īlī
sects.[7][8]

See also: Mustaali, Taiyabi, Dawoodi Bohra, Makrami, Alavi Bohra, Hebtiahs Bohra, Atba-i-Malak, Atba-e-Malak Badar, and Atba-i-Malak Vakil Old Da'vat[edit] See also: Fatimid Empire New Da'vat[edit] See also: Hashashin Zaidiyya history[edit] Main article: Zaidiyyah See also: Alavids, Idrisids, Buyids, Ukhaidhirids, and Rassids Other sects[edit] Qarmatians[edit] Main article: Qarmatians Alevis[edit] Main article: Alevi Alawism[edit] Main article: Alawism Shia
Shia
empires[edit] The following pictures are examples of some of the Shia
Shia
Islamic empires through history:

Shia
Shia
Rule

Buyid
Buyid
empire in 970 

Extent of Shia
Shia
rule under the Fatimids 

Extent of Shia
Shia
rule under the Uqaylids 

Extent of Shia
Shia
rule under the Idrisids 

Extent of Shia
Shia
rule under the Ilkhanates 

Extent of Shia
Shia
rule under the Bahmani Sultanate 

Extent of Shia
Shia
rule under the Safavid dynasty 

Notes[edit]

^ Chirri, Mohammad (1982). The Brother of the Prophet Mohammad. Islamic Center of America, Detroit, MI. Alibris ID 8126171834.  ^ See:

Holt (1977a), p.57 Lapidus (2002), p.32 Madelung (1996), p.43 Tabatabaei (1979), p.30–50

^ Sahih Bukhari 5.57.50 ^ Alkhateeb, Firas (2014). Lost Islamic History. London: Hurst Publishers. p. 85. ISBN 9781849043977.  ^ Ochsenwald, William (2004). The Middle East: A History. Boston: McGraw Hill. p. 90. ISBN 0072442336.  ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. October 7, 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-24. Of the total Muslim population, 11-12% are Shia
Shia
Muslims and 87-88% are Sunni
Sunni
Muslims.  ^ "Religions". CIA World Factbook.  ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. 

See also[edit]

Abdullah ibn Saba Historical Shi'a- Sunni
Sunni
relations

References[edit]

Holt, P. M.; Bernard Lewis
Bernard Lewis
(1977a). Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291364.  Lapidus, Ira (2002). A History of Islamic Societies (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521779333.  Madelung, Wilferd (1996). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521646960.  Tabatabae, Sayyid Mohammad Hosayn (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (trans.). Suny press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3. 

External links[edit]

Four Centuries of Influence of Iraqî Shî‘ism on Pre-

.