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The history of Norway
Norway
has been influenced to an extraordinary degree by the terrain and the climate of the region. About 10,000 BC, following the retreat of the great inland ice sheets, the earliest inhabitants migrated north into the territory which is now Norway. They traveled steadily northwards along the coastal areas, warmed by the Gulf Stream, where life was more bearable. In order to survive they fished and hunted reindeer (and other prey). Between 5,000 BC and 4,000 BC the earliest agricultural settlements appeared around the Oslofjord. Gradually, between 1500 BC and 500 BC, these agricultural settlements spread into the southern areas of Norway
Norway
- whilst the inhabitants of the northern regions continued to hunt and fish. The Neolithic
Neolithic
period started 4000 BC. The Migration Period
Migration Period
caused the first chieftains to take control and the first defenses to be made. From the last decades of the 8th century Norwegians
Norwegians
started expanding across the seas to the British Isles
British Isles
and later Iceland
Iceland
and Greenland. The Viking Age
Viking Age
also saw the unification of the country. Christianization
Christianization
took place during the 11th century and Nidaros
Nidaros
became an archdiocese. The population expanded quickly until 1349 (Oslo: 3,000; Bergen: 7,000; Trondheim: 4,000)[citation needed] when it was halved by the Black Death
Black Death
and successive plagues. Bergen
Bergen
became the main trading port, controlled by the Hanseatic League. Norway
Norway
entered the Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union
with Denmark and Sweden in 1397. After Sweden left the union in 1523, Norway
Norway
became the junior partner in Denmark–Norway. The Reformation
Reformation
was introduced in 1537 and absolute monarchy imposed in 1661. In 1814, Norway
Norway
was ceded to the king of Sweden by the Treaty of Kiel. Norway
Norway
declared its independence and adopted a constitution. However, no foreign powers recognized the Norwegian independence but supported the Swedish demand for Norway
Norway
to comply with the treaty of Kiel. After a short war with Sweden, the countries concluded the Convention of Moss, in which Norway
Norway
accepted a personal union with Sweden, keeping its Constitution, Storting
Storting
and separate institutions, except for the foreign service. The union was formally established after the extraordinary Storting
Storting
adopted the necessary amendments to the Constitution and elected Charles XIII
Charles XIII
of Sweden as king of Norway
Norway
on 4 November 1814. Industrialization started in the 1840s and from the 1860s large-scale emigration to North America took place. In 1884 the king appointed Johan Sverdrup
Johan Sverdrup
as prime minister, thus establishing parliamentarism. The union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905. From the 1880s to the 1920s, Norwegians
Norwegians
such as Roald Amundsen
Roald Amundsen
and Fridtjof Nansen
Fridtjof Nansen
carried out a series of important polar expeditions. Shipping and hydroelectricity were important sources of income for the country. The following decades saw a fluctuating economy and the rise of the labor movement. Germany occupied Norway
Norway
between 1940 and 1945 during the Second World War, after which Norway
Norway
joined NATO
NATO
and underwent a period of reconstruction under public planning. Oil was discovered in 1969 and by 1995 Norway
Norway
was the world's second-largest exporter. This resulted in a large increase of wealth. From the 1980s Norway
Norway
started deregulation in many sectors and experienced a banking crisis.

Contents

1 Prehistory

1.1 Nordic Bronze Age
Nordic Bronze Age
(1800–500 BC) 1.2 Nordic Iron Age (500 BC–800 AD)

2 Viking Age 3 Middle Ages

3.1 14th century

4 Denmark–Norway 5 Union with Sweden 6 Independence 7 World War II

7.1 Government in exile 7.2 Quisling regime

8 Postwar

8.1 1945-1950 8.2 Marshall Plan 8.3 1950 to 1972

9 Oil Age 10 References

10.1 Bibliography 10.2 In Norwegian

Prehistory[edit] Main article: Scandinavian prehistory Norway's coastline rose from glaciation with the end of the last glacial period about 12,000 B.C. The first immigration took place during this period as the Norwegian coast offered good conditions for sealing, fishing, and hunting.[1] They were nomadic and by 9300 B.C they were at Magerøya. Increased ice receding from 8000 B.C. caused settlement along the entire coastline. The Stone Age consisted of the Komsa culture in Troms
Troms
and Finnmark
Finnmark
and the Fosna culture
Fosna culture
further south. The Nøstvet culture took over from the Fosna culture
Fosna culture
ca. 7000 BC,[2] which adapted to a warmer climate which gave increased forestation and new mammals for hunting. The oldest human skeleton ever discovered in Norway
Norway
was found in shallow water off Sogne in 1994 and has been carbon dated to 6,600 BC.[3] Ca. 4000 BC people in the north started using slate tools, earthenware, skis, sleds and large skin boats.[4]

Rock carvings at Alta

The first farming and thus the start of the Neolithic
Neolithic
period, began ca. 4000 BC around the Oslofjord, with the technology coming from southern Scandinavia.[5] The break-through occurred between 2900 and 2500 BC, when oats, barley, pigs, cattle, sheep and goats became common and spread as far north as Alta. This period also saw the arrival of the Corded Ware culture, who brought new weapons, tools and an Indo-European dialect, from which the Norwegian language developed.[6] Nordic Bronze Age
Nordic Bronze Age
(1800–500 BC)[edit] Further information: Nordic Bronze Age The Bronze Age started in 1800 BC and involved innovations such as plowing fields with ards, permanents farms with houses and yards, especially in the fertile areas around the Oslofjord, Trondheimsfjord, Mjøsa
Mjøsa
and Jæren.[6] Some yields were so high that it allowed farmers to trade furs and skins for luxury items, especially with Jutland.[7] About 1000 BC, speakers of Uralic languages
Uralic languages
arrived in the north and assimilated with the indigenous population, becoming the Sami people.[5] However, according to Ante Aikio[8] the immigration that brought the Sami languages to Sweden and Norway
Norway
happened no earlier than about 500 AD. A climate shift with colder weather started about 500 BC. The forests, which had previously consisted of elm, lime, ash and oak, were replaced with birch, pine and spruce. The climate changes also meant that farmers started building more structures for shelter. Knowledge of ironworking was introduced from the Celts, resulting in better weapons and tools.[7] Nordic Iron Age (500 BC–800 AD)[edit] Further information: Iron Age Scandinavia The Iron Age allowed for easier cultivation and thus new areas were cleared as the population grew with the increased harvests. A new social structure evolved: when sons married, they would remain in the same house; such an extended family was a clan. They would offer protection from other clans; if conflicts arose, the issue would be decided at a thing, a sacred place where all freemen from the surrounding area would assemble and could determine punishments for crimes, such as paying fines in food.[9] From the first century AD a cultural influence from the Roman Empire took place. Norwegians
Norwegians
adapted letters and created their own alphabet, runes. Trading with Romans also took place, largely furs and skins in exchange for luxury goods. Some Scandinavians also served as Roman mercenaries.[9] Some of the most powerful farmers became chieftains. They functioned as priests and accepted sacrifices from farmers which were again used to pay soldiers, creating a hird. Thus they were able to rule an area of several settlements and tribes.[10] The chieftains' power increased during the Migration Period
Migration Period
between 400 and 550 as other Germanic tribes migrated northwards and local farmers wanted protection. This also resulted in the construction of simple fortifications. A plague hit southern Norway
Norway
in the 6th century, with hundreds of farms being depopulated. Most were repopulated in the 7th century, which also saw the construction of several fishing hamlets and a boom in trade of iron and soapstone across the North Sea.[10] Some chieftains were able to control most of the trade and grew in power throughout the 8th century.[11] Viking Age[edit] Main article: Viking Age

Reconstruction of a longhouse at Lofoten

The Viking Age
Viking Age
was a period of Scandinavian expansion through trade, colonization and raids. The first raid was against Lindisfarne
Lindisfarne
in 793 and is considered the beginning of the Viking Age.[12] This was possible because of the development of the longship, suitable for travel across the sea, and advanced navigation techniques.[13] Vikings
Vikings
were well equipped, had chain mail armor, were well trained and had a psychological advantage over Christian counterparts since they believed that being killed in combat would result in them going to Valhalla. In addition to gold and silver, an important outcome from the raids were thralls, which were brought to the Norwegian farms as a slave workforce. While the men were out at sea, the management of the farm was under the control of the women.[14] The lack of suitable farming land in Western Norway
Norway
caused Norwegians to travel to the sparsely populated areas of Shetland, Orkney, the Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
and the Hebrides
Hebrides
to colonize—the latter of which became the Kingdom of the Isles.[13] Norwegian Vikings
Vikings
settled on the east coast of Ireland
Ireland
circa 800 and founded the island's first cities, including Dublin. Their arrival caused the petty Celtic kings to ally, and by 900 they had driven out the Norwegians.[15]

Petty kingdoms of Norway
Petty kingdoms of Norway
ca. 872

In the mid-9th century, the largest chieftains of the petty kingdoms started a major power struggle. Harald Fairhair
Harald Fairhair
started the process of unifying Norway
Norway
when he entered an alliance with the Earls of Lade
Earls of Lade
and was able to unify the country after the decisive Battle of Hafrsfjord (circa 870–900).[16] He set up the very basics of a state administration with stewards in the most important former chieftain estates. Iceland, then uninhabited, was discovered by Norwegians
Norwegians
during the late 9th century. By 930 the island had been divided among 400 Norse chieftains.[17] Håkon the Good
Håkon the Good
– the son of Harald Fairhair
Harald Fairhair
– assumed the crown in 930 and established two large things, assemblies in which the king met with the freemen to make decisions: Gulating
Gulating
for Western Norway and Frostating
Frostating
for Trøndelag. He also established the ledang, a conscription-based military. After his death in 960, war broke out between the Fairhair dynasty
Fairhair dynasty
and the Earls of Lade
Earls of Lade
in alliance with Danish kings.[18] Led by Erik the Red, a Norwegian-born man, a group of Icelanders settled on Greenland
Greenland
in the 980s.[19] Erik's son, Leif Ericson, discovered Newfoundland in ca. 1000, naming it Vinland. Unlike Greenland, no permanent settlement was established there.[16] Middle Ages[edit]

The Kingdom of Norway
Norway
about 1265, at its greatest extent

Christianization
Christianization
and abolishing the rites in Norse mythology
Norse mythology
was first attempted by Olav Tryggvason, but he was killed in the Battle of Svolder in 1000.[20] Olav Haraldsson, starting in 1015, made the things pass church laws, destroyed heathen hofs, built churches and created an institution of priests. Many chieftains feared that the Christianization
Christianization
would rob them of power in lieu of their roles as Goðar in traditional Norse Paganism. The two sides met in the Battle of Stiklestad, where Haraldsson was killed.[21] The church elevated Haraldsson to sainthood, allowing Nidaros
Nidaros
(today Trondheim) to become the Christian center of Norway.[22] Within a few years the Danish rule had become sufficiently unpopular that Norway
Norway
again became united.[23] From the 1040s to 1130 the country was at peace.[24] In 1130 the civil war era broke out on the basis of unclear succession laws, which allowed all the king's sons to rule jointly. For periods there could be peace, before a lesser son allied himself with a chieftain and started a new conflict. The Archdiocese
Archdiocese
of Nidaros
Nidaros
was created in 1152 and attempted to control the appointment of kings.[25] The church inevitably had to take sides in the conflicts, with the civil wars also becoming an issue regarding the church's influence of the king. The wars ended in 1217 with the appointment of Håkon Håkonsson, who introduced clear law of succession.[26] From 1000 to 1300 the population increased from 150,000 to 400,000, resulting both in more land being cleared and the subdivision of farms. While in the Viking Age
Viking Age
all farmers owned their own land, by 1300 seventy percent of the land was owned by the king, the church, or the aristocracy. This was a gradual process which took place because of farmers borrowing money in poor times and not being able to repay. However, tenants always remained free men and the large distances and often scattered ownership meant that they enjoyed much more freedom than continental serfs. In the 13th century about twenty percent of a farmer's yield went to the king, church and landowners.[27] 14th century[edit]

Bryggen
Bryggen
in Bergen, once the center of trade in Norway
Norway
under the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
trade network, now preserved as a World Heritage Site

The 14th century is described as Norway's Golden Age, with peace and increase in trade, especially with the British Islands, although Germany became increasingly important towards the end of the century. Throughout the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
the king established Norway
Norway
as a sovereign state with a central administration and local representatives.[28] In 1349 the Black Death
Black Death
spread to Norway
Norway
and had within a year killed a third of the population. Later plagues reduced the population to half the starting point by 1400. Many communities were entirely wiped out, resulting in an abundance of land, allowing farmers to switch to more animal husbandry. The reduction in taxes weakened the king's position,[29] and many aristocrats lost the basis for their surplus, reducing some to mere farmers. High tithes to church made it increasingly powerful and the archbishop became a member of the Council of State.[30] The Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
took control over Norwegian trade during the 14th century and established a trading center in Bergen. In 1380 Olaf Haakonsson inherited both the Norwegian and Danish thrones, creating a union between the two countries.[30] In 1397, under Margaret I, the Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union
was created between the three Scandinavian countries. She waged war against the Germans, resulting in a trade blockade and higher taxation on Norwegians, which resulted in a rebellion. However, the Norwegian Council of State
Norwegian Council of State
was too weak to pull out of the union.[31] Margaret pursued a centralising policy which inevitably favoured Denmark, because it had a greater population than Norway
Norway
and Sweden combined.[32] Margaret also granted trade privileges to the Hanseatic merchants of Lübeck
Lübeck
in Bergen
Bergen
in return for recognition of her right to rule, and these hurt the Norwegian economy. The Hanseatic merchants formed a state within a state in Bergen
Bergen
for generations.[33] Even worse were the pirates, the "Victual Brothers", who launched three devastating raids on the port (the last in 1427).[34] Norway
Norway
slipped ever more to the background under the Oldenburg dynasty (established 1448). There was one revolt under Knut Alvsson
Knut Alvsson
in 1502.[35] Norwegians
Norwegians
had some affection for King Christian II, who resided in the country for several years. Norway
Norway
took no part in the events which led to Swedish independence from Denmark in the 1520s.[36] Denmark–Norway[edit] Sweden was able to pull out of the Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union
in 1523, thus creating Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
under the rule of a king in Copenhagen. Frederick I of Denmark favoured Martin Luther's Reformation, but it was not popular in Norway, where the Church was the one national institution and the country was too poor for the clergy to be very corrupt. Initially, Frederick agreed not to try to introduce Protestantism to Norway
Norway
but in 1529 he changed his mind. Norwegian resistance was led by Olav Engelbrektsson, Archbishop of Trondheim, who invited the old king Christian II back from his exile in Holland. Christian returned but was ambushed and spent the rest of his life in prison. Then Frederick died and a three-way war of succession broke out between the supporters of his eldest son Christian (III), his younger Catholic brother Hans and the followers of Christian II. Olaf Engelbrektsson again tried to lead a Catholic Norwegian resistance movement
Norwegian resistance movement
but he found little support. Christian III triumphed and sent him into exile and in 1536 Christian demoted Norway
Norway
from a kingdom to a mere Danish puppet state .[37] The Reformation
Reformation
was imposed in 1537,[30] strengthening the king's power. All church valuables were sent to Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and the forty percent of the land, which was owned by the church, came under the control of the king. Danish was introduced as a written language, although Norwegian remained distinct dialects. Professional administration was now needed and power shifted from the provincial nobility to the royal administration: district stipendiary magistrates were appointed as judges and the sheriffs became employees of the crown rather than of the local nobility. In 1572 a governor-general was appointed for Norway
Norway
with a seat at Akershus Fortress in Oslo. From the 1620s professional military officers were employed.[38] The 17th century saw a series of wars between Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
and Sweden. The Kalmar War
Kalmar War
between 1611–13 saw 8,000 Norwegian peasants conscripted. Despite lack of training, Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
won and Sweden abandoned its claims to the area between Tysfjord
Tysfjord
and Varangerfjord. With the Danish participation in the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
in 1618–48, a new conscription system was created in which the country was subdivided into 6,000 ledg, each required to support one soldier.[39] Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
lost the war and was forced to cede Jämtland
Jämtland
and Härjedalen
Härjedalen
to Sweden. The Second Northern War
Second Northern War
in 1657 to 1660 resulted in Bohuslän
Bohuslän
being ceded to Sweden. The Danish monarchy became an absolutist and hereditary one in Norway
Norway
in 1661.[40] A new administrative system was introduced. Departments organized by portfolio were established in Copenhagen, while Norway
Norway
was divided into counties, each led by a district governor, and further subdivided into bailiwicks. About 1,600 government officials were appointed throughout the country.[41] Ulrik Fredrik Gyldenløve
Ulrik Fredrik Gyldenløve
was the most famous viceroy of Norway
Norway
(1664-1699).[42]

Battle of Alvøen
Battle of Alvøen
between the frigate HMS Tartar and Norwegian gunboats near Bergen
Bergen
in 1808

The population of Norway
Norway
increased from 150,000 in 1500 to 900,000 in 1800.[41] By 1500 most deserted farms were repossessed. The period under absolutism increased the ratio of self-owning farmers from twenty to fifty percent, largely through sales of crown land to finance the lost wars. Crofts became common in the absolutism period, especially in Eastern Norway
Norway
and Trøndelag, with the smallholder living at the mercy of the farmer.[43] There were 48,000 smallholders in 1800. Compared to Denmark, taxes were very low in Norway, typically at four to ten percent of the harvest, although the number of farms per legd decreased from four to two in the 1670s. Confirmation
Confirmation
was introduced in 1736; as it required people to read, elementary education was introduced.[44] The Norwegian economy improved with the introduction of the water-driven saw in the early 16th century. Norway had huge resources of timber but did not have the means to exploit much of it in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
as only hand-tools were available. The new saw mills which sprang up in the fjords changed this. In 1544 a deal was struck with the Netherlands (then part of the Holy Roman Empire) and the Dutch controlled the export of Norwegian timber for the next 150 years. Amsterdam
Amsterdam
was built on piles from Norway. Tree-felling was done in the winter when farm-work was impossible and it was easy to get the felled trees across the snow to the rivers. In the spring, the logs floated down the rivers to the saw mills by the sea.[45] By the mid-16th century the power of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
in Bergen
Bergen
was broken; though German craftsmen remained, they had to accept Danish rule.[46] Many Norwegians
Norwegians
earned a living as sailors in foreign ships, especially Dutch ones. The crews in both sides of the Anglo-Dutch Wars
Anglo-Dutch Wars
contained Norwegians.[47] Norway
Norway
benefitted from the many European wars of the 18th century. As a neutral power it was able to expand its share of the shipping market. It also supplied timber to foreign navies.[48] The entire period saw mercantilism as the basis for commerce, which involved import regulations and tariffs, monopolies and privileges throughout the county granted to burghers. The lumber industry became important in the 17th century through exports especially to England.[49] To avoid deforestation, a royal decree closed a large number of sawmills in 1688; because this mostly affected farmers with small mills, by the mid 18th century only a handful of merchants controlled the entire lumber industry.[50] Mining increased in the 17th century, the largest being the silver mines in Kongsberg
Kongsberg
and the copper mines in Røros. Fishing continued to be an important income for farmers along the coast, but from the 18th century dried cod started being salted, which required fishermen to buy salt from merchants. The first important period of Norwegian shipping was between 1690 and 1710, but the advantage was lost with Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
entering the Great Northern War
Great Northern War
in 1709. However, Norwegian shipping regained its strength towards the end of the century.[51] Throughout the period, Bergen
Bergen
was the largest town in the country; its population of 14,000 in the mid 18th century was twice the size of Christiania (later Oslo) and Trondheim
Trondheim
combined. Eight townships with privileges existed in 1660—by 1800 this had increased to twenty-three. During this period up to two-thirds of the country's audited national income was transferred to Copenhagen.[52] In the last decades of the century, Hans Nielsen Hauge
Hans Nielsen Hauge
started the Haugean movement, which demanded the right to preach the word of God freely.[53] The University of Oslo
Oslo
was established in 1811.[54] Union with Sweden[edit]

The Constituent Assembly which approved the Constitution of Norway

Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
entered the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
on France's side in 1807. This had a devastating effect on the Norwegian economy as the Royal Navy hindered export by ship and import of food. Sweden invaded Norway the following year, but after several Norwegian victories a cease-fire was signed in 1809.[55] After pressure from Norwegian merchants license trade was permitted with corn from Denmark to Eastern Norway in exchange for Norwegian timber export to Great Britain.[56] Following the Battle of Leipzig
Battle of Leipzig
in 1813, the Treaty of Kiel
Treaty of Kiel
signed on 14 January 1814 ceded Norway
Norway
to the king of Sweden.[57] Christian Frederik, heir to the Danish and Norwegian crowns, had since 1813 been governor-general of Norway.[57] He spearheaded the Norwegian resistance against the Kiel Treaty and planned to claim the throne as the legitimate heir. He traveled to Trondheim
Trondheim
to gain support for his person, and then assembled twenty-one prominent citizens at Eidsvoll on 16 February 1814 to discuss his plans. They rejected a new absolute monarchy and advised him instead to convoke a constituent assembly to draw up a liberal constitution and decide the form of government. Representatives from the entire country were elected to meet at Eidsvoll.[58] The 112 members of the Constituent Assembly gathered and, after six weeks of discussion, concluded the work on the Constitution of Norway
Constitution of Norway
on 17 May 1814. Power would be split between the king — a position to which Christian Frederik
Christian Frederik
was appointed — and the Parliament
Parliament
of Norway.[59] The Swedish army under Crown prince Carl Johan
Carl Johan
of Sweden invaded Norway
Norway
in late July; at the armistice Convention of Moss
Convention of Moss
on 14 August Norway
Norway
accepted to enter a personal union with Sweden on equal terms, while Sweden accepted the Norwegian Constitution and separate institutions in both states. King Christian Frederik agreed to convoke an extraordinary parliament to revise the Constitution accordingly, and then abdicate. The parliament was convened in Christiania on 7 October, and the necessary amendments were resolved on 4 November 1814. On the same day, king Charles XIII of Sweden was elected king of Norway, thereby establishing the Union.[60]

Harvesting oats at Fossum in Jølster
Jølster
during the 1880s

The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
sent Norway
Norway
into an economic crisis, as nearly all the merchants had gone bankrupt during the blockade. Recovery was difficult because of export tariffs and the country experienced high inflation. The Norwegian speciedaler
Norwegian speciedaler
was established as a currency by the Bank of Norway
Norway
when it was established in 1816, financed through a silver tax which lasted until 1842.[61] Under threat of a coup d'état by Carl Johan, Norway
Norway
reluctantly paid the debt stated in the Treaty of Kiel, despite never having ratified it. Constitution Day on 17 May became an important political rally every year;[62] in 1829 the Swedish governor-general Baltzar von Platen resigned after he used force against demonstrators in the Battle of the Square.[63] The first half of the century was dominated by the ca. 2,000 officials,[64] as there were few bourgeois and no aristocracy following an 1821 decision to abolish nobility. From the 1832 election, farmers became more conscious of electing themselves, resulting in a majority of farmers in Parliament. This resulted in rural tax cuts and higher import tariffs, shifting the tax burden to the cities.[65] They also passed the Local Committees Act, which established elected municipal councils from 1838.[66] Cultural expression from the 1840s to the 1870s was dominated by the romantic nationalism, which emphasized the uniqueness of Norway.[citation needed]

Røros, a major copper mining town, in 1869

The textile industry started in the 1840s, which was followed up with mechanical workshops to build new machinery as the British embargo hindered import of textile machinery.[67] An economic crisis hit the country from 1848, resulting in Marcus Thrane
Marcus Thrane
establishing the first trade unions and demanding that quality for the law independent of social class. Parliament
Parliament
passed a series of laws abandoning economic privileges and easing domestic trade during the 1840s and 1850s.[68] Population increase forced the clearing of new land, although some of the growth came in the cities. The population of Christiania reached 40,000 in 1855.[69] By 1865 the population reached 1.7 million; the large increase was largely caused by better nutrition from herring and potatoes, a sharp decrease of infant mortality and increased hygiene.[66] Emigration to North America started in 1825, with the first mass emigration commencing in the 1860s. By 1930, 800,000 people had emigrated, the majority settling in the Midwestern United States.[69]

Bridal Journey in Hardanger
Hardanger
by Adolph Tidemand
Adolph Tidemand
and Hans Gude, an example of romantic nationalism

The population decrease resulted in a labor shortage in the agriculture, which again resulted in increased use of machinery and thus capital. The government stimulated the process through the creation of the Mortgage Bank in 1851 and the State Agricultural College eight years later.[70] The 19th century saw a large increase of road construction and steamship services commenced along the coast. The first railway, the Trunk Line between Christiania and Eidsvoll opened in 1854, followed a year later by the first telegraph line. Export industry commenced with steam-powered sawmills in the 1860s, followed by canned herring, wood pulp and cellulose. From 1850 to 1880 the Norwegian shipping industry enjoyed a large boom, stimulated by the abolishing of the British Navigation
Navigation
Acts. By 1880 there were 60,000 Norwegian seamen and the country had the world's third-largest merchant marine.[71] As the first coast-to-coast railway, the Røros Line connected the capital to Trondheim
Trondheim
in 1877.[72] Norway
Norway
joined the Scandinavian Monetary Union
Scandinavian Monetary Union
in 1875 and introduced the Norwegian krone with a gold standard,[73] along with the metric system being introduced.[74]

The Røros
Røros
Line through Holtålen
Holtålen
in 1877

Annual parliamentary sessions were introduced from 1869 and in 1872 ministers were, though a constitutional amendment, required to meet in Parliament
Parliament
to defend their policies. The king, despite having no constitutional right to do so, vetoed the amendment in three successive parliaments. The 1882 election saw the first two parties, the Liberals and Conservatives, run for election, and subsequently the majority succeeded at impeaching the cabinet.[75] In 1884 the king appointed majority leader Johan Sverdrup
Johan Sverdrup
as prime minister, thus establishing parliamentarism as the first European country.[76] The Liberal Party introduced a series of legal reforms, such as increasing the voting rights to about half of all men, settling the language conflict by establishing two official written standards, Riksmål and Landsmål, introduced juries, seven years of compulsory education and,[77] as the first European country, universal suffrage for men in 1889.[78] The 1880s and 1890s saw the rise of the labor movement and trade unions became common; the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions
Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions
was established in 1899 and the Norwegian Employers' Confederation the following year.[77] The Labor Party had its first parliamentary members elected in 1903. The women's issue became increasingly dominant through the 1880s and they were gradually permitted to take secondary and tertiary education.[79] Norwegian support of the union decreased towards the end of the 1890s, especially following the 1897 Swedish abolition of the free trade agreement and the lack of a Norwegian foreign minister. Negotiations of independence commenced, but were not effective because of shifting governments and the Swedish threat of war.[78] Independence[edit]

Industry along Akerselva
Akerselva
in Oslo
Oslo
in 1912

With the four-party Michelsen's Cabinet
Michelsen's Cabinet
appointed in 1905, Parliament voted to establish a Norwegian consular service. This was rejected by the king and on 7 June Parliament
Parliament
unanimously approved the dissolution of the union. In the following dissolution referendum, only 184 people voted in favor of a union. The government offered the Norwegian crown to Denmark's Prince Carl, who after a plebiscite became Haakon VII.[80] The following ten years, Parliament
Parliament
passed a series of social reforms, such as sick pay, factory inspection, a ten-hour working day and worker protection laws. Waterfalls for hydroelectricity became an important resource in this period and the government secured laws to hinder foreigners from controlling waterfalls, mines and forests.[81] Large industrial companies established in these years were Elkem,[82] Norsk Hydro
Norsk Hydro
and Sydvaranger.[83] The Bergen
Bergen
Line was completed in 1909,[72] the Norwegian Institute of Technology
Norwegian Institute of Technology
was established the following year[84] and women's suffrage was introduced in 1913—as the second country in the world.[79] From the 1880s to the 1920s, Norwegians
Norwegians
carried out a series of polar expeditions. The most important explorers were Fridtjof Nansen, Roald Amundsen
Roald Amundsen
and Otto Sverdrup. Amundsen's expedition in 1911 became the first to reach the South Pole.[85]

Roald Amundsen, Helmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel
Sverre Hassel
and Oscar Wisting (l–r) at Polheim, the tent erected at the South Pole
South Pole
on 16 December 1911 as the first expedition

Norway
Norway
adopted a policy of neutrality from 1905; during World War I the Norwegian merchant marine was largely used in support of the British, resulting in Norway
Norway
being classified as The Neutral Ally. Half the Norwegian fleet was sunk and 2,000 seamen were killed by the German Atlantic U-boat Campaign. Some merchants made huge profits from trade and shipping during the war,[86] resulting in an increased division between the classes.[87] The interwar period was dominated by economic instability caused among other by strikes, lock-outs and the monetary policy causing deflation to compensate for too much money having been issued during the war and thus hindering investments.[88] Especially fishermen were hit hard in the period, while farmers retained market prices through organizing regulations. Unemployment peaked at ten percent between 1931 and 1933.[89] Although industrial production increased by eighty percent from 1915 to 1939, the number of jobs remained stable.[90] The Norwegian School of Economics
Norwegian School of Economics
was established in 1936.[91] Norway
Norway
had nine governments between 1918 and 1935, nearly all minority and lasting an average eighteen months. The Agrarian Party was established in 1920, although this period saw a rise of support for the Conservatives.[92] The Labor Party split in 1921, with the left wing establishing the Communist Party.[93] Although strong during the 1920s, they were marginalized through the 1930s. A short-lived Labor Government reigned in 1928,[94] but did not establish a sound parliamentary support until the 1935 Nygaardsvold's Cabinet, based on an alliance with the Agrarian Party.[95] During the 1920s and 1930s, Norway
Norway
established three dependencies, Bouvetøya, Peter I Island
Peter I Island
and Queen Maud Land, annexed Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
and secured sovereignty of Svalbard through the Svalbard
Svalbard
Treaty.[96] Norway's first civil airport, Stavanger, opened in 1937.[97] World War II[edit] Further information: German occupation of Norway, Quisling regime, Norwegian Campaign, and Nordic countries in World War II

Scenes from the Norwegian Campaign
Norwegian Campaign
in 1940

From the start of World War II
World War II
in 1939, Norway
Norway
maintained a strict neutrality.[98] Both Britain and Germany realized the strategic location; both made plans to invade Norway, regardless of Norwegian opposition. The Germans struck first and attacked Norway
Norway
on April 9, 1940. After furious battles with the Norwegians
Norwegians
and British forces, Germany prevailed and controlled Norway
Norway
until the end of the war. The German goal was to use Norway
Norway
to control access to the North Sea
North Sea
and the Atlantic, and to station air and naval forces to stop convoys from Britain to the USSR. Government in exile[edit] Further information: Diplomatic history of World War II The government in exile, including the royal family, escaped to London. Politics were suspended and the government coordinated action with the Allies, retained control of a worldwide diplomatic and consular service, and operated the huge Norwegian merchant marine. It organized and supervised the resistance within Norway. One long-term impact was the abandonment of a traditional Scandinavian policy of neutrality; Norway
Norway
became a founding member of NATO
NATO
in 1949.[99] Norway
Norway
at the start of the war had the world's fourth largest merchant fleet, at 4.8 million tons, including a fifth of the world's oil tankers. The Germans captured about 20% of the fleet but the remainder, about 1000 ships, were taken over by the government. Although half the ships were sunk, the earnings paid the expenses of the government.[100][101] Quisling regime[edit] Vidkun Quisling
Vidkun Quisling
proclaimed himself prime minister and appointed a government with members from the National Unity Party.[102] He was quickly set aside and replaced by Josef Terboven, but reinstated in 1942. The Norwegian Campaign
Norwegian Campaign
continued in Northern Norway
Norway
and the government fled to London
London
on 7 June.[103] The German occupation resulted in a brutalization of society and 30,000 people were imprisoned.[104] 55,000 people joined the National Unity Party, which became the only legal party. But the nazification process failed after the Supreme Court resigned and both organized sports and bishops boycotted the new regime.[105] A resistance movement was established and became coordinate from London
London
from 1943.[106] Stokker reports that hostile humour against the Germans helped maintain morale and build a wall against collaboration. Jokes made the rounds dripping with contempt for the oppressors, ridicule of Nazi ideology, stressing the cruelty of the Nazis and mocking their inflated self-image. People on the street asked, "Do you know the difference between the Nazis and a bucket of manure? The bucket." In Post Office lines they explained, "It's rumored that we're getting new stamps bearing Quisling's likeness, but distribution has been delayed because no one knows which side to spit on." The jokes worked to educate Norwegians
Norwegians
about the occupation, and encourage a sense of solidarity.[107] At the time of German surrender on 8 May 1945, there were 360,000 German soldiers in the country.[108] Postwar[edit] 1945-1950[edit] In the following legal purge, 53,000 people were sentenced for treason and 25 were executed.[108] The post-war years saw an increased interest in Scandinavism, resulting in Scandinavian Airlines System
Scandinavian Airlines System
in 1946, the Nordic Council
Nordic Council
in 1952[109] and the Nordic Passport Union [110] along with the metric system being introduced.[74] Reconstruction after the war gave Norway
Norway
the highest economic growth in Europe until 1950, partially created through rationing private consumption allowing for higher industrial investments. The Labor Party retained power throughout the period and enforced a policy of public planning.[111] The University of Bergen
Bergen
was created in 1946.[112] The 1950s saw a boom in construction of hydroelectricity[113] and the state built the steel mill Norsk Jernverk and two aluminum works.[114] State banks such as the State Housing Bank, the State Educational Loan Fund and Postbanken
Postbanken
allowed for governmental control over private debt. Oslo
Oslo
hosted the 1952 Winter Olympics.[115] Norway
Norway
retained its neutrality policy until 1947, focusing on its membership in the United Nations,[116] where Trygve Lie
Trygve Lie
had become the first secretary-general.[117] Anti-communism grew with a Soviet proposal for joint control over Svalbard
Svalbard
and especially after the 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état, after which the Communist Party lost all influence.[116] Norway
Norway
started negotiations for the creation of a Scandinavian defense union, but instead opted to become a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO). However, Norway
Norway
never allowed permanently stationed foreign troops or nuclear weapons on Norwegian soil to avoid agitating the Soviet Union, with which Norway
Norway
from 1944 shared a land border with.[118] NATO
NATO
financed large parts of the Norwegian military investments, which ultimately resulted in a numerous airports being built throughout the 1950s and 1960s.[119] Marshall Plan[edit] Norway
Norway
joined the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
("ERP") in 1947, receiving US$400 million in American support.[111] Given the business background of the Marshall Plan's American leaders, their readiness to work with the Norwegian Labor government's ERP Council disappointed the conservative Norwegian business community. It was represented by the major business organizations, the Norges Industriforbund and the Norsk Arbeidsgiverforening. While reluctant to work with the government, Norwegian business leaders also recognized the dangers of appearing to obstruct the implementation of the Marshall Plan. The Americans' acceptance of a role for government in economic planning reflected their New Deal
New Deal
reformist orientation. The opportunities for mediation between conservative Norwegian business interests and the government that arose in the course of administering the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
helped establish a base for the emergence of Norwegian corporatism in the 1950s.[120] 1950 to 1972[edit]

Trondheim
Trondheim
in 1965

Sales of cars were deregulated in October 1960, the same year as the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation
Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation
introduced Norway's first television broadcasts.[121] Norway
Norway
feared competition from Swedish industry and Danish agriculture and chose to not join any free trade organizations until 1960, when it joined the European Free Trade Association.[122] Throughout the post-war period both fishing and agriculture became more mechanized, the agricultural subsidies rose to the third-highest in the world and the number of small-scale farms and fishermen fell dramatically.[123] The Socialist People's Party was created in 1961 by former Labor politicians who disagreed with the Labor Party's NATO, nuclear and European policies.[109] Following the Kings Bay Affair
Kings Bay Affair
the right-winged Lyng's Cabinet ruled for a month.[124] The right-wing coalition Borten's Cabinet won the 1965 election, sat for six years and started a trend of shifting Labor and right-winged governments.[125] Norwegianization of Samis halted after the war and Sami rights became an increasing issue, with a council being established in 1964.[126] The completion of the Nordland Line
Nordland Line
to Bodø
Bodø
in 1962 concluded the construction of new railway routes,[72] while the first part of the Oslo
Oslo
Metro opened in 1966.[127] A social security net was gradually introduced after the war: child allowance was introduced in 1946 and the Social Care Act was introduced in 1964.[115] The 1960s saw good times for the heavy industry and Norway
Norway
became Europe's largest exporter of aluminum and the world's largest exporter of ferroalloys.[121] The University of Trondheim
Trondheim
and the University of Tromsø both opened in 1968, one year before a network of regional colleges started being opened. Influenced by American culture and similar actions abroad, youth and students started an uproar against cultural norms.[128] The 1960s saw an increased focus on environmentalism, especially through activism, based on ever-more conversion of waterfalls to hydro stations, pollution and the dilapidation of herring stocks. Rondane National Park
Rondane National Park
was created as the country's first in 1962 and the Ministry of the Environment was the first in the world when it was established in 1972.[129] A network of regional airports were built in Western and Northern Norway
Norway
in the late 1960s and early 1970s.[130] Membership in the European Economic Community was rejected in a 1972 referendum.[131] Oil Age[edit]

Statfjord
Statfjord
oil platform

Prospecting in the North Sea
North Sea
started in 1966 and in 1969 Phillips Petroleum found oil in the Ekofisk
Ekofisk
field—which proved to be among the ten largest fields in the world. Operations of the fields was split between foreign operators, the state-owned Statoil, the partially state-owned Norsk Hydro
Norsk Hydro
and Saga Petroleum. Ekofisk experienced a major blowout in 1977 and 123 people were killed when the Alexander Kielland accommodation rig capsized in 1980;[132] these incidents led to a strengthening of petroleum safety regulations. The oil industry not only created jobs in production, but a large number of supply and technology companies were established. Stavanger
Stavanger
became the center of this industry. High petroleum taxes and dividends from Statoil
Statoil
gave high income from the oil industry to the government.[133] Norway
Norway
established its exclusive economic zone in the 1970s, receiving an area of 2,000,000 square kilometers (770,000 sq mi).[133] A series of border disputes followed; agreements were reached with Denmark and Iceland
Iceland
in the 1990s,[134] but the border in the Barents Sea was not agreed upon until 2010.[135] Between 1973 and 1981 the country was ruled by the Labor Party, who carried out a series of reforms such as new school system. Farmers received increased subsidies and from 1974 women were permitted to inherit farms.[134] Abortion on demand was legalized in 1978.[136] Loans guaranteed in future oil income allowed Norway
Norway
to avoid a recession during the mid-1970s. But by 1977 high wages had made Norwegian industry uncompetitive and a soaring forced cut-backs in public and private spending.[137] Fish farming
Fish farming
became a new, profitable industry along the coast.[138]

Alta Power Station, built despite massive protests

An immigration surplus was established in the late 1960s, largely from Western Europe and the United States—from the 1970s increasingly expertise in oil. The period also saw an increased immigration of unskilled labor from developing countries, especially Pakistan, although regulations from 1975 slowed this significantly. Oslo
Oslo
became the center-point of immigration.[139] The Alta controversy
Alta controversy
started in the 1970s when Statkraft planned to dam the Alta River. The case united the environmental and Sami interest groups; although Alta Power Station was built, the issue shifted the political climate and made large-scale hydroelectricity project difficult to built. The Sami Parliament
Parliament
was established in 1989.[140] The Conservative Party won the 1981 elections and carried out a large deregulation reform: taxes were cut, local private radio stations were permitted, cable television was established by private companies, regulations on borrowing money were removed and foreigners were permitted to buy securities. An economic crisis hit in 1986 when foreigners started selling Norwegian krone, which ultimately forced an increase in taxes and Prime Minister Kåre Willoch
Kåre Willoch
was forced to resign.[141] The Progress Party, located to the right of the Conservatives, had its break-through in the late 1980s.[142] The high wages in the oil industry made low-skill manufacturing industries uncompetitive and the Labor Party closed a number of public industrial companies which were receiving large subsidies.[143] The 1980s saw a trebling of people on disability, largely amongst the oldest in the workforce. Crime rates rose.[144]

Oslo
Oslo
Opera House opened in 2007 and is part of the Fjord City redevelopment of Oslo's waterfront

The subsea Vardø Tunnel
Vardø Tunnel
opened in 1982[145] and since the country has built subsea tunnels to connect island communities to the mainland. From the 1980s, the largest cities introduced toll rings to finance new road projects.[citation needed] A banking crisis hit Norway
Norway
in the late 1980s, causing the largest banks, such as Den norske Bank, Christiania Bank
Christiania Bank
and Fokus Bank, to be nationalized.[146] Norsk Data, a manufacturer of minicomputers, became Norway's second largest company by 1985,[147] just to go bankrupt by 1993.[148] Unemployment reached record-high levels in the early 1990s.[149] By 1990 Norway
Norway
was Europe's largest oil producer and by 1995 it was the world's second-largest oil exporter.[133] Membership in the European Union
European Union
was rejected in a 1994 referendum, with Norway
Norway
instead joining the European Economic Area[150] and later also the Schengen Area.[151] Large public investments in the 1990s were a new National Hospital and Oslo
Oslo
Airport, Gardermoen—connected to the capital with Norway's first high-speed railway, the Gardermoen Line.[149] A number of large government companies, such as Statoil, Telenor
Telenor
and Kongsberg were privatized.[146] Lillehammer
Lillehammer
hosted the 1994 Winter Olympics.[152] The end of the Cold War
Cold War
resulted in cooperation with Russia and reduced military activity.[153] The Norwegian Armed Forces shifted their focus from defending an invasion to being mobile for use in NATO
NATO
operations abroad and participated in the NATO
NATO
bombing of Yugoslavia, the War in Afghanistan and the Libyan Civil War.[154] The 2011 Norway
Norway
attacks saw a Norwegian far-right terrorist bomb the Government Headquarters and Workers' Youth League camp at Utøya, killing 77 people.[155] In national elections in September 2013, voters ended eight years of Labor rule. A coalition of the Conservative Party and the Progress Party, was elected on promises of tax cuts, more spending on infrastructure and education, better services and stricter rules on immigration. The transition comes as Norway's economy is in good condition with low unemployment. Center-right leader Erna Solberg formed a new government after Labor Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg admitted defeat. Solberg said her win was "a historic election victory for the right-wing parties".[156] References[edit]

^ Stenersen: 7 ^ Stenersen: 8 ^ "'Søgnekvinnen' – Norway's Oldest Human Skeleton «". Thornews.com. 2013-01-07. Retrieved 2014-08-21.  ^ Stenersen: 9 ^ a b Stenersen: 10 ^ a b Stenersen: 11 ^ a b Stenersen: 12 ^ Aikio, Ante (2004), "An essay on substrate studies and the origin of Saami", in Hyvärinen, Irma; Kallio, Petri; Korhonen, Jarmo, Etymologie, Entlehnungen und Entwicklungen: Festschrift für Jorma Koivulehto zum 70. Geburtstag, Mémoires de la Société Néophilologique de Helsinki, 63, Helsinki: Société Néophilologique, pp. 5–34  ^ a b Stenersen: 15 ^ a b Stenersen: 16 ^ Stenersen: 17 ^ Stenersen: 19 ^ a b Stenersen: 20 ^ Stenersen: 23 ^ Stenersen: 24 ^ a b Stenersen: 27 ^ Stenersen: 25 ^ Stenersen: 28 ^ https://www.snerpa.is/net/snorri/landnama.htm ^ Stenersen: 29 ^ Stenersen: 31 ^ Stenersen: 33 ^ Stenersen: 34 ^ Stenersen: 36 ^ Stenersen: 38 ^ Stenersen: 39 ^ Stenersen: 37 ^ Stenersen: 41 ^ Stenersen: 44 ^ a b c Stenersen: 45 ^ Stenersen: 46 ^ Derry p.75 ^ Derry pp. 77-78 ^ Derry p.77 ^ Derry pp. 81-82 ^ Derry pp.83-84 ^ Derry pp.84-89 ^ Stenersen: 50 ^ Stenersen: 53 ^ Derry p. 100 ^ a b Stenersen: 56 ^ Derry p.102 ^ Stenersen: 57 ^ Stenersen: 58 ^ Derry pp.91-92 ^ Derry pp.92-93 ^ Derry pp.104-105 ^ Derry p.114 ^ Stenersen: 59 ^ Stenersen: 60 ^ Stenersen: 61 ^ Stenersen: 62 ^ Stenersen: 64 ^ Thuesen: 177 ^ Stenersen: 68 ^ Stenersen: 69 ^ a b Stenersen: 71 ^ Stenersen: 72 ^ Stenersen: 74 ^ Stenersen: 75 ^ Stenersen: 77 ^ Stenersen: 78 ^ Stenersen: 79 ^ Stenersen: 80 ^ Stenersen: 81 ^ a b Stenersen: 82 ^ Stenersen: 84 ^ Stenersen: 85 ^ a b Stenersen: 83 ^ Stenersen: 89 ^ Stenersen: 86 ^ a b c "Railway Statistics 2008" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Norwegian National Rail Administration. pp. 44–45. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ "Norges Bank's history". Norges Bank. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.  ^ a b Thuesen: 224 ^ Stenersen: 90 ^ Stenersen: 91 ^ a b Stenersen: 92 ^ a b Stenersen: 95 ^ a b Stenersen: 93 ^ Stenersen: 97 ^ Stenersen: 100 ^ Thuesen: 248 ^ Thuesen: 252 ^ Thuesen: 258 ^ "Polar Expeditions". Fram Museum. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.  ^ Stenersen: 101 ^ Stenersen: 102 ^ Stenersen: 103 ^ Stenersen: 104 ^ Stenersen: 106 ^ Thuesen: 300 ^ Stenersen: 107 ^ Stenersen: 110 ^ Stenersen: 111 ^ Stenersen: 113 ^ Stenersen: 116 ^ "Historikk - Stavanger
Stavanger
lufthavn, Sola". Avinor.no. Archived from the original on 2014-05-28. Retrieved 2014-08-21.  ^ Stenersen: 117 ^ Erik J. Friis, "The Norwegian Government-In-Exile, 1940-45" in Scandinavian Studies. Essays Presented to Dr. Henry Goddard Leach on the Occasion of his Eighty-fifth Birthday (1965), p422-444. ^ I.C.B Dear and M.R.D. Foot, Oxford Companion to World War II
World War II
(1995) pp 818-23 ^ Johs Andenaes, Norway
Norway
and the Second World War
Second World War
(1966) ^ Stenersen: 121 ^ Stenersen: 122 ^ Stenersen: 124 ^ Stenersen: 125 ^ Stenersen: 127 ^ Kathleen Stokker, "Heil Hitler; God Save the King: Jokes and the Norwegian Resistance 1940-1945," Western Folklore (1991) 50#2 pp. 171-190 in JSTOR ^ a b Stenersen: 130 ^ a b Stenersen: 143 ^ "Passport Issues, Citizenship and National Registration". Nordic Council. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.  ^ a b Stenersen: 134 ^ Thuesen: 335 ^ Stenersen: 137 ^ Stenersen: 135 ^ a b Stenersen: 138 ^ a b Stenersen: 140 ^ Thuesen: 334 ^ Stenersen: 141 ^ Malmø: 66 ^ Kai R. Pedersen, "Norwegian Business and the Marshall Plan, 1947-1952." Scandinavian Journal of History 1996 21(4): 285-301. Issn: 0346-8755 ^ a b Stenersen: 145 ^ Stenersen: 142 ^ Stenersen: 148 ^ Stenersen: 146 ^ Stenersen: 147 ^ Stenersen: 163 ^ Thuesen: 370 ^ Stenersen: 149 ^ Stenersen: 151 ^ Malmø: 67 ^ Stenersen: 152 ^ Stenersen: 155 ^ a b c Stenersen: 156 ^ a b Stenersen: 158 ^ Dyomkin, Denis; Fouche, Gwladys (27 April 2010). "Russia and Norway strike Arctic sea border deal". Reuters. Retrieved 27 April 2010.  ^ Stenersen: 159 ^ Stenersen: 162 ^ Stenersen: 173 ^ Stenersen: 162 ^ Stenersen: 164 ^ Stenersen: 165 ^ Stenersen: 167 ^ Stenersen: 168 ^ Stenersen: 171 ^ Thuesen: 394 ^ a b "Regulatyr Reform in Norway" (PDF). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2003. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.  ^ Steine: 16 ^ "Landet rundt TBK overtar Dolphin". Aftenposten
Aftenposten
(in Norwegian). 24 December 1993. p. 11.  ^ a b Stenersen: 174 ^ Stenersen: 172 ^ Stenersen: 175 ^ Hove-Ødegård, Arne; Celius, Sten; Brun, Ivar Ole (2004). "An Olympic Fairy Tale". Lillehammer
Lillehammer
Municipality. Archived from the original on 12 December 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2010.  ^ Stenersen: 176 ^ Ingebrigtsen, Roger (7 October 2011). "Fra invasjonsforsvar til innsatsforsvar". Government.no. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.  ^ Thuesen: 444 ^ " Norway
Norway
election: Erna Solberg
Erna Solberg
to form new government" BBC News Sept. 9, 2013

Bibliography[edit]

Boyesen, Hjalmar Hjorth. The History of Norway
Norway
(2011) Derry, T.K. A Short History of Norway
Norway
(George Allen and Unwin, 1968 edition) Haug, Karl Erik. "Norway", in: 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. by Ute Daniel, et al. (Freie Universität Berlin, 2016). online Larsen, Karen. A history of Norway
Norway
(Princeton University Press, 1967) 576pp online Midgaard, John. A brief history of Norway
Norway
(1963) online Salmon, Patrick. Scandinavia and the Great Powers 1890-1940 (2002) excerpt Sejersted, Francis. The Age of Social Democracy: Norway
Norway
and Sweden in the Twentieth Century (Princeton University Press; 2014) 543 pages; the history of the Scandinavian social model as it developed after the separation of Norway
Norway
and Sweden in 1905. Stenersen, Ivar, and Oivind Libaek. History of Norway
Norway
from the Ice Age to the Oil Age (3rd ed. Dinamo Forlag 2007) Vinje, Victor Condorcet (2014) The Versatile Farmers of the North; The Struggle of Norwegian Yeomen for Economic Reforms and Political Power, 1750-1814 (Nisus Publications).

In Norwegian[edit]

Malmø, Morten (1997). Norge på vingene! (in Norwegian). Oslo: Andante Forlag. ISBN 82-91056-13-7.  Steine, Tor Olav (1992). Fenomenet Norsk Data
Norsk Data
(in Norwegian). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. ISBN 82-00-21501-6.  Stenersen, Øyvind; Libæk, Ivar (2003). The History of Norway. Forlaget Historie og Kultur (in Norwegian). Lysaker: Dinamo Forlag. ISBN 8280710418.  Thuesen, Nils Petter (2011). Norges historie. Forlaget Historie og Kultur (in Norwegian). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. ISBN 978-8292870518. 

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